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Weekly Notes exam

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Weekly Notes exam COM 110

Communication Theory
Fan Yang

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Communication Theory
Fan Yang
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by ec on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COM 110 at University of Miami taught by Fan Yang in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Communication Theory in Communication Studies at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 08/29/15
MGT 304 Final Study Guide Chapter 1 Organizational behavior Study of human behaviors in organizations Scienti c thinking Data collection is systematic and explanations are carefully tested Organization a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose Stakeholders people groups and institutions having an interest in an organizations performance Workforce diversity individual differences of organizational members based on race gender ethnicity age Multiculturalism inclusiveness and respect for diversity and individual differences Task performance quality and quantity of the work produced by the organization as a whole Job satisfaction how people feel about their work and work setting Emotional intelligence Ability to understand and deal with emotions 0 Self awareness EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE BEGINS WITH SELF AWARENESS 0 Self management 0 Relationship management 0 Social awareness Ego Self conditioned self Part of us that is always changing based on experiences Ego will cause a REACTION True self higher self part of us that is whole and unchanging Source of self esteem inner peace love Creates a thoughtful RESPONSE Chapter 2 Self awareness conscious understanding of ourselves Self Concept View individuals have of themselves Self con dence belief in ones self worth Self ef cacy belief in ones ability to perform a speci c task Heredity sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics Environment determines development within heredity limits Personality combination of characteristics that comprise the unique nature of a person Social traits surface level traits that re ect the way a person appears to others Type A High strung Type 3 easy going laid back BIG FIVE personality dimensions 0 Extraversion outgoing sociable assertive o Agreeableness trusting cooperative o Conscientiousness being reliable responsible dependable o Emotional stability being unworried secure relaxed o Openness to experience being creative imaginative cudous Myers Briggs o E or I Extraverted vs lntroverted o S or N Sensation senses vs Intuitive o F or T Feeling or Thinking o J or P Judging set outcomes vs Perceiving open and exible Locus of control The extent to which a person feels able to control his life INTERNAL vs EXTERNAL Proactive personality actively make changes within their environment Machiavellian personality Approach situations logically and thoughtfully Believe that the quotends justify the meansquot Narcissism Grandiose sense of self important requires admiration and is arrogant Self monitoring Individuals ability to adjust their behavior based on situational factors Stress a state of tension experienced by individuals facing high demands Work related stressors Task demands ethical dilemmas physical setting role con icts Life stressors Family events economic difficulties personal affairs Constructive stress EUSTRESS Destructive stress DISTRESS Coping responses 0 Problem focused make a plan to deal with the problem 0 Emotion focused change your attitude Personal wellness take responsibility to enhance and maintain wellness 0 Employee assistance programs help employees facing problems and stress 0 Values preferences that in uence behavior and attitudes 0 Terminal values persons preferences concerning the quotend state 0 Instrumental Values re ect a persons beliefs about achieving desired ends Chapter 3 0 ABC39s of Human experience 0 Affective component 0 Behavior component intention to behave a certain way based on feelings or attitudes 0 Cognitive component underlying beliefs opinions or knowledge 0 Self conscious emotions shame guilt embarrassment pride INTERNAL Social emotions pity jealousy EXTERNAL Moods generalized positive or negative feelings o EmotionMood contagion spillover of ones emotions or moods to others 0 Emotional labor regulating emotions to display those desired by an organization 0 Emotional dissonance inconsistencies between emotions we feel and emotions we display 0 Deep Acting trying to modify your inner feelings based on display rules 0 Surface acting hiding true feelings while displaying different ones 0 Display rules degree to which it is appropriate for people to display their emotions based on culture 0 Positive affect Approach tendency The extent to which someones seeks rewards in life 0 Negative affect Avoidance tendency Extent to which someone avoids punishments pain in life 0 Cognitive dissonance inconsistency between individuals attitudes and behaviors 0 job involvement degree to which an individual is dedicated to their jobs 0 Organizational commitment degree of loyalty to the organization 0 FIVE FACETS