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TEMPLE / Psychology / PSY 0816 / What are the two different routes to an emotion?

What are the two different routes to an emotion?

What are the two different routes to an emotion?

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Study Guide: Exam 2


What are the two different routes to an emotion?



- Models of the Unconscious

• Freudian Unconscious  

- Buried deep to be uncovered, developed

- Unconscious is used to hide unwanted/undesirable urges 

• Adaptive Unconscious  

- A collection of processing modules

- Inaccessible, born with it

- Unconscious allows us to navigate the world efficiently

- Proprioception: the sense of position and movement (it works unconsciously) - Automatic Processing vs. Controlled Processing

• Automatic Processing: without awareness, may not be able to consciously control,  w/o effort


What is the ideomotor action?



• Controlled processing: requires awareness, under conscious control

• Awareness signifies consciousness; an automatic processes an unconscious  process

- Reflex = an unlearned, fast response to a stimulus controlled by spinal cord /  brainstem  

- Instinct = a complex pattern of behavior of a particular species, that is unlearned  and cannot be overridden If you want to learn more check out What are the causes of civil war?

• Ex: spider building a web, bird migration. Humans have drives / motivations, not  instincts.

- Implicit Learning = learning w/o awareness of what has been learned (requires  attention but no effort)

• Ex: people learn grammar w/o trying  

- Attention & Selection of Info for Consciousness


What is the neurological route to emotion?



• Selective attention: Cocktail Party Effect

- Unconscious filters information and makes decisions on if the information is  relevant to process

- Interpretation

• Automatically applies schema info to newly categorized object

• Information outside of our awareness affects how info is interpreted • Why does this happen: enables us to quickly react to the environment  - Evaluation / Emotion 

• Important in our decision making

- Misconception: emotions cloud ration thought (false) . True only sometimes - Goal Setting

• Consciously vs. unconsciously letting someone won at something - Properties of Adaptive Consciousness

• Multi-systems: filtered through emotional and visual pathways Don't forget about the age old question of What is the genetic composition of a population?

• On line pattern detector: detects patterns (no shit) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the reasons for nostalgic visions of the south?

• Concerned with the here and now

• Automatic

• Rigidity: patterns already realized unconsciously difficult to adjust • Precocious: Developing certain skills earlier than usual

• Sensitive to negative information: detects danger

- With unconscious perception, it is found above the objective threshold BUT below  the subjective threshold

- Subjective threshold is always greater than the objective threshold.  

- Perception = the active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory  information (ex: I see a desk)

- Sensation = the passive process of bringing information from the outside world into  the body and to the brain.

- Intuition = “people perceive what they say to perceive”

• Problem: this definition does not allow the possibility of unconscious perception

Confabulation

- We make up shit in our heads to make sense out of what occurs. - “When people are uncertain about how they feel, they use their behavior and bodily  reactions as a guide.”

- Evaluation = an automatic / unconscious good-bad judgement is made formerly  every object we encounter Don't forget about the age old question of What is the aristotelian categoricals?

- James-Lang Theory of Emotion

• **Stimulus —> Specific Physiological Response —> Emotion  • Evaluation may generate our emotions

• Implication is that emotions occur automatically and prior to conscious experience - Theories of unconscious emotions

• Psychodynamic theories: we repress emotions because they are threatening  

• Adaptive unconscious theories: the unconsciousness produces emotions so we  can quickly respond to the environment (Efficiency)  

- Stanley Schacter’s Two Factor theory

• Undifferentiated Arousal + Label that seems contextual and reasonable =  Emotion  

• People do not know their own feelings

- Cognitive Theories of Emotion

• Stimulus —> Arousal —> Cognitive Label —> Emotion

- Neurological Route to Emotion

• Stimulus —> Thalamus —> Frontal Cortex —> Amygdala —> External Response - How can both of these theories be right? Ledoux’s theory of emotion • Low road (fast) = embodied theories of emotion Don't forget about the age old question of What is a discriminative stimulus?

• High road (slower) = cognitive theories of emotion

- Two different routes to an Emotion:

• Stimulus—> Cognitive Appraisal —> Emotional Response  

• Stimulus—> Emotional Response

- Ideomotor Action = thinking about a behavior increases the likelihood of that  behavior occurring  

• Unconsciously, social behavior can be triggered automatically given the situation

• Features of the situation can trigger social behavior automatically. Tested by  priming a trait or a group stereotype to see if the trait affect behavior.

• Nonconscious Ideomotor Action

- Behavior is automatically influenced by the context, and applicable to the  situation. Don't forget about the age old question of How do catalysts or enzymes work?

Subliminal Messages

• Subliminal Persuasion is inaccurate and is a gimmick. The study was falsified. • Subliminal Advertising = no evidence that images actually affected behavior  • Subliminal primes can not makes you do something you would never do

• Subliminal primes must be applicable to the context to have an effect and be  relevant to the context to have an effect

• Subliminal primes must be outside of awareness to have an effect  • Effects of this type of advertising are short term and relies heavily on context - Making The Right Choices (deliberation without attention hypothesis) • The less complex a decision is, the more you think about it.

- Conscious thought has low capacity  

• The less complex a decision, you use instincts to decide.

- Unconscious thought is unlimited 

- Unconscious Adaption

• Affective forecasting = we are able to predict reactions to future events • However, we are not good at this because of durability bias.

- We overestimate the duration of emotion reactions to events.

- The pursuit of a goal is just as enjoyable, if not more, than actually achieving a  goal

- Ordinization = we regulate extraordinary events and make them ordinary

• ex: I wanted to attend Temple so bad, and that was my dream school. But now  that I am actually here, I don't think of it as highly anymore because it’s part of my  identity.

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