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UW / Engineering / PSYCH 453 / What is the problem of ethnocentrism?

What is the problem of ethnocentrism?

What is the problem of ethnocentrism?

Description

Cross-Cultural and Theoretical Perspective on Sexuality 


What is the problem of ethnocentrism?



Sexuality in other cultures 

● Problem of ethnocentrism

○ Ethnocentrism: one’s own culture and ethnic group is superior and their customs are standard

● Enromous variation in sexial behavior cross cultures

○ Exception: kissing is common in most cultures but not all

○ Inis Beag vs. Mangaia

■ IB: very sexually repressed, nudity is bad, no sex education

■ Mangaia: very liberated sexually, at 13 boys learn a lot about sex and practice on older women to be trained, teenages have multiple partners to figure out who to marry

○ China: has shifted notably over time

■ 1000 years ago, it used to be all about sex


What is the meaning of ethnocentrism?



■ Then it became a sexually repressed culture

■ Passed 10 years it has become more liberated because of the Internet ○ Large changes in US in last 50-60 years

○ Social class and ethnicity variations in sexuality in US

■ I love Lucy show-she was pregnant on the show and it was very If you want to learn more check out What is an amino acid’s structure?

controversial

● Unacceptable to be pregnant in public

■ Social class variation- % of women 15-44 years using pill

● Less than Highschool: 4%

● HS grad: 9%

● Some college:16%

● College grad: 22%

■ Ethnic group variation


What is the difference between inis beag and mangaia?



Whites

African

American

Latino

Asian

Oral sex

before

vaginal sex (females)

49%

27%

37%

NA

Gender ratio (M:F)

100

84

104

101

Abortion

7.6

25.3

16.1

NA

Don't forget about the age old question of How does cell phone use affects driving?

● Implications of culture variations

○ Sexually shaped by culture

○ Social norms about sex are often arbitrary

■ Nude swimming vs. swim suits

● Cross cultural universe

○ Incest taboo (nearly universal)

○ All societies regulate sex in some way

Culture and sexuality: The Media 

● Media influences theories

○ 1. Cultivation: exposure to mass media makes us think that what we see is what mainstream people are doing

○ 2. Agenda setting: media decides what is important and what is not based on what they cover

○ 3. Social learning: the media provides role models whom we imitate Theories If you want to learn more check out What are the three areas of linguistic anthropology?

Evolutionary theories 

● Sociobiology: application of evolutionary biology to understand the social behavior of animals and humans

● Evolution: all living things have aquired present forms through gradual changes of genetic forms

○ Natural selection: greater rates of survival because of adaptations

○ Sexual selection: creates male and female differences

■ Peacocks

○ Implications for sex

■ Strong sex drive

○ Men prefer polygamy and women prefer monogamy

■ Sperm are cheap-200 million in one ejaculation

■ Eggs are precious-not an unlimited amount

■ Uncertainty of paternity If you want to learn more check out Why do we study chordate?

● Mom knows it is her baby but dad does not know

○ Less willing to devote time because uncertain

■ Female chose for fitness, resources and commitment

● Evolutionary psychology: a theory that psychological mechanisms have been shaped by evolution

○ Sexual strategies theory (Buss)

■ Long term mating strategies

■ Short term mating strategies

● Preference may be different depending on long or short

Psychoanalytic theory

● Libido-sex drive

● Unconscious thoughts and feelings-powerful motivator of behavior ● 3 parts of personality

○ ID (pleasure principle)-have it at birth

○ Ego (reality principle)-develops next, rational thoughts

○ Superego (idealism, conscience) 5 years old, morals

○ Internal war between ID and superego

● Erogenous zones-pleasurable areas to touch

● Stages of pscyhosexual development

○ Oral (0-1) sucking

○ Anal (2-3) potty training

○ Phallic (3-6) Oedipal complex, electra complex, boy is fascinated by penis ■ Oedipal: boys attracted to mom but don’t act on it because they are scared of dad so they identity with the dad>develops superego If you want to learn more check out What are eclipsed and staggered conformations?