OF JOB SATISFACTION The work itself I Quality of supervision Relationships with coworkers Promotion opportunities Pay Withdrawal effects dissatis ed workers are absent more frequently and are not engaged in their work Organizational citizenship willingness to go the extra mile for their work Satisfaction causes performance to increase performance make employees happy Performance causes satisfaction help achieve high performance and satisfaction will follow Rewards cause satisfaction and performance proper allocation of rewards can positively in uence both job satisfaction and performance Chapter 4 Perception process by which people select organize and interpret information Selective screening lets in only a tiny portion of all the information lnterpretation uncovering the reasons why things are grouped Retrieval selection and organization of memory Schemas cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge Attribution Theory assigning meaning to what we perceive Creates explanations for events Distinctiveness consistency of behaviors across situations Consensus likelihood of others responding in the same way Consistency whether an individual responds the same way across TIME Fundamental Attribution error quotyour poor performance is caused by youquot Blame the individual and not situational factors Self serving bias take more responsibility for success than failure Selective perception tendency to single out aspects of a situation that are consistent with your own beliefs Stereotypes assign attributes to an individual that are commonly associated with a group Halo effect one attribute is used to create an overall impression of the person 0 Self ful lling prophecy tendency to create in a situation what you expected to nd Think the movie is going to be good and then think its good 0 Salience when you perceive and item and it stands out compared to others 0 Projection assignment of ones personal attributes to other individuals 0 Mindfulness living in the present moment Not regretting the past or fearing the future 0 Rational Decision making utilize rational thinking and think decisions through Intuitive decision making fast spontaneous go with the ow Bounded rationality making decisions based on simpli ed models that extract complexities Satis cing picking the rst satisfactory option 0 Judgmental heuristics simpli ed strategies to make decisions Availability bias assessing a current event based on past experiences or occurrences 0 Representative Bias assessing the likelihood that an event will occur based on similarity to past experiences 0 Moral dilemma decision maker faces two or more ethically uncomfortable alternatives Chapter 5 0 Content theories focus on individual needs 0 Process theories focus on the thoughts and cognitive process Maslows hierarchy of needs 0 Self actualization o Esteem 0 Social 0 Safety 0 Physiological 0 Theory X Employees dislike work are lazy dislike responsibility 0 Theory Y employees like work are creative and seek responsibility 0 Need for achievement desire to do something better and more ef cient Need for af liation desire to establish and maintain friendly relationships 0 Need for power desire to control others to in uence behavior Hygiene factors policies salary work conditions Motivator factors achievement recognition growth responsibility 0 Negative inequity individual feels like they have received less compared to others for their work 0 Positive inequity individual feels like they have received more for their work compared to others 0 Organizational justice how fair and equitable people view their workplace Expectancy theory M E x I x V o Expectancy effort will yield performance 0 lnstrumentality performance will be rewarded o Valence value of the rewards is highly positive 0 Law of effect behavior with a good outcome is likely to be repeated Behavior with a negative outcome is likely not to be repeated Operant conditioning controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences Reinforcement increases target behavior Punishment decreases target behavior 0 Positive adding something as a consequence Negative withdrawing something 0 Intrinsic rewards purpose responsibility meaningfulness Extrinsic rewards given by someone else Pay praise Pro t sharing reward employees based on overall organizational pro t Gain sharing earn more based on productivity that the individual helped create 0 Output measures assess work outputs Activity measures assess work efforts 0 360 evaluation rates everyone 0 Scienti c management sought to improve work efficiency by creating small repetitive tasks 0 job enlargement combining two or more tasks into one job 0 job rotation periodically shifting workers among jobs 0 Job enrichment enhancing job content by building responsibility achievement recognition 0 Job sharing One job is shared by two or more people 0 Work sharing workers agree to cut back on hours to prevent layoffs o Telecommuting work done at home or in a remote location Chapter 7 0 Vertical role manager serves as team leader and team member Horizontal role employee is a member of more than one team Formal teams of cially designated to serve a speci c purpose 0 Effective teams achieve high levels of 0 Task performance 