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Tulane - PSYC 1000 - Psych exam 1 - Study Guide

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Tulane - PSYC 1000 - Psych exam 1 - Study Guide

School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory psych
Professor: Thomas Hebert
Term: Fall 2017
Tags:
Name: Psych exam 1
Description: prologue, chapter 1, 2, 3, 4
Uploaded: 02/16/2018
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background image Prologue   What makes psychology a science: measured observations, experiments   History Aristotle: theorized about personality, memory, motivation, emotion   Willhelm Wundt: 1st psych grad student, studied ‘atoms of mind’   o Experiment: had participants press button when they were conscious of  ball hitting platform   Late 1800s:   o Edward Titchener  ▪ Structuralism: uses introspection to explore structure