# Exam Study Guide

Author: Student Professor: Term:

These flashcards cover what will be on the first exam for the class. It covers from chapters 1-4 in the text book and lectures.

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scientific method

trying to find out why something happened

angle

opening between two intersecting lines

powers of 10 notation

when multiplying exponents add when dividing exponents subtract

small angle formula

D= angle(d)/ 206265D=linear sizeangle=angular size in arc secondsd= linear distance

compound units

miles/hourvolumespeeddensity

astronautical unit

1AU 1.496x10^8 km distance between sun and earth

parsec

measure the distance between stars 3.09 x 10^13 km 1AU and 1 arc second

altitude azimuth coordinate system

measure the altitude of something in the sky using the horizon and compass

latitude and longitude

latitude- angular distance above or below the earths equator as measured from the center of the earthlongitude- angular distance between a circle passing through the North Pole and Greenwich England

declination and right accession

declination- latitude like coordinate on the celestial sphereright accession- longitude like coordinate on the celestial sphere 360 degrees= 24hours15 degrees= 1 hour

earths tilt

23 1/2 degrees

precession

wobbling of earth as it rotates around the sun

elipse

the path the earth takes was it revolves around the sun

sidereal time

based on the stars

moon

the moon shines by reflected light from the sun

synodic time

based on the sun

solar eclipse

moon moves infant of the sun, new phase, line of nodes points to sun

lunar eclipse

oon moves through the earths shadow, full phase, line of nodes points to sun

magnitude system

measures the brightness of stars

geocentric cosmology

earth centered theory of the universe thought of by Ptolemy

apparent backwards(westward) motion of the planets proves that earth is not the center of the universe

heliocentric model of cosmology

sun centered model of the universe found by Nicholas Capernicus

elongation angle

angle when inferior planets are passing the sun and you can see it

Tycho Brahe

first person to discover that stars die

Keplers first law of planetary motion

planets orbit in an elipse

Keplers second law of planetary motion

a planet around the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times

Keplers third law of planetary motion

the squares of the sidereal periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their semi major axis P^2= a^2

speed

distance over time

average or instantaneous speed

change in distance over change in time

vector quantity

how much and which direction

newtons first law

law of inertia a body at rest remains at rest unless an outside force is acted upon it

newtons second law

force equals mass times accelerationf= m x a

newtons third law

whenever one object exerts force on another object the second objects exerts equal but opposite force on the first object

conservation of energy

you cannot create or destroy energychemical energykinetic energygravitational/ potential energy

general theory of relativity

gravity is the result of an object following the curvature of 4-d space time

3 properties of a black hole

massrotationelectric fields