■ Electra: girl loves dad and doesn’t give it up but sides with mom>never fully develops superego

○ Latency (7-12) no interest in sex

○ Genital (13-on) focus on libido appropriately

Learning theories 

● Classical conditioning (Pavlov) We also discuss several other topics like How do you know which route of persuasion a message will take?

○ US>UR, unconditioned stimulus and response

■ Food-US, salvation-UR, bell-CS, salvation-CR

■ Ex: fetish

● Operant conditioning (skinner)

○ Positive reinforcement-behavior will be repeated, more effective

○ Punishment-behavior will stop

● Social learning theory

○ Operant limitation

■ Gender stereotyped behavior

● Imitate parents and gets positive reinforcement

Critical theories 

● Social constructionist approach

● Feminist theory

○ Gender as status and inequality

○ Importance of sexuality

○ Gender roles and socialization-reduce roles

○ Intersectionality: considers consequences of multiple group membership ■ Ex: intersection of gender and ethnicity

● Queer theory

○ Challenges binaries, especially sexual orientation binary, gender binary ○ Questions norms

■ Ex: heteronormativity

● Gender binary: classification of male or female

Sexual Anatomy 

Female Anatomy 

● External

○ Vulva, clitoris, mons, labia majora and minora

○ Gians-top

○ Prepuce-foreskin

○ Corpus cavernosum of clitoris fills with blood-erection and sexually sensitive, cros does this also

○ Fourchette-back of vaginal opening

○ Prepuce is layer of skin that covers part of vagina

● Female Genital Cutting (FGC)

○ “Female circumcision”

○ Clitoridectomy-remove clitoral hood and clitoral glands

○ Excision-complete removal of clitoral glans and inner lips

○ Infibulation-removal of clitoral glands, inner lips and stitch together edges of outer lips

● In US

○ Genital plastic surgery

■ Labiaplasty-trimming inner lips

● Internal anatomy

○ Ovaries, follicles, fallopian tubes, fimbriae, cervix, skene’s gland, uterus, vagina ○ Ovaries are endocrine gland, produces-estrogen, progesterone and testosterone ○ Follicle is sheet of cells that encapsulates eggs

○ Fimbriae-finger like projections off fallopian tubes

○ Uterus

■ Endometrium-inner layer and grows every menstrual month

■ Myometrium-muscular layer

■ Perimetrium-outer layer, holds everything together

● Pelvic exam

○ Begin at 21 or earlier if sexually active

○ Cervical cancer screening every three years

○ HPV vaccination

● Internal structure of breast

○ Breast lobule-manufacture milk

○ 80% of lumps are benign

○ 12% of women in US get breast cancer

○ Less than 10% have BRCA gene

Male Anatomy 

● Glans-tip of penis

● Shaft- goes back towards body

● Corpus cavernosum-spongy and fills with blood, upper side

● Corpus spongiosum-lower side, spongy

● Phimosis-foreskin covers tip of penis

Prenatal sexual differentiation 

Time Male Female

Conception XY XX

 ↓ ↓

7-14 weeks Testes Ovaries

 ↓ ↓

 Testosterone Estrogen, progesterone

 ↙ ↘ ↙ ↘

 Wolffian Hypothalamus Mullerian Hypothalamus ● Internal structures

○ Wolffian ducts: form epididymis, duct system in male genitals

○ Mullerian ducts: form fimbriae, fallopian tubes, uterus, upper part of vagina ● Genetics of prenatal differences

○ SRY (sex-determining region, Y chromosome)

■ Synthesis of TDF (testis-determining factor)

■ Differentiation of gonads>testes

■ Testes secrete Mullerian inhibitory substance (MIS)

● Eliminate Mullerian ducts

● Homologous organs

○ Organs in male/female derives from the same embryonic source

Males 

Females

Penis

Clitoris

Scrotum

Outer lips

Testes

Ovaries

Shaft

Inner lips

● Analogous organs-same function

Male 

Female

Testes

Ovaries

Glans penis

Clitoris

Prostate, Cowper’s gland

Skene’s glands, Bartholin glands

● Descent of Testes

○ 7 months post conception

○ Inguinal canal

○ Problems

■ Undescended testes: baby boy born with tests in body cavity instead of scrotum

● More prone to testicular cancer; infertility

● Surgery soon after first birthday

■ Inguinal hernia- when hole that testes dropped from does not close ● Atypical prenatal sexual differentiation

