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FSU - CLP 4143 - clp4143 week 5 notes - Class Notes

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FSU - CLP 4143 - clp4143 week 5 notes - Class Notes

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Depression Facts 
•  MDD: about 1 in 6 (lifetime)  •  PDD: 1 in 20 
•  Course: 
o  MDD often consists of multiple MDEs that remit and relapse over  time.  o  ½ of people who have one MDE never have another 
o  Severity indicators: longer MDEs, shorter inter-episode lengths, more 
symptoms present between full episodes  Gender/Ethnicity Moderators  •  MDD is the leading cause of disease burden (missed work, reduction in  productivity)  •  Depressive disorders occur more commonly (about 2 times more) in women  than in men  o  Is it because of bias? Probably. Biases based off of social  expectations.  ▪  Men are not socially expected to act sad but rather more  aggressively, so people have proposed to include 
irritability/anger emotions so it would increase the amount of 
men to be diagnosed with depression 
o  There are also hormones (estrogen/testosterone) that will affect how  they react to certain situations  •  Race/ethnicity”  o  Black individuals have relatively lower rates of depression than the  general population  o  Hispanic individuals have relatively higher rates of depression  compared with non-Hispanic whites.  o  In studies, they find correlations with low SES, neighborhoods, as  well as cultural influences  ▪  If an individual tends to be more closely-knit with  families/friends will have lower risk of depression.  •  Age differences  o  Rates of depression decrease as people increase with age  ▪  This can be because of changes in environments can affect them  (15-29, break ups, college, work, education, etc.) and have 
more stressors. Older individuals may have more resilience and 
aware of their environment so they know how to handle. 
background image ▪  More social connectedness – more likely to live with others  rather than on their own.  ▪  Although, individuals 85 and older have higher rates of  depression. Why?  •  Lack of social connectedness (nursing homes); spouses  and long-time friends begin to pass away 
(disconnectedness), coming to terms with their mortality; 
decrease in ability/productivity; there may also be a 
biological/hormonal explanation as well.  
•  Sickness/illness can also affect their depression.   Biology & Depression 
Neurotransmitters involved with depression 
o  Serotonin – regulates moods, appetite, sleep, etc. Lower levels of  serotonin = increase rates of depression  o  Norepinephrine – comorbidity with anxiety – relates to the stressor  hormone   o  Dopamine - associated with anhedonia (pleasure).   Biological Theories of Depression  •  Genetic factors: Serotonin Transporter Gene  o  Longer gene and shorter gene. Having 2 short forms of this gene is  associated with MDD rather than two long. One long and one short 
gene is somewhat associated with depression as well.  
o  Environmental factors can also affect the expression of this gene 
o  Great example of gene and environmental interaction 
▪  Diathesis-stress model at work  •  Vulnerability (gene)  •  Stressor (environment)  o  Stressors are by self-report, so can serve a bit of  bias, but not significant  ▪  (insert graph)  Biological Treatments for Depression  •  Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)  o  Inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. Most common.  
o  Presynaptic neuron releases the neurotransmitter and the reuptake 
molecule will take excess neurotransmitters in the synapse for reuse. 
The inhibition of reuptake will increase the amount of serotonin in the 
body. 

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School: Florida State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Natalie Sachs-Ericsson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: abnormal, Psychology, and clp4134
Name: clp4143 week 5 notes
Description: Covers Biological treatments, explanations for depression
Uploaded: 02/12/2018
5 Pages 32 Views 25 Unlocks
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