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UIUC - PSYC 245 - Class Notes - Week 4

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UIUC - PSYC 245 - Class Notes - Week 4

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background image Individual Differences I – Cognitive Ability  
Feb 5, 2018 / Module 3.1 – 3.2 
What is Cognitive Ability? 
 
Intro to Individual Differences 
➢  Individual Differences  o  Dissimilarities between or among two or more people 
o  Relatively stable or enduring dispositions or traits 
➢  Several Domains   o  Cognitive ability 
o  Personality 
o  Interests and values 
o  Other (physical abilities, sensory abilities, etc) 
  KSAO’s   ➢  Knowledge  Skills 
Ability  cognitive, physical 
Other characteristics  personality, vocational interests, emotional 
intelligence, others  integrity, virtues 
➢  Class Example:  Harry Potter – (Harry, Ron, Hermoine)  o  Are the characters similar or do they have differences? 
o  All from griffindor, but their personalities are different, interests are 
different, intelligence    Recap: History  ➢  James Catell: first to realize importance of individual differences   o  Worked with Francis Galton, who was studying inherited  characteristics such as height, weight, hair color to support his cousin 
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution 
o  Walter Dill Scott & Walter Van Dyke: Army Alpha  ▪  “Possibly the single greatest achievement of the American  Psychological Association is the establishment of individual 
differences” – Walter Dill Scott 
 
 
 
 
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Cognitive Ability (Reading Module 3.2)  Cognitive Ability: The general capacity to learn, reason, and problem solve   a.  Humphreys: Repertoire of acquired skills and knowledge that is  available to you at any given time  b.  Also called “intelligence, general mental ability (GMA), g, IQ)    History of Cognitive Ability   ➢  Sir Francis Galton: believed that sensory acuity (visual acuity, auditory  acuity) was a reflection of cognitive ability and studied the heritability of 
intelligence 
o  if son had a visual or auditory problem, will it happen with all my  children?  o  are you able to spot things really fast 
o  did not yet think about verbal, reading comprehension, math, things 
that would show up in the ACT’s currently 
 
➢  James M. Cattel: believed that intelligence was reflected in reaction times  o  Measured intelligence by assessing ability to distinguish between  weights, accuracy in judging 10 second intervals, reaction time, and 
more 
➢  Binet: First to attempt to measure the complex mental operations as  intelligence, proposing that mental abilities should be studied directly rather 
than indirectly through sensory acuity 
o  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test: one of the first tests that directly  measured cognitive ability through assessment of complex mental 
process 
▪  Where the idea Intelligence Quotient came from  •  IQ: ratio of mental age to physical age  o  Based on normal distribution of intelligence  ▪  Now also used to diagnose development or intellectual  deficiencies in young children  ▪  Compare a person’s score to a person that is the same age  •  Ex: shown a picture with 4 boys, 3 playing the piano and  1 playing with a toy  They are then asked the question, “Which of these 
4 pictures does not have someone playing the 
piano in it” 
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The Structure of Intelligence   ➢  Is there a general intelligence factor?   o  if someone is good at one thing they must always be good with other  things  ➢  Is intelligence domain specific o  good at math, but could be worse at writing     Is there a general intelligence factor?  ➢  Spearman: Yes, there is a general factor.  Proposed a “general factor” of intelligence he termed “g”  o  g= general intelligence  ▪  this factor encompasses knowledge about a broad range of  topics  •  verbal reasoning (vocabulary comprehension)  •  quantitative reasoning (number series quantitative tests) 
•  Abstract visual reasoning ( paper folding, copying) 
•  Short term memory (memory for sentences, memory for  digits)  ➢  Thurstone: No, there is no general factor. Disagreed with Spearman  o  He said that mental abilities were made up of several primary factors:  ▪  Verbal comprehension 
▪  Word fluency 
▪  Space 
▪  Number 
▪  Memory reasoning 
▪  reasoning 
   
Fluid & Crystalized Intelligence  
Raymond Cattell  ➢  Fluid Intelligence (Gf): ability to reduce complex things into simpler  components  o  Ex: problem solving – short term memory - Kids learning math, the  speed at which kids pick up on means they have better fluid 
intelligence 

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School: University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Department: Psychology
Course: Industrial Organizational Psychology
Professor: Angela Lee
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Industrial Psych, industrial psychology, industrial, organizational, Psychology, individual, and differences
Name: Psych 245 Week 4 Lecture/Textbook Notes
Description: These notes cover Individual Differences I and II from lecture!
Uploaded: 02/14/2018
10 Pages 52 Views 41 Unlocks
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