○ CAH (Congenital adrenal hyperplasia)

■ Genetic female, XX

■ Overfunctioning adrenal gland> oversecretion of androgens prenatally> amibuous genitals-have a long clitoris

○ AIS (androgen insensitivity syndrome)

■ Genetic male, XY

■ Cells are insensitive to androgens> ambiguous genitals, look female ○ John Money’s research and treatment (1960’s-1990’s)

■ In these cases, you could assign the child to one or the other gender and it would work (before 18 months)

■ Data on how well it worked

■ Later, negative cases

○ Intersex society of North America (ISNA) now the Accord Alliance ○ Disorder of sex development (but not a diagnosis in DSM-5)

○ Current approach (American Academy Pediatrics)

■ Tests to determine cause of ambiguous genitals

■ Research shows that approach that is likeliest to be successful

■ Example: CAH, XX, do well raised as girl

● Endocrine disruptors

○ Chemicals found in the environment that affect the endocrine system and biological functioning of animals

○ Atrazine inhibits binding to estrogen receptors

○ PCB’s (banned, but were in plastics, paint) are anti-estrogen, anti-androgens ○ Ex: cases of early puberty in humans?

○ Ex: florida panthers with low sperm counts and estradiol levels the same as females

Hormones and Menstrual cycle 

Sex Hormones 

● Gonads: testes and ovaries

○ Testes make androgens (testosterone)

○ Ovaries make estrogen and progesterone and testosterone

■ -ls produce androgens in females (DHEA)

● Regulated through negative feedback loop: HPG axis

○ hypothalamus>GnRH

○ Pituitary

■ Men-FSH stimulates sperm, LH secretes testosterone

■ Women-FSH stimulates follicle and ovum development and estrogen, LH stimulates estrogen secretion and follicle and ovum development

○ Gonads-estrogen, progesterone, testosterone

● Other hormones

○ Inhibin

■ Produced by gonads, negative feedback to FSH production

○ Prolactin

■ Produced by pituitary. Milk manufacture by mammary glands

○ Oxytocin

■ Produced by pituitary, milk ejaculation, “snuggle chemical” promote affectionate bonding

● Women: cholesterol>progesterone cholesterol>DHEA

● Men: cholesterol>DHEA>testosterone>oestradiol

○ Hormones are closely related

Menstrual cycle 

● Pituitary hormones-FSH and LH

● Ovarian hormones-estrogen and progesterone

● Phases in ovaries-follicular, ovulation, luteal, menstruation

● LH surge triggers ovulation

● Estrogen: low during menstruation, if pregnancy occurs>estrogen levels stay high or they drop and cause menstruation-crucial for endometrium

● Progesterone: falls if not pregnant

● Follicle becomes corpus luteum

○ During follicular phase the follicle is very active

○ During luteal phase the corpus luteum pumps out estrogen and progesterone ● Phases in uterus

○ Proliferative, ovulation, secretory, menstruation

● Length of cycle, timing of ovulation

○ BBT (basal body temperature)

○ Length of luteal phase is constant at 14 days

● Mood cycles?

○ PMS and PMDD

● Research shows that on average there are fluctuations

○ Mood is positive at midcycle, more negative just before menstruation ○ Averages, don’t apply to all women

● Biology or culture?

○ Low estrogen levels=more sad

○ Culture creates expectations for symptoms

○ Ruble experiment

■ Participants: women in the middle of luteal phase

■ Hooked up to a fake EEG which would predict when they would get their period

■ Group 1: told they were going to get their period the next day

■ Group 2: told they were going to get their period 7-10 days

■ Group 3: told nothing (control)

■ Results: group 1 women reported more water retention and pain than other groups

● Menstrual problems

○ Dysmenorrhea: cramps

■ Prostaglandins-cause uterine contractions

○ Amenorrhea: absence of menstruation

■ Percent body fat-anorexia

○ Endometriosis: growth of endometrium grows other than inside uterus-fallopian tubes, bladder

