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SAM HOUSTON STATE UNIVERSITY / History / HIST 1302 / What are the causes of civil war?

What are the causes of civil war?

What are the causes of civil war?


School: Sam Houston State University
Department: History
Course: United States history since 1876
Professor: Wesley phelps
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: unitedstateshistory, Hist1302, and Unit1
Cost: 50
Name: HIST 1302, Unit 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide is a broad over view of everything we have learned within Unit 1!
Uploaded: 02/16/2018
11 Pages 138 Views 3 Unlocks

HIST 1302 Unit 1 Study Guide 

What are the causes of civil war?

➢ The duel: 

○ Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr, stood facing each other with loaded dueling pistols to preserve their sacred honor- Hamilton ultimately died.

○ Dueling was illegal so they went to a secret part in the woods.

○ Duels are about honor, no matter what has happened they cannot walk away. ○ It was a proper occasion and both sides agreed on the rules. There was 2 shots, 1 was delayed.

➢ Reconstructing Race: Reimagining the Nineteenth Century: 

○ Historiography- the study of comparing historical arguments.

■ 1492- Columbus vogue, sailed to Spanish to establish

■ 1607- Jamestown, 1st successful English Colony

What are the importance of expansion?

■ 1762- Colonial America, 13 colonies established

■ 1776- Declaration of Independence

■ 1783- US independence is won, with treaty

■ 1787- The constitution

■ 1789- George Washington

■ 1803- Louisiana Purchase

○ Fundamental ideas of America- Equality, Freedom, Consent of Gov, Framework (Union)


○ I. The Traditional Story: 

■ Causes of Civil war- Slavery, south has slavery, north has manufacturing, and expansion of slavery into territorial west lands (question- should

slavery be allowed in the west?)

What are the benefits of the corporate form of business?

■ Consequences of Civil War- Seperation between the North and South ■ Civil War 1861-1865

■ Reconstruction 1865-1871 We also discuss several other topics like What is the genetic composition of a population?

○ II. Elliot West’s Continental Vision: 

■ Relationship between white, black, indians, anglos, anyone who lives in the West.

■ How to incorporate formally owned slaves into society.

○ III. The Importance of Expansion: 

■ A. Westward expansion is important because it would doubled the size of the country and secure the lands in hope of American civilization.

○ IV. Racial Rationale for Conquest: Jefferson’s Era:

■ A. During Jefferson’s era, his purpose of the expansion was the colonize the new land and spread the the United States across all of North America, seeking to establish, what he called “an empire for liberty.”

■ The whites wanted to expand slavery to the new western lands and even though Jefferson opposed it, he had to agree because he was scared that if he didn’t then a Civil War would start.

○ V. Racial Rationale for Conquest: The Romantic Era: 

■ A. The purpose of the Romantic Era was for art, music, literature, culture and intellectual movements, these originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century. We also discuss several other topics like What are the reasons for nostalgic visions of the south?

■ B. The whites justified their actions with the “Indian Removal Act” with a reasoning of they needed more land which would lead to more civilization of the United States.

■ C. Authors such as Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks wrote about issues of racial segregation and black nationalism.

○ VI. The California Gold Rush: 

■ Discovered in 1848 in California We also discuss several other topics like What is the aristotelian categoricals?

■ White people go to California and kick indians out of their land and take all their gold, they believe they are superior because of science.

■ The significance of the Gold Rush was the largest group of migration in American history, bringing about 300,000 people to California.

■ “Bloodier California” is basically a California version of the WWII Holocaust. 90% of California Natives were killed, put into prisons/camps, sold to whites as slaves, military roundups where they forced the indians to exile- children, women and men.

➢ The Industrial Revolution, Corporations, and Social Darwinism: 

○ I. The Industrial Revolution 

■ A. Progress and Poverty: Centennial Exhibition of 1876

● Inventors and Inventions (typewriters, telegraph, telephone)

■ B. Progress and Poverty: The Railroad Strike of 1877 (1st world wide riot) ● 1. July 1877- Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

● 2. 10% wage cut- Major cities saw strikes

● 3. Other workers joined

● 4. Strike turned violent

● 5. Local police failed to stop violence If you want to learn more check out How does learning differ from maturation?

● 6. President Hayes called out federal troops

● 7. 100+ killed, millions in property damage We also discuss several other topics like What are the endergonic reactions?

■ C. The Role of Machines: A Many Sided Debate

● 1. Carroll D. Wright

○ Chief of Mass. Bureau of Statistics of Labor Don't forget about the age old question of What is a treasury bond auction?