0 Member satisfaction 0 Team viability Synergy the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Social loa ng tendency for people to work less hard in a group vs individually Social facilitation theory individual behavior is in uenced by the presence of others in the group 0 Five stages of team development 0 Forming getting to know each other 0 Storming member challenges 0 Norming point when members come together 0 Performing emergence of well functioning team 0 Adjourning teams are able to disband when nished Role ambiguity when a person is unsure of his or her role Role con ict when a person is unable to meet the expectations of others 0 Norms expectations on how someone should behave Cohesiveness degree to which members are motivated to remain a part of the team Decentralized communication group members communicate directly and share information Centralized communications one person acts as the central point Members work independently Proxemics study of the way space is utilized Groupthink tendency for members of cohesive groups to lose their evaluative capabilities Chapter 11 Source encodes an intended meaning into a message Receiver decodes the message 0 Noise any disturbance that disrupts or interferes with a message Formal channels follow the chain of command Informal channels skip levels of hierarchy and cut across vertical levels of command 0 Channel richness capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively 0 Grapevine how rumors and unofficial information gets passed from person to person 0 Effective communication when the intended meaning and the perceived meaning are the same 0 Ef cient communication occurs with minimum cost in terms of resources expended Kinsetics study of gestures and body postures Low context cultures very explicit in using spoken and written word 0 High context cultures use words to convey a limited part of the message Use context to interpret the rest 0 Ethnocentrism belief that ones culture and values are superior to another 0 Semantic problems poor choice of words Mixed messages occurs when words communicate one thing and actions communicate another 0 Status effect status differences create communication barriers Formal leadership by people who are appointed or elected Informal leadership leadership by people who become in uential due to skills and resources Self ef cacy belief in ones ability to complete a speci c task Optimism expectancy of positive outcomes Resilience ability to bounce back from failure Directive leadership giving speci c tasks Supportive leadership showing care and concern for employee well being 0 Transactional leadership involves leader follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance 0 Transformational leadership leaders broaden and elevate followers interests and encourages followers to look beyond self interest 0 Authentic leadership acting in accordance with ones quottrue selfquot a Spiritual leadership values attitudes and behaviors grounded in ethics Servant leadership primary purpose of business is to create a positive impact on employees 0 Shared leadership interactive and goal oriented leadership Chapter 13 General dependence postulate the greater B s dependence on A the greater power A has over B Zone of indifference range of request to which subordinates are willing to respond Legitimacy generally unstated but understood authority Obedience tendency to obey authority gures Reward power extent to which managers can use rewards to control people Coercive power extent to which a manager can deny rewards and administer punishments to control people Process power control that a manager has over methods of production and analysis Empowerment process by which managers give more power to lower level employees Self protection Defensive strategies 0 Avoiding action 0 Avoiding blame o Avoiding change Dysfunctional con ict destructive to an individual or team Functional con ict results in constructive and positive bene ts Perceived con ict awareness of conditions that create opportunities Felt con ict emotional involvement in a con ict that causes anxiety tenseness frustration Cooperativeness degree to which one attempts to satisfy the other party s concerns Assertiveness degree to which one attempts to satisfy ones OWN concerns Lose lose con ict nobody gets what he or she wants Win lose con ict one party achieves what it desires at the others expense Win win con ict appeals to common goals Achieved through high cooperativeness and high assertiveness Bargaining zone range between one party s minimum point and the other parties maximum point Distributive negotiation quotWho is going to get this resource 0 Hard negotiation each party holds out to get his or her way WinLose 0 Soft negotiation one party is willing to make concessions LoseLose Integrative negotiation quotHow can a resource be best usedquot Allows broader range of alternative solutions WinWin o Supportive attitudes o Constructive behaviors 0 Good information Third party negotiations a neutral third party works with persons involed in a negotiation to help them settle disputes o ArbitrationMediation neutral party engages disputing parties and comes up with a solution through persuasion and rational