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FSU - CLP 4143 - clp4143 week 5 notes - Class Notes

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FSU - CLP 4143 - clp4143 week 5 notes - Class Notes

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Depression Facts 
•  MDD: about 1 in 6 (lifetime)  •  PDD: 1 in 20 
•  Course: 
o  MDD often consists of multiple MDEs that remit and relapse over  time.  o  ½ of people who have one MDE never have another 
o  Severity indicators: longer MDEs, shorter inter-episode lengths, more 
symptoms present between full episodes  Gender/Ethnicity Moderators  •  MDD is the leading cause of disease burden (missed work, reduction in  productivity)  •  Depressive disorders occur more commonly (about 2 times more) in women  than in men  o  Is it because of bias? Probably. Biases based off of social  expectations.  ▪  Men are not socially expected to act sad but rather more  aggressively, so people have proposed to include 
irritability/anger emotions so it would increase the amount of 
men to be diagnosed with depression 
o  There are also hormones (estrogen/testosterone) that will affect how  they react to certain situations  •  Race/ethnicity”  o  Black individuals have relatively lower rates of depression than the  general population  o  Hispanic individuals have relatively higher rates of depression  compared with non-Hispanic whites.  o  In studies, they find correlations with low SES, neighborhoods, as  well as cultural influences  ▪  If an individual tends to be more closely-knit with  families/friends will have lower risk of depression.  •  Age differences  o  Rates of depression decrease as people increase with age  ▪  This can be because of changes in environments can affect them  (15-29, break ups, college, work, education, etc.) and have 
more stressors. Older individuals may have more resilience and 
aware of their environment so they know how to handle. 
background image ▪  More social connectedness – more likely to live with others  rather than on their own.  ▪  Although, individuals 85 and older have higher rates of  depression. Why?  •  Lack of social connectedness (nursing homes); spouses  and long-time friends begin to pass away 
(disconnectedness), coming to terms with their mortality; 
decrease in ability/productivity; there may also be a 
biological/hormonal explanation as well.  
•  Sickness/illness can also affect their depression.   Biology & Depression 
Neurotransmitters involved with depression 
o  Serotonin – regulates moods, appetite, sleep, etc. Lower levels of  serotonin = increase rates of depression  o  Norepinephrine – comorbidity with anxiety – relates to the stressor  hormone   o  Dopamine - associated with anhedonia (pleasure).   Biological Theories of Depression  •  Genetic factors: Serotonin Transporter Gene  o  Longer gene and shorter gene. Having 2 short forms of this gene is  associated with MDD rather than two long. One long and one short 
gene is somewhat associated with depression as well.  
o  Environmental factors can also affect the expression of this gene 
o  Great example of gene and environmental interaction 
▪  Diathesis-stress model at work  •  Vulnerability (gene)  •  Stressor (environment)  o  Stressors are by self-report, so can serve a bit of  bias, but not significant  ▪  (insert graph)  Biological Treatments for Depression  •  Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)  o  Inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. Most common.  
o  Presynaptic neuron releases the neurotransmitter and the reuptake 
molecule will take excess neurotransmitters in the synapse for reuse. 
The inhibition of reuptake will increase the amount of serotonin in the 

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School: Florida State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Natalie Sachs-Ericsson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: abnormal, Psychology, and clp4134
Name: clp4143 week 5 notes
Description: Covers Biological treatments, explanations for depression
Uploaded: 02/12/2018
5 Pages 32 Views 25 Unlocks
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