● Henry George

○ Author, Progress and Property

● Regional Folktales and Ballads

○ Paul Bunyan, lumberjack

○ John Henry, railroad man

○ Casey Jones, locomotive engineer

■ D. The Impact of Mechanization: Increased Production

● 1. Steel: 13 tons- 1860/ 5,000 tons- 1890

● 2. Steel rails/ 10 times 1860-1890

● 3. Agriculture/ 3 times 1870-1890

● 4. 1 farmer in 1896 could produce what 18 farmers had 60 years earlier

■ E. The Largest Industry: The Railroads

● Growth:

○ 1870- 52,900 miles

○ 1880- 93,300 miles

○ 1890- 193,000 miles

○ 40% of world’s Railroads, More than Europe

○ 1900- 250,000 miles

○ 1910- 351,000 miles

○ 1929- 430,000 miles

○ 17 times Earth’s circumference

■ F. The Impact of the Railroads

● Impact:

○ Creation of a National Market

○ Provided for Faster and Safer Travel

○ Encouraged Other Businesses

○ Transformed Race/Gender relations

○ Reorganized Time Itself

■ G. National Markets: The Transcontinental Railroad Lines ■ H. Travel Example: Journeys of Ezra Meeker (1830-1928) ● 1830: 1st year wagon trains left East on the Oregon trails ● 1852: (Meeker 22) took Oregon trail to Washington state, farmer, 6 months

● 1906: (Meeker 76) took Oregon trail East, went to DC in old wagon, met TR

● 1916: (Meeker 86) went cross-country by car. Trip took 1 month

● 1924: (Meeker 94) went cross-country by train. Trip took one week

● 1926: (Meeker 96) went cross-country by plane: Trip took 3 days ■ I. Encouraged Other Businesses

■ J. Transformed Race and Gender Relations

■ K. The Standardization of Railroad Time

● Time tables were available to inform you of the trains arrival time and how long the trip would take.

○ II. Benefits of the corporate form of business: 

■ Money, jobs, stability, power, limited liability (if company gets sued you lose however much you invested), corporation are immortal

○ III. The Rise of the Corporation: 

■ A. Change in the Economic Organization of Business

● 1. English tradition

● 2. No corporations in Constitution

● 3. State Constitutions & corporations (pre 1840)

● 4. General Incorporation Laws (1840s)

● 5. Farmers feel threatened as regulations loosened

● 6. States pass laws restricting corporations

● 7. Corporate lawyers want to end state regulations

● 8. Fletcher Vs. Peck (1810) & Dartmouth College Case (1819) ○ John Marshall: corporations are artificial persons

● 9. 1868 to 1886- corporations no 14th amendment rights

● 10. Santa Clara County Vs. Southern PAcific Railroad (1886) ○ Corporations receive 14th Amendment due process rights

■ B. Impact of the Corporation and the Second Industrial Revolution ● 1. Small scale craft production replaced by factory system owned by corporations

● 2. By 1880, majority of American workforce engaged in

non-farming jobs

● 3. By 1890, ⅔ of Americans worked for wages

● 4. By 1900, ½ industrial workers labored in plants with over 250 employees

● 5. Between 1870-1920, 11 million Americans moved to the cities for work

● 6. Between 1870-1920, 25 million immigrants moved to the cities for work

● 7. Urbanization: New York: 1900, 3.4 million/ Chicago 1900, 1.7 million

● 8. Consolidation: 1900: 300 corps = ⅖ US manufacture; affecting ⅘ US industry

● 9. By 1913, US ⅓ of world's industrial output-- more than UK, FR, GER combined

■ Reconstruction, 1865-1877

● Federal troops

● 13th (1865)- outlawed slavery

● 14th (1868)-

○ 1. Citizenship > Dred Scott (1857) -went to a free state and sued for his freedom, the people were outraged by the

court's decision and changed the law and put it in the


○ 2. Equal protection clause- no state shall deny any person the equal protection under the law. no state, any person. 

○ 3. No state shall deny any person; life, liberty, and property without due process of law

● 15th (1870)- right to vote should not be a bridge because of race, color or previous conditions of servitude

● Poor and the Powerless- newly freed slaves, no property ● Plessy D. Ferguson (1896)- supreme court case where the court says racial segregation does not violate equal protection right. ● East Corporations- followed by estate

○ Corporate coworker- legislative

○ Couldn’t own another company, and not own a corporation for more than 25 years, becomes state utility

○ Violates 14th amendment due process of law

● 1890-1910

○ 307 cases

○ 288 corporations

○ 19 african americans

■ C. Industrial Giants: Carnegie

● Andrew Carnegie= $113 billion

○ Came from nothing

○ Could listen to a telegraph and verbally translate it as

reading it, took most people a while to interpret it.