argument Chapter 18 Unplanned change spontaneous and with any direction Planned change intentional and with a sense of direction Transformational change radically shifts the fundamental characteristics of an organization Incremental change builds on existing ways of operating to move in new directions Stages of change 0 Unfreezing situation is prepared for a change Encourages replacement of old behaviors 0 Changing speci c actions are taken to create change Role models mentors training sessions 0 Refreezing changes are reinforced and stabilized Change strategies 0 Forcecoercion strategy uses authority rewards and punishments to create change 0 Rational persuasion uses facts special knowledge and rational arguments to create change 0 Shared power uses participatory methods and encourages COMMON VALUES Resistance to change attitudes that show unwillingness to support a change Chapter 15 Innovation process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice Product innovations introduce new goods or services to better meet customer needs Process innovation introduce new METHODS and operations Innovation is a continual process of EXPLORATION and EXPLOITATION Organizational lag dominant culture patterns are inconsistent with emerging innovations Vertical specialization a hierarchical division of labor with formal authority that establishes how critical decisions will be made Span of control number of individuals reporting directly to a supervisor Line units work groups that conduct the major business of the organization Staff units work groups that assist LINE UNITS by providing specialized services accounting public relations Policy outlines important objectives and indicates how activities should be done Procedures describes the best methods for performing a task Rules describes in detail exactly how a task should be performed Centralization degree to which the authority to make decisions is restricted to higher levels of management Decentralization degree to which authority to make decisions is given to lower levels Horizontal specialization division of labor that establishes speci c work units or groups Functional departmentation grouping individuals by skill knowledge and action Divisional departments individuals and departments are grouped by products territories services clients Coordination set of mechanisms that organizations use to link actions of its units into a consistent pattern Bureaucracy form of organization that emphasizes legal authority logic and CLEAR DIVISION OF LABOR o Mechanistic emphasizes vertical specialization and control 0 Organic emphasizes horizontal specialization Mechanistic Bureaucracy rigid command and control structure Good for uniform product quality and speedy service EFFICIENT Organic Bureaucracy minimal use of formal procedures Considerable reliance on the judgment of experts Divisional rm consists of independent divisions that range in style of bureaucracy Conglomerate a single corporation that contains multiple unrelated businesses Strategy process of positioning the organization in competitive work environments Organizational learning process of knowledge acquisition through 0 Information distribution 0 Information interpretation 0 Information retention Mimicry copying successful practices of others Scanning looking outside the rm and bringing back useful solutions Grafting process of acquiring individuals or units to bring useful knowledge to the organization Coevolution of strategy and structure rms ability to adjust to external changes Organizational size as the number of employees increases the possible interconnections between them increase more Adhocracy bureaucracy with few rules or policies substantial decentralization shared decisions among members few levels of management Operations technology combination of resources and knowledge to create a product or service Information technology combination of machines procedures and systems to gather and analyze information Virtual organization evershifting constellation of rms with a lead corporation that pools skills and resources to thrive General environment cultural economic and educational conditions found in an organizations area Speci c environment owners suppliers distributors and competitors within an organizations area Environmental richness where the economic climate is improving and customers are buying more and suppliers are more willing to invest Organizational culture system of shared actions values and beliefs that develop within an organization Sagas heroic accounts of organizational accomplishments Rites standardized and recurring activities that are used to in uence members Cultural symbols any object act or event that transmits cultural meaning Shared values give purpose to routine activities Tie organizational values with those of society Organizational myths unproven and often unstated beliefs External adaption knowing mission and goals and how to achieve them Internal integration creation of a unique collective identity Subculture group of individuals whose values are consistent with the organization Counterculture groups where values outwardly reject those of the organization


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