Pregnancy and Childbirth 

Pregnancy 

● Trimesters-different things happen in different trimesters

● Pregnancy test

○ Home tests-54-67% false negatives, 16% false positives

○ Lab test-98-99% accurate

■ Give them urine sample

○ These test detect Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) which is made by the placenta

○ Test is accurate 14 days after conception

○ New blood test accurate after 7 days

■ Need placenta for accurate test

● Placenta: a mass of tissue that differentiates from embryo

○ Manufactures HCG and a lot of estrogen and progesterone

○ Site of exchange of oxygen and nutrients between mom and fetus

● Drugs taken during pregnancy can be teratogens-substances that produce defects in the fetus

○ Thalidomide was given to prevent miscarriage but is a teratogen

○ Some antibiotics, cigs, cocaine, heroin, alc

■ Growth deficiencies, small brain, joint, limb and heart malformations ○ Teratogens for fathers

■ Drugs taken by father before pregnancy may damage sperm and DNA ● LSD

■ Fathers smoking during pregnancy increase risk of childhood cancer ■ Fathers alcohol consumption affects DNA methylation

● Problem pregnancy: ectopic pregnancy

○ Egg implants somewhere else other than uterus-fallopian tube

Labor and Delivery 

● Beginning of labor

○ Contractions, braxton hicks contractions are mild and several weeks before ○ Mucus plug dislodges from cervix (bloody show)

○ Amniotic sac ruptures (water breaks)

■ Any of these may come first

● First stage labor

○ Dilation and effacement of cervix

○ transition>dilation 8-10cm (last part of first stage)

○ Effacement is thinning out of cervix

● Second stage labor

○ Baby pushed out through vagina

● Third stage of labor

○ Placenta comes out (after birth)

● Cesarean section

○ 33% of births in US-much higher than European nations

○ Surgical birth through incision in lower abdomen

○ Reasons for c-section

■ Fetal distress-if heart rate drops

■ Umbilical cord prolapse-baby not getting enough oxygen

■ Baby too big, mom’s pelvis is too small

○ VBAC-vaginal birth after cesarean

Prepared childbirth 

● Lamaze method-reduce pain in childbirth without drugs

○ Education

○ Relaxation and controlled breathing

○ Husband or coach: father involvement

○ Childbirth education has been taken over by hospitals

○ Now more permissive about epidurals

Sex during postpartum period 

● Intercourse resumed on average 7 weeks postpartum

● No difference between vaginal and c-section delivery

● Breastfeeding-later resumption of intercourse, less satisfaction

○ Suppression of estrogen>dry vag, progesterone and testosterone>low sex drive ○ Increased oxytocin

Social Class variations in sexuality in the US

Less than High School

High School

grads

Some College

College Grads

Women 15-44 using pill

4%

9%

16%

22%

Women whose first union was cohabitation

70%

62%

59%

47%

First premarital cohabitation that turns into

marriage

30%

39%

40%

53%

Percent of

marriages for

men that are

intact after 20

years

54%

47%

54%

65%

● Puberty-leptin starts puberty and stimulates kisspeptin which stimulates pubertal development

○ Girls

■ 8-9: growth of boobs

■ 9-10: pubic hair

■ 9-14: body growth

■ 12-13: menarche

■ 10-11: armpit hair and oil and sweat glands

■ 10-18: growth of uterus

○ Boys

■ 9-10: growth of testes

■ 10-11: growth of pubic hair

■ 10-16: body growth

■ 11-14: penis growth and change in voice

■ 2 years after pubic hair: facial and armpit hair and oil and sweat glands

People 

● Freud: started psychoanalysis, posed the idea of id, ego and superego. Termed sex drive as libido

● Havelock Ellis: believed sexual deviations from norm are harmless and encouraged them and that women are sexual creatures

● Krafft-Ebing: studies pathology in sexuality, he coined them terms-sadims, masochism, pedophilia, heterosexuality, homosexuality

● Hirschfeld: found first sex research institute and administered the first large scale sex survey and the first journal devoted to the study of sex. Main interest was homosexuality and he introduced the term transvestite

● Buss: Focused on evolutionary psychology and short term and long term dating strategies ● Bem: She said that we all have gender schemas and that we process information according to the basis of gender and we think of things as gender related. Ex- if we do not know an infants gender we feel awk and don’t like it

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