○ Carnegie Steel

○ Vertical Integration

● John D. Rockefeller= $215 billion

○ Father was called “devil bill” was a doctor who traveled the

world selling medicines, John D. Rockefeller found out that

his father had another family that he kept secret, he taught

him to think in a business mindset at all times.

○ Made his mark in Cleveland, recognized oil would be the

huge thing in the gilded age, money wouldn’t be made in

the oil but he bottleneck that was sent to other places

● J.P Morgan= $46 billion

● Vertical Integration at Carnegie Steel-

● Horizontal Combination at Standard Oil (rockefeller)-

■ D. The Concentration of Wealth-

■ E. The Position of the Working Man and Woman-

■ F. Social Darwinism-

○ IV. The Labor Movement: For all levels of working men

■ A. Two Historiographical Interpretations

● 1. Optimistic - Progress

● 2. Pessimistic - Defeat

■ B. The Knights of Labor, 1869-1900

● 1. Terence Powderly

● 2. Beliefs

● 3. Haymarket Square

■ C. The American Federation of Labor, 1866-Present

● 1. Samuel Gompers

● 2. Beliefs

● 3. Homestead Strike (1892)

■ D. The American Railway Union

● 1. Eugene Debs

● 2. Beliefs

● 3. Pullman Strike

■ E. The Federal Government, Business, and Labor

● 1. Pro-business federal government

● 2. Land grants to Railroads

● 3. Protective Tariffs

○ Ex: Mckinley Tariff (1890)

● 4. Interstate Commerce Commission (1886)

● 5. Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)

● 6. Enter Labor disputes on side of Capital

➢ The American West, 1865-1900: 

➢ I. Interpretations of the West:

○ Frederick Jackson Turner

■ “Significance of the Frontier in American History.”

■ Primary Thesis- Colonizing the United States towards western lands ■ Primary Characters-

● White farmers

■ Tools-

● The pick and the axe

■ The Frontier-

● Was a symbol of the American dream and why america was the


● Going into the west to peacefully settle the unsettled land.

● Native americans were getting left in the dust.

■ Frontier was a process…

● Going the frontier process made everyone democratic and


● The frontier gives a message that we are what we make ourselves.

○ Buffalo Bill Cody

■ “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West and Congress Rough Riders of the World” - traveling show

■ Central Characters-

● Himself (scout) was trustworthy in the time of crisis, and

resourceful. (he was the guy that you would want to get you

through the woods in a time of crisis)

■ “Odd story of conquest: everything is inverted”

■ Primary meaning of show?

● To show bravery and to show people the way of Native Americans life by recreating, it was a way for entertainment to other people

○ The New Western History

■ “Western History, New and Not So New” Waleter Nuget, OAH Magazine ■ Patricia

■ West is a place not places

■ It was a frontier to white people, it was an effort of invasion

■ The Frontier was a place of very diverse people

➢ II. Native Americans:

○ On the Plains

■ A. 1492: 7-10 million Indians in North America

■ B. 1860: 350,000 Indians in West

■ C. By 1870’s- Comanche, sioux. Kiowa Great Plains, last independent tribes in the U.S.

■ D. plains tribes gain spanish horses/ guns in 1600’s

■ E. Most Plains Indians are hunters and farmers

■ F. Buffaloes provide most meat and supplies

○ Controversy in the 1860’s

■ A. 1860’s settler-native tensions increases

■ B. Nov. 1864 Col. John Chivington and the Colorado militia kill 150-500 Cheyenne at Sand Creek Massacre

■ C. Congress creates “concentration policy” to put natives on small reservations and make them farmers

○ Concentration Policy

■ A. 1867 Peace Commission- federal effort to “civilize” and “pacify” western Indians on reservations

■ B. concentration policy opens land for whites

■ C. Major reservations established in SD, OK, AZ

■ D. Tribal leaders agreed to reservations to preserve their way of life and ensure peace

■ E. However, white settlers continued to encroach on Indian lands in direct violation of the treaties

■ F. Reservation Indians suffer from poor soil, scarce supplies, corrupt Indian agents

■ G. Many natives flee reservations to hunt buffalo

○ Little Bighorn

■ A. 1874 Lakota Sioux refuse to sell Black Hills.

■ B. Indian agents recall natives to local reservations

■ C. When Sioux cannot move their winter camps, Indian agents demand army round them up

■ D. 1876 Sioux Chief Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse resist Army ■ E. Army attacks: Battle of the Little Big Horn - Sioux kills LT. Col. George Armstrong Custer and 23 soldiers

■ F. But Sioux cannot sustain forces, soon surrender

○ Dawes Act

■ A. 1887 Congress passed the Dawes Act 

■ B. Reservations broken into 160- acre parcels, given to Indian families or sold to white settlers

■ C. Congress wants natives to become capitalistic

■ D. Dawes Act is a disaster, Poor soil forces many natives to sell land ■ F. Whites and natives often fight, police and military support the whites ■ G. 1887 Indians control 130 million acres

■ H. By 1934 they possess 43 million acres

➢ Politics and Empire in the 1890’s

○ I. Pro-Business Government

■ A. Railroad Acts of 1862 and 1864

■ B. McKinley Tariff (1890) and Dingley Tariff (1897)

■ C. Ended State Regulation of Railroads, Wabash Vs. Illinois (1886) ■ D. Weak Interstate Commerce Commission (1887)

■ E. Problematic: Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)

■ F. Sherman Act Used Against Labor: Re Debs ( 1895)

■ G. Inability to regulate manufacturing, U.S Vs. E.C. Knight Co (1895) ○ II. Weak Republican Presidents

■ A. Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881)

■ B. James Garfield (1881-1881)

■ C. Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885)

Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)

■ D. Grover Cleveland (Dem: 1885-1889)

■ E. Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893)

 Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)

■ F. Grover Cleveland (Dem: 1893-1897)

■ G. William McKinley (1879-1901)

○ III. The Emergence of the Populist Party

■ Framers’ problems after the Civil War

● 1. Railway Monopolies

● 2. Price Discrimination

● 3. Mechanization

● 4. Overproduction

● 5. Bankers

■ Patrons of Husbandry (Grange) -1870’s

● 1. Midwest and South

● 2. Militant

● 3. Education

● 4. Hatred for Bankers

● 5. Never a political party

● 6. States pass anti-monopoly laws


■ Farmers’ Alliance (POPULISTS) - 1890-90s

● 1. Militant organization

● 2. Cooperatives

● 3. Monopsony

● 4. Subtreasury Plan


● 6. 1891- 92, The People’s Party (populist)

● 7. 1892, 11 representatives to Congress

● 8. 1892, Presidential Candidate, James Weaver

● 9. 1894 sent 40 representatives to Congress

○ IV. The Election of 1896

■ A. 3 parties: Republicans, Democrats, Populists

■ B. Republicans, William McKinley

■ C. Democrats, William Jennings Bryan

■ D. Populist party- Betrayal of 1896

■ E. Decline of Populist power

○ V. The Spanish American War, 1898

■ 1. 1875-1900: Age of Imperialism

■ 2. After 1890, Many Americans seek Empire/War

● A. Theodore Roosevelt, Asst. Secretary of Navy

● B. Alfred Mahan, Influence of Sea Power (1890)

■ 3. Naval Bases Sought: Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Cuba

■ 4. Cuban Independence Movement against Spain, 1895

■ 5. Feb 15, 1898: Maine exploded in Havana harbor

■ 6. Yellow Press: Hearst, NY Journal; Pulitzer, NY World

■ 7. Declaration of War against Spain, April 1898

■ 8. Teller Amendment (1898)

■ 9. War: less than 4 months and 400 killed

■ 10. US received Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam

■ 11. Cuba forced to accept Platt Amendment (1901)

■ 12. In addition, in July 1898: Hawaii annexed

➢ Native Americans:

○ Concentration Policy-

■ Term used to describe policy/treaty systems enacted in effort to move Native Americans from the East into the West, then later into small,

defined reservations throughout the West.

○ Dawes Act-

■ Authorized the President of the US to survey American Indian tribal lands and divide them into allotments for individual indians.

■ The Dawes Act failed because the plots were too small for agriculture and the Native Americans had no money, tools or experience in farming.

○ Goodnight loving trail-

■ Was a trail used in cattle drives in the late 1860’s for large scale

movement of longhorns. Located in the West, Charles Goodnight and

Oliver Loving hoped that the demand for beef from settlers would increase sales for profit. It worked going from 8 cents a head to 10 cents a head ○ Farmers Vs. Cowboys

■ Farmers and Cowboys (cattlemen) have forever had tension between them because the cowboys drive their cattle over the farmers crops. They fought over who had the land, the cowboy who wanted to raise his cattle or the farmer who wanted to plant his crops.

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