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UCONN / Geography / GEOG 1200 / What are the zones of the centric model?

What are the zones of the centric model?

What are the zones of the centric model?

Description

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Geography
Course: The City in Western Tradition
Professor: Joshua regan
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: geography
Cost: 25
Name: UCONN - GEOG 1200 - Class Notes - Week 2
Description: Notes from Lecture 3 (1/23/18) & Lecture 4 (1/25/18)
Uploaded: 02/12/2018
9 Pages 9 Views 2 Unlocks
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1/23/18


What are the zones of the centric model?



What Describes a City?

● Culture

○ Examples; Food, sports, and local history/traditions

● Toponymy: City/Place Names

1. Location

a. Ex; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

i. (River of January)

2. Historic Figure

a. Ex; Washington, D.C., US

i. (George Washington)

3. Homeland

a. New London, CT

i. Named after London, UK)

● Site (Where is it?)

○ Absolute Location

○ Ex;

■ Geographic coordinate system, (longitude-latitude)

■ Street Address


What are the purpose of sports stadiums?



○ Site of Istanbul

■ Only city in the world that geographically lies on 2 continents

■ Western part lies on Europe, Eastern part lies on Asia

● Situation (Why is it there?)

○ Relative location

○ Relation of the city to what surrounds it

○ Ex;

■ San Francisco; The Gold Rush (1849)

■ Dubrovnik, Croatia; Mountains yield barrier

○ Situation of American Cities We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of landmasses?

■ 1900: Twenty of the largest American cities were on a major waterway ■ Water was the entry for people and resources

● Opportunities for growth and investment


What is the concept of hexagon development?



Models of Urbanization

● Concentric Zone Model

● Sector Model

● Multiple Nuclei Model

Concentric Model of Urbanization

● Oldest model of urbanization

● E.W. Burgess (1924)

○ Sociologist

○ Did work in Chicago

○ Partnered with Robert Park

○ Noticed that there were different zones

● Burgess Identified 3 Factors

1. Identified Specific Zones

2. Zones Radiate Out

3. Some Zones More Desirable

● European Model of Urbanization 

● Applications of the Concentric Model

○ Chicago is often seen as an outlier

■ Very few American cities encompass this model

○ Moscow, Russia If you want to learn more check out What is the neurological way to emotion?

○ London, U.K.

● Zones of the Centric Model

1. Central Business District We also discuss several other topics like What is the importance of expansion?

a. Densest part of the city If you want to learn more check out What is the biological species concept?

b. Most expensive part of the city (land values are at their highest) c. Downtown

d. Focal point of transit

e. The “engine” of the city

f. A place of work not residency

g. Economically driven region

2. Zone of Transition

a. **Recent Immigrant Groups

b. Deteriorated Housing Don't forget about the age old question of How was nature used or understood in the early 20th century?

c. Factories

d. Abandoned homes and factories (e.g. high mobility)

e. Poorest zone

f. Little to no investment

g. Zone of Transition: Education

i. Poor Education → Low-skilled Labor-force → Low

per-capita income

ii. Education and Income

1. Education vs. Income

↑ Education increases 10% ↑ Per-capita Income Increases 22% 2. Detroit, Michigan

a. Education

i. Highest high school dropout rate

ii. 11% have a college degree

b. Income

i. 32% live in poverty (highest of all

U.S. urban areas)

ii. $15, 310 per-capita income

1. Poverty = $20,650

h. Housing, Public Transportation, and Health (Zone of Transition) i. Segregated housing We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of moral knowledge?

ii. Lack of public transportation

iii. Higher obesity

i. Zone of Transition and Crime

i. Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay (1942)

ii. Social Disorganization Theory → Not abnormal people but people living in abnormal conditions

iii. Concepts of the Theory

1. Poverty \

2. High Mobility Collective Effect → Crime 3. Heterogeneous Population /

iv. Crime and delinquency is 6x-10x higher within the Zone of Transition

j. Population Density and Crime

i. Density vs. Crime

↑ Population Density ↑ Crime

ii. Reason?

1. Defensible Space Theory (Oscar Newman, 1972):

Competition for space and resources

2. Opportunity for crime (high-rise buildings)

k. Blight and Crime

i. Blight vs. Crime

↑ Blight ↓ Property Values ↑ Crime

ii. James Wilson & George Kelling, 1982

1. Broken Window Theory

a. Buildings with “broken windows” are

attractive to criminals either looking to steal

something, or to base their operations.

3. Working Class Zone

a. An area of residence

b. Single Family Tenements

c. Features:

i. Single style homes

ii. Wealthier citizens

iii. Ties to Central Business District (CBD)

d. Tend to see smaller family sizes

i. Cost of living is higher

ii. Limited space

e. Transportation

i. Public is available

ii. Minimal car ownership

4. Residential Zone (i.e. Zone of Better Residence) a. An area of residence (AKA the Suburbs)

b. Single family Homes

c. Yards/Garages

d. Features:

i. Newer and larger homes

ii. Fewer housing

iii. Low population density

iv. Larger family size

e. Transportation

i. No public transportation

5. Commuter Zone

a. Zone to access transportation

b. Rural

c. Features:

i. Lowest population density

ii. Cheapest land values

d. Also a zone of residence

Sector Model

● Homer Hoyt (1932)

○ Economist

● Also has Central Business

District

● American model of 

urbanization 

● Development has centered around transportation networks ● Driven by car, highways

● More access to transportation, attractive because of efficiency ● Spokes (Think of bicycle wheel)

○ Ex; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania & Baltimore, Maryland

Multiple Nuclei Model

● Chauncey Harris (1945)

○ Geographer

● Multiple Centers

● American model of 

urbanization 

● Important Features:

○ No CBD

○ Zones exclusive to

land use

○ Residency and

employment are in

close proximity

● Los Angeles

○ No CBD

○ Many smaller

business districts scattered throughout city

1/25/18

Peripheral Model

● Newest Model (1991)

○ Joel Garreau (Edge City)

● Development of periphery (outside)

● Why?

