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Introduction to Archaeology- Chapter 1: Meeting some real archaeologistsOutline I.IntroductionII.The Discovery of Deep TimeIII.A Brief History of ArchaeologyIV.Archaeology at Mid-Twentieth CenturyV.Archaeology in the Twenty-First CenturyVI.Conclusion: Archaeology’s FutureWho is an archaeologist?a. Indiana Jones, Lara Croft, Hunter Ellis? b. The media sensationalizes archaeology. c. Real Archaeologists:i.Document everything,ii.Work with notebooks, calipers, and state-of-the –art technologies, iii.Extract residue from stone tools, and date remainsiv.Reconstruct ancient social and political organizations and v.Analyze remains to determine dietvi.Time Team America-series from PBS that follows real-life archaeologistsI.Introductiona. Artifacts-human made objects retrieved from sites that are the primary source of information for archaeologistsb. Archeologists “think from things c. The best way to introduce archaeology is through its historyd. Who was the first Archaeologists?i.Most historians list Nabonidus, the last king of the neo-Babylonian Empire as the “first archaeologist” ii.Nabonidus rebuilt temples of ancient Babylon and searched the foundations for inscriptions of earlier kings.iii.“Nabonidus looked to the physical residues of antiquity-things- to answer questions about the past.”(2)iv.Scholars grappled with the idea of “the past”v.Middle Age-Europe recognized a remote past reified through myth and legend, largely through the Biblevi.During the Renaissance, Francesco Petrach proposed that the remote past was an ideal of perfection and he looked to antiquity for moral
philosophy and he looked to antiquity for moral philosophyvii.Archaeology Alphabet soupBC-(“before Christ”): for instance, 3200BC; note that the letters follow the dateAD-(“anno Domini”): meaning “in the year of our Lord,” indicates a year that falls within the Christian era (that is, after the birth of Christ). Given the English translation, archaeologists place the “AD” before the numerical age-we say the Norman Invasion occurred in “AD 1066” rather than “1066 AD.” The earliest AD date is AD 1; there is no AD 0 because this year is denoted by 0 BC and double numbering is not allowed.CE-(“Common Era”): Basically the same as AD, except that it is intended to avoid religious connotations or privilege.BCE-(“before Common Era”): Basically the same as BC, but as CE, it avoids the religious connotation.BP-(“Before present”): most archaeologists prefer to use on age estimate (with AD 1950 arbitrarily selected as zero point).viii.Archaeology can be controversialPeople and leaders have used the past to justify their actions in the present, such that accounts of the past conflict with each otherNazi Movement and Eugenics The Society for Antiquaries, dissolved in 1614 and reformed in 1707, was the first of many British scholarly societies interested in the relevance of the past to the presentAntiquarianismWith the goal to map, record, and preserve national treasures, members of Europe’s leisure classes considered an interest in classical antiquities to be an important ingredient in the “cultivation of taste.” II.The Discovery of Deep Timea) Up to the 18th Century, archaeological research proceeded in accord with the tradition of Petrarch clarifying the picture of the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean. Lore at the time did not challenge the Christian Bible as an account of the world and humans .
b) Crude stone tools discovered in England and continental Europe, along with bones of long-extinct mammals “prove the existence of very ancient man” (Jacques Boucher Crèvecoeur de Perthes, 1778-1868). c) Boucher de Perthes Challenged the understanding that the age of the earth was no more than about 6000 yearsJames Ussher (1581-1656) creation on 4004BC“tools” found by Boucher de Perthes were meteorites , or produced by lightning elves or fairiesCharles Lyell.1863, The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man. Uniformitarianism-geological processes occurring today have always occurred on Earth Charles Darwin. 1859 On the Origin of SpeciesTheory of Evolution and Natural Selectiond) British Archaeology British Archaeology billowed out across two divergent courses:One direction: Archaeology became involved with the problems of remote geological time and the demonstration of long-term human evolutionThe other focused on: Classical Archaeology-the branch of archaeology that studies the “classical studies,” particularly ancient Greece and Rome the Near East. (given prevalence due to those civilizations’ contributions to Western Civilization)e) Archaeology and Native AmericansThere was much controversy in the study and theories of Native Americans.Investigators began to recognize the continuities between the prehistoric and historic populations of Native Americans. Thomas Jefferson American scholars saw living Native Americans as “living fossils,” relics of times long past .
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School: Florida State University
Department: Art History
Course: Introduction to Archaeology
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: IntroArchaeology and Intro to Archaeology
Name: Chapter 1 notes
Description: These notes are a combination of information from the powerpoints as well as my own personal notes.