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CSU - ANEQ 305 - ANEQ 305 Class Notes- Week 4 - Class Notes

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CSU - ANEQ 305 - ANEQ 305 Class Notes- Week 4 - Class Notes

School: Colorado State University
Department: Science
Course: Functional Large Animal Anatomy/Physiology
Professor: Hyungchul Han
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Physiology, anatomy, ANEQ, ANEQ305, LargeAnimalAnatomy, and Colorado State University
Name: ANEQ 305 Class Notes- Week 4
Description: These notes cover chapter 4 of Dr. Hyungchul Han's lecture from the Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms textbooks
Uploaded: 02/12/2018
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background image ANEQ 305 
Dr. Hyungchul Han 
February 5-9, 2018 
 
Chapter 4: Neuronal Physiology  
Section
​, ​Key Term​, mV=millivolts (measurement of membrane potential)  *recall  ​membrane potential​: separation of charges across plasma membrane  4.1: Introduction   ● Excitable cells ​: capable of undergoing ​transient​, ​rapid changes​ in their membrane  potentials*  ○ Nerve cells ​ (neurons) receive, process, initiate, and transmit messages  ○ Muscle cells ​ contract  ○ Paramecia ​ rapidly reverse direction of beating cilia in response to stimulus   ● Membrane potential terminology:  ○ Polarization ​: changes separated across plasma membrane  ○ Depolarization ​: membrane is less negative  ○ Repolarization ​: membrane returns to resting potential (-70 mV) after being  depolarized  ○ Hyperpolarization ​: membrane is more negative than resting potential  4.2: Graded Potentials  ● Graded potentials ​ are local changes in membrane potential that occur in varying degrees  of magnitude  ○ The stronger the  ​triggering event​, the greater the charge entering the cell  ○ Can be  ​depolarizing​ or ​hyperpolarizing  ○ Spread by passive current flow 
○ Magnitude 
​diminishes with distance​ from site of origin  ● Conductors and insulators  ○ Conductors ​: low resistance  ○ Insulators ​: high resistance  ○ Current does not flow  ​across​ the lipid bilayer due to high resistance  ○ Current can only cross membrane through  ​ion channels  4.3: Action Potentials  ● Action potentials ​ are brief, rapid, large changes in membrane potential 
background image ○ All or none 
○ Conducted in 
​non-decremental​ fashion  ○ Serve as long distance signals   ● Sequence of electrical events during action potential  ○ Depolarization proceeds slowly until  ​threshold​ potential is reached (-50 to -55  mV)   ○ At threshold,  ​explosive depolarization​ takes place (+30 to +40 mV)  ○ Membrane  ​repolarizes​ back to resting membrane potential (-70 mV)  ○ Transient  ​after hyperpolarization​ (-80 mV)  ● Voltage gated ion channels ​ responsible for ​permeability changes​ during action potential  ○ Na+ channels ​ have ​two gates  ■ Activation gate ​ guards the channel (hinge)  ■ Inactivation gate ​ blocks the channel opening (ball and chain)  ○ K+ channels ​ have ​one gate​   (hinge)  ● Functional zone of a neuron  ○ Input zone ​ receives signal from other neurons  ■ Dendrites: increase surface area for receiving signals 
■ Cell body: contains nucleus and other organelles 
○ Conducting zone ​ conducts action potentials away from the cell body  ■ Axon: single extension from cell body  ○ Trigger zone ​ action potentials are initiated if graded potential reaches threshold  ■ Axon hillock: first part of axon and region of cell body from which the  axon leaves  ● Abundant voltage-gated Na+ channels  ○ Output zone ​ releases chemical messengers to affect nearby cells  ■ Axon terminals: branched endings of axons  ○ Contiguous conduction ​ of action potentials (unmyelinated axons)  ■ Depolarization current spreads ​ from site of action potential to inactive area  of membrane adjacent to it  ■ Threshold is reached ​ in inactive area and a ​new action potential is  generated  ■ Action potentials are  ​propagated along the length of the axon​ with no  magnitude loss 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Science
Course: Functional Large Animal Anatomy/Physiology
Professor: Hyungchul Han
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Physiology, anatomy, ANEQ, ANEQ305, LargeAnimalAnatomy, and Colorado State University
Name: ANEQ 305 Class Notes- Week 4
Description: These notes cover chapter 4 of Dr. Hyungchul Han's lecture from the Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms textbooks
Uploaded: 02/12/2018
5 Pages 53 Views 42 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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