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UB / Psychology / PSY 351 / What are the three types of reactions of autonomic?

What are the three types of reactions of autonomic?

What are the three types of reactions of autonomic?

Description

School: University at Buffalo
Department: Psychology
Course: Biopsych
Professor: Derek daniels
Term: Spring 2018
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Week 2 Notes
Description: Cells & organization of the Nervous System and structure of the Nervous System.
Uploaded: 02/12/2018
6 Pages 36 Views 3 Unlocks
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Biopsychology: Week of 2/6  


What are the three types of reactions of autonomic?



Nervous System Continued

Need to Know:

∙ Axon Hillock: junction between cell body & axon

∙ Axon: conduction & output signal

∙ Dendrite: take in signals, most are covered with spines where other cells  synapses come in

∙ Myelin Sheath: coating around axon to help move action potentials ∙ Axon terminal: where the signal ends for one cell  

∙ Soma: cell body  

Cell Basics:

∙ Membrane made up of a lipid bilayer with tails facing in and head facing out  o Heads are hydrophilic “water loving”

o Tails hydrophobic “water afraid”

o Hydrophilic = lipophobic “fat afraid”


What are the three layers of the meninges?



o Hydrophobic = lipophilic “fat loving”  

∙ Membrane is mobile but stays in place due to exoskeleton  

Synaptic Vesicles  

∙ Located on the postsynaptic end of the membrane of the nerve cell ∙ Specialized pieces of membrane that are exactly like the outside of the cell  ∙ Allows the molecules to dump into receptors  

Types of Neurons  

∙ Multipolar cells: multiple dendrites coming out of the cell body in different  directions  Don't forget about the age old question of What was the purpose of the law? what was the point in giving it?

∙ Bipolar cells: only one dendrite coming out of the body & axon coming out of  the other end

∙ Unipolar cells: only the axon comes out of the cell body on both ends, usually  in the middle of the axon  


What is a disease when the spinal tube doesn’t fuse and close, cells develop outside of the tube, usually from the lack of folic acid in development?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the first psychology lab?

Visualizing Cell Structure of the Brain  

∙ Golgi Stains

o Fill the entire cell

o Spread out to see clearly & more detailed  

o Only small portion of all neuron cell samples stained  

∙ Nissl Stains  

o Outline cell body to see what cells are distributed together  

o See larger structures

o All cells stained

∙ Autoradiography

o Shows distribution of radioactive channels  

∙ In Situ Hybridization

o Self-fabricated RNA that binds to RNA in specific cells

o Enables us to locate cells making particular RNA molecule  

∙ Immunocytochemistry

o Detects protein in tissue

o Uses antibody that binds to the protein  

o Able to visualize a cell makes itself  

o Able to visualize where an injection molecule travels  

o Albe to see when a cell is activated & make proteins/hormones  o Ex. Functional MRI

Glial Cells

∙ Oligodendrocytes  

o In the brain and spinal cord

o Produced myelin sheaths  

o One single oligodendrocyte provides myelin for multiple axons on  multiple cells  

o Can be thick or thin layer Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two branches of the nile?

∙ Schwann Cells  

o In peripheral nervous system (outside brain and spinal cord) o One Schwann cell provides one piece of myelin for one axon  o Each myelin is its own cell body  

∙ Astrocytes

o Provide support for blood cells in nervous system

o Ex. Blood Brain Barrier

 Semipermeable (except at specific parts of brain called  

circumventricular organs)  

 Formed by tight junctions between endothelial cells in the blood  vessels

 Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, fat-soluble molecules can pass freely   Other substances require active transport  

o Circumventricular organs  If you want to learn more check out What does the life of katsu kokichi tell us about the late tokugawa society?

 All brain to monitor what is going on in the blood outside of  

nervous system

 Molecules are fenestrated (allow larger molecules through b/c of  holes on vesicles  

∙ Examples: Area postrema, subfornical organ, OVLT

 All other blood vessels are continuous, w/o holes to let large  molecules through Don't forget about the age old question of What are the roles of the immune system?

∙ Microglia

o Protective cells that engulf and destroy debris (foreign cells, viruses) o Provide resources to other cells

Directions when talking about the Body

∙ In Animals  

o Anterior: In front of  

o Posterior: In back of  

o Dorsal: On top of  

o Ventral: on bottom of  

∙ In Humans  

o Dorsal: In back of  

o Ventral: In front of  

o Rostral (anterior): On top of  

o Caudal (posterior): On bottom of  

∙ General Directions  

o Proximal: close

o Distal: far

o Superior: above  

o Anterior: below

o Lateral: outside  

o Medial: middle  

o Ipsilateral: same side  

o Contralateral: opposite side  

o

∙ Planes  

o Horizontal: cut in plane with table, separating top and bottom o Coronal/Transverse: Cut in middle, separating front and back  o Sagittal: cut side to side,  If you want to learn more check out What are the major phases of an audit?

 middle sagittal: cuts along corpus collosum to separate two  hemispheres

o Radial: cut in angles as if brain is a semi-circle  

 “think like orange slices”

 Only done by computers  

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

∙ All cranial (to & from brain) & spinal (to and from spinal cord) nerves  ∙ Two components  

o Somatic(SNS)

 Innervates skeletal muscle  

 General somatic sensory  

 Voluntary movement  

 Input: starts w/ sensory receptor anywhere in the body, travels  by unipolar cells, moves through dorsal root ganglia, then into  dorsal, and finally through dendrites  

 Output: one cell circuit, starts in spinal cord, goes to skeletal  muscle at neuromuscular junction, releases synapse into  

receptors on muscle  

 Example: Nicotinic Acetylcholine receptor

∙ ACh released by neurotransmitter neurons & binds to  

receptors

∙ Channel is ionotropic & on postsynaptic side  

∙ ACh charge shifts conformation of receptor & opens  

channel  

o Autonomic (ANS)

 Two cells causing synapses

 Innervates visceral organs: smooth & cardiac muscle, glands &  adipose tissue

 Involuntary  

 Has three types of reactions: Parasympathetic, Sympathetic &  Enteric

∙ Parasympathetic: calming effect, rest & digestion (see  

pg 49 for all functions)

o Spinal cord cell releases ACh onto other neuron in  

parasympathetic ganglia, 2nd cell releases ACh onto

smooth muscle  

o Neurons start near the brain & bottom of the spinal  

cord

o Longer connection made from 1st neuron to 2nd 

neuron in ganglia (directly on muscle)

o Shorter connection from ganglia to smooth muscle  

tissue

∙ Sympathetic: arousing effect, “fight or flight” (see pg.  

48 for all functions)

o Spinal cord cells release ACh onto 2nd neuron in the  

sympathetic ganglia, 2nd cell released

norepinephrine onto smooth muscle  

o Small portion of neurons, starts in middle of spinal  

cord

o Uses chain formation to move signal from spinal  

cord to sympathetic ganglia cells “pins embedded  

in muscles, until sub-diaphragmatic”

o Very short connections made from 1st neuron to 2nd 

neuron in ganglia and ganglia to smooth muscle

o

o

o

 Dual Innervation

∙ As one system becomes active, the other becomes  

inactive  

∙ See page 51 for all functions

o Exceptions: sweat glands, hair follicles, skeletal  

muscle blood vessels, they only have sympathetic  

functions  

o Cranial Nerves  

∙ Paired nerves that go to & from the brain directly  

∙ Some with single functions & some with multiple functions  

∙ Some sensory only, some motor only  

o Motor nerves organization: somatic nerves are directly from brain to  muscle autonomic nerves make a synapse at a ganglion first

∙ Characterizations  

o Directions

 Efferent: from brain to target (motor/output)

 Afferent: from target to brain (sensory/input)

o Modality

 General: classified as visceral (autonomic) or somatic

 Special: specific function (Ex. chewing, seeing, hearing)

o

o *** Memorize all Cranial nerves and functions found starting on pg. 56****

o Cranial Nervous System  

∙ Starts with sheet of cells  

∙ Fold with development & fuses into Neural Tube  

o Neuronal tube becomes 3rd, 4th & lateral ventricles and acts like a blood vessel

 Lateral ventricles

∙ Filters & processes blood

∙ Leaves behind cerebral spinal fluid which flows through 3rd 

& 4th ventricles, then down the spinal cord or circulates in  

subarachnoid space

o Decreases in size with development  

o Spina bifida: disease when spinal tube doesn’t fuse and close, cells  develop outside of tube, usually from the lack of folic acid in  

development  

∙ Cells grow and divide into brain and spinal cord  

o Rostral side: bulges and forms the forebrain,  

o 2nd bulge forms midbrain  

o Caudal side: 3rd bulge forms the hindbrain

∙ The meninges

o Cushion that protects the brain o Tough & thick  

o Filled with cerebral spinal fluid o 3 layers

 Dura Mater

 Arachnoid layer

 Pia Mater

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