○ 1. Cheaper Land

○ 2. More Space

● How?

○ Highway or Rail

Edge Cities

○ Peripheral model creates edge cities →

■ Decentralization of City

○ Establishment of a new city on the “edge” of main city → ○ Linked to the modes of transport

● American model of urbanization

● Ex;

○ Meadowlands, New Jersey

○ Tysons Corner, Virginia

○ Lakewood, Colorado

○ Stamford, Connecticut

Urbanization in the U.S.

● U.S. experienced rapid urbanization through industrial era ● After WWII, U.S. began to experience de-urbanization

● AKA “suburbanization”

● U.S. is the only country to witness this

Why Suburbanization?

1. Cheaper Land / Taxes

2. More Space, Privacy, and Independence

3. Better Schools

4. Lower Crime

5. The Car

Suburbs

● Subsidiary area linked and dependent on a city

● The first large scale suburb

○ Levittown, USA

○ Designed by William Levitt

● The “driving” factor

● Denver, Colorado & Atlanta, Georgia

○ Suburbs are a place to live vs. cities are a place to work

Urban Sprawl

● Unlike states and countries, cities have no political boundaries

Defining Sprawl

● Criteria:

1. Low Population Density

a. People are moving further out because they want privacy, and

they have a car to access all the resources they need.

2. Mixed Zoning

a. Some areas that are designated for commerce, industry,

residential, etc.

b. Even though there is mixed zoning, there is also secular zoning,

meaning that there is not a lot of overlap, and it is very clear

which areas are designated to what.

3. Car Dependent

a. Car dependent concept, without a car there would not be access

to shops, malls, etc.

b. We have become very car dependent, especially as we keep

moving further and further out of the city.

● Atlanta, Georgia: the most sprawl

Poverty of the American City vs. Suburb

● Poverty of the City = 11.7%

● Poverty of the Suburbs = 9.8%

● Poverty rates are growing faster in the suburbs today

Social Space and Residency

● Where you live is outlined by 4 criteria

1. Stage of Life

a. If you are older, you may not want a large home, and a big yard.

b. Younger couples, with a growing family will likely want more space. 2. Ethnicity

a. Many people will want to live in areas with others of a similar culture. b. Seen with immigrants (ex; Italians & Irish had their own designated neighborhoods)

3. Income

a. Affordability

4. Need for Physical Space

a. Your desire for space.

b. You want a big yard, a large home.

Housing

1. Speculative Housing (Developed World)

2. Self-Built Housing (Developing World)

Western Cities Differ

European Cities

American Cities

CBD Clearly Defined

● Central Business District is

clearly defined

CBD Not Clearly Defined

● Central Business District is not clearly defined

● Especially in cities with multiple nuclei

Few Skyscrapers

Large Skyscrapers

No Sprawl/Suburbs

● When the city ends, the city ends, not outlying areas.

Sprawl/Suburbs

Public Transportation/Walking

Focused on the Automobile (Parking Lots/Garages)

Urban Cores are Well-off/Prosperous ● People with high incomes live in the center of the city

Urban Cores are Poor

● People with high incomes live

outside the CBD, in the suburbs

Cultural Emphasis

Capital Emphasis

● Money, financial emphasis

Central Place Theory

● 1915: C.J. Galpin

● Rural Commutes

● Regular distribution of goods and

services with some overlap

● Walter Christaller

○ Hitler’s Urban Planner

● Hexagon Development

● Concepts:

○ Based on hierarchy of services

○ When services decline, population declines

● Storrs-Mansfield, CT

○ Blue Dot (Market Town)

○ Storrs has some basic services:

■ Mail, Post Office

■ Student Health Services

■ Barber Shop

■ Restaurants

■ Bookstore

■ Pharmacy

■ Clothing Stores, etc.

○ What Does Storrs-Mansfield, CT Lack?

■ Airport

■ Fancy Museums

■ Fine (Fancy) Dining

■ Mall, shops

● Higher Order is Required

● Hartford, CT

○ Orange Dot (Town)

○ Fine Dining

○ Mall

○ Airport (Bradley

○ Sports Stadiums

○ Hospital (Hartford Hospital

○ What Does Hartford Lack?

■ Limited international flights

■ Major league sports

■ Fancy Stores (ex; Gucci)

■ Major Museums

○ Thus, we have to go to an even higher order city. ● Higher Order is Required

○ New York City, NY

■ Red Dot (City)

■ JFK International Airport

■ Major League sports teams

■ Major Museums

■ Major Hospitals

■ High-End Shopping

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