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URI - BIO 102 - Principles of Biology II: Week 4 Notes - Class Notes

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URI - BIO 102 - Principles of Biology II: Week 4 Notes - Class Notes

School: University of Rhode Island
Department: OTHER
Course: Principles of Biology II
Professor: Jannelle Couret
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Biology, eukaryotes, calvin cycle, and Biology: Ecology and Evolution
Name: Principles of Biology II: Week 4 Notes
Description: Here are the notes from week 4 of BIO 102 with Andrew Cary at the University of Rhode Island.
Uploaded: 02/16/2018
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background image Notes from week 4 of class. Important key concepts are in  purple,  and definitions are in  magenta. 2/12/18 No class­ first exam 2/14/18­ Calvin cycle electron transport complexes are inside the thylakoid membrane light harvesting complexes filter light energy in the two reaction centers ATP synthesis in plants: takes in: light and water makes: H+ gradient produces: ATP, NADPH, oxygen (as a waste product) two parts of photosynthesis: thylakoid reactions: energy from light ATP synthesis breaks water molecules to release oxygen reduces NADP+ to NADPH calvin cycle reactions: uses energy in both ATP and NADPH takes in atmospheric carbon produces carbohydrates (CH2O) reductive chemical process ­ takes in energy and saves it oxidative chemical process ­ breaks down chemicals and releases the energy ● photosynthetic formula- CO2+H2O → C6H12O6+O2
CO2 and H2O are simple and low energy compounds C6H12O6 and O2 are high energy and complex compounds the calvin cycle use NADPH and ATP to make carbs the goal of the calvin cycle is to store energy by reducing carbon dioxide to glucose a biochemical cycle is composed of small enzymatic steps that regenerate the first 
compounds
there are three phases of the cycle: carbon fixation reduction  RuBp regeneration phase 1­ carbon fixation turning gas into a solid CO2 combines with ribulose to produce a 3 carbon sugar phase 2­ reduction rubisco­ ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase human existence needs 20 kg of rubisco per person in a year accounts for almost all primary productivity
background image it is the most abundant protein in the world phase 3­ RuBp regeneration each turn of the calvin cycle fixes one carbon it turns 6 turns to fix the 6 carbons to create a molecule of glucose biochemicals go from low energy forms to high energy forms and then back energy moves through the reactions complexity in organisms requires energy chlorophyll absorbs light required to begin electron transport genes for oxygenic photosynthesis is found in many groups of organisms 2/16/18­ Eukaryotes eukaryotes:   nuclei (membrane bound nucleus) mitochondria cytoskeleton a flagella in their protein structure chromosomes with linear DNA mitosis sexual reproduction cell walls (in some cases) photosynthesis is a complicated trait that organisms in both bacteria and eukarya utilize mitochondria  are cellular organelles that are derived from an archaean cell using  proteobacteria to create ATP mitochondria are always surrounded by membranes: one from the host cell, and one 
from endosymbiosis
eukarya are all originated from endosymbiosis the last common ancestor of eukaryotes is called LECA eukaryotic milestones: organization of membranes manipulation of membranes endosymbiosis in mitochondria multi chromosomes mitosis meiosis cytoskeleton in some groups of eukaryotes multicellularity and endosymbiotic chloroplasts multicellularity begins with clumping, then continues into division of labor multicellular organisms require mitosis, division of labor, and living in groups a typical life cycle for an animal is diplontic a typical life cycle for a fungi is haplontic why do organisms mainly exist as haploid or diploid for most of their life cycles? haploids have: smaller cells faster growth rates

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School: University of Rhode Island
Department: OTHER
Course: Principles of Biology II
Professor: Jannelle Couret
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Biology, eukaryotes, calvin cycle, and Biology: Ecology and Evolution
Name: Principles of Biology II: Week 4 Notes
Description: Here are the notes from week 4 of BIO 102 with Andrew Cary at the University of Rhode Island.
Uploaded: 02/16/2018
3 Pages 20 Views 16 Unlocks
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