A&P 2 Exam 1 Study Guide
A) PR Interval ___ the movement of O2 & CO2 between lungs and blood
B) Layers of the Pericardium ___ the start of atrial excitation/ ventricular excitation C) 3 steps of blood clotting ___ decreased cardiac output resting heart rate is less than 60bpm D) Surfactant ___ Fibrous and Serous Pericardium
E) External Respiration ___ Uncoordinated heart contractions
F) QRS complex ___ volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute
G) Boyle’s law ___ CO= heart rate X stroke volume
H) Cardiac Output ___ P1V1=P2V2
I) Bradycardia ___ Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation J) Polycythemia ___ depolarization of SA node and atria K) Pericarditis ___ lack of clotting factor
L) Hemophilia ___ inflammation of pericardium causing friction M) CO formula ___ increased blood viscosity due to excess erythrocytes N) P Wave ___ ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization O) Arrhythmias ___ a secretion of type 2 alveolar cells reduces fluid accumulation Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of a statement of stockholder equity?
1) What is the function and main components of the respiratory zone? 2) What causes a coordinated heart beat?
3) What is occurring when you hear the Lubdub sound of the heart (two separate actions). We also discuss several other topics like Why do we have government?
4) Describe the path of blood flow through the body.
5) What is erythropoiesis?
6) What are the three functions of blood?
7) Why is the left ventricle thicker?
8) Where are thrombocytes located?
9) What two cell types are found in cardiac muscles?
10) What causes Aplastic anemia?
11) What 4 processes make up respiration?
12) What is the composition of blood? How much of each element is in this mixture? 13) What is responsible for setting the heart’s pace?
14) What is a normal resting heart rate? How does Vfib differ from a normal heart pattern/ rate?
15) What are the components of the upper respiratory system? Lower respiratory? 16) What do the respiratory and conducting zones do? If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of decoding/interpreting?
17) Define systole and diastole. When does each occur?
18) What is responsible for creation of a heart beat?
19) What determines blood type?
20) What is renin? Where is it produced and why is it important?
21) What type of blood due the left and right side of the heart receive (oxygenated or deoxygenated)?
22) What is the function of the epiglottis?
23) How man lobes do each lung have? Why are they different?
24) Where does hematopoiesis occur in newborns? In adults?
25) What features allow erythrocytes to carry more oxygen? Don't forget about the age old question of What was the great bath in mohenjo daro used for?
∙ Heart Anatomy and Physiology We also discuss several other topics like Which subatomic particle determines what type of element an atom is?
∙ Blood functions, properties and entities
∙ Circulator system information (veins, arteries, calculations etc.) ∙ Respiratory system functions and components. If you want to learn more check out What is it called when all the justices agree on a decision and the reasoning behind it?
∙ Blood clot formation (vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation) ∙ Gas exchange
∙ Gas laws and Breathing mechanism (inspiration vs expiration)
1) Gas exchange/ alveoli, alveolar ducts, bronchioles.
2) Gap junctions and intrinsic cardiac conduction system
3) Lub (closing of AV valve) Dub (closing of semilunar valve).
4) Inferior vena cavaright atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle pulmonary valve pulmonary trunk pulmonary artery lungs pulmonary vein left atrium mitral valve left ventricle aortic valve aorta body
5) The formation of erythrocytes or red blood cells
6) Transport, regulation, protection
7) The left ventricle is more muscular due to positioning of the heart in reference to the lungs. This area of the heart works much harder and as a result has a stronger thicker muscle.
8) Thrombocytes are located in the formed elements and buffy coat of the blood. 9) Cardiac muscles have contractile and autorythmic cells. Contractile cells make up ((% of cardiac cells and help to pump the heart while autorhythimic cells can generate their own action potentials and make of 1% of cardiac cells.
10) Aplastic anemia is caused by chemical pollutants such as chemo, drugs or an infection. 11) Pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport, Internal respiration (be able to differentiate between internal and external respiration).
12) Formed elements: cells and platelets about 45 % nonliving elements (plasma which is water and solutes) is about 55%. When centrifuged erythrocytes fall to the bottom of the
tube while the buffy coat (leukocytes and platelets) makes up a slightly less than 1% of blood and would be between the erythrocytes and plasma when centrifuged. 13) The sinoatrial node is responsible for setting the hearts pace.
14) A normal resting heart rate is between 65100 bpm. Vfib shows no distinct pattern and signify a heart attack or electric shock.
15) The upper respiratory system is composed of (nose, naval cavity, larynx, pharynx, paranasal sinus) lower (trachea, bronchi and branches, lungs, alveoli.
16) Respiratory zone facilitates gas exchange while the conducting zone cleans and warms air while allowing it to reach the respiratory zone.
17) Systole is contraction and occurs during repolarization while diastole is relaxation. 18) The heartbeat is created by the presence of gap junctions and intrinsic cardiac conduction system.
19) Agglutinogens or antigens determine blood type. These glycolproteins help to identify/classify cells. There are 30 naturally occurring blood types.
20) Renin is produced by the kidneys and triggers angiotensin 2 which in turn causes vasoconstriction and the release of ADH which functions to chemically regulate blood pressure.
21) The right side of the hear receives oxygen poor blood from body tissue while the left receives the oxygenated blood from the lungs. Additionally, the atriums receive blood while ventricles pump blood.
22) The epiglottis prevents food from entering the air passage.
23) The right lung has 3 larger lobes while the left has 2 lobes. The right lung is not obstructed by the heart allowing this size differentiation.
24) In the spleen and lymph nodes for newborns and red bone marrow in adults, more specifically the proximal epiphysis of the numerus.
25) Erythrocytes are anucleate which allows them to carry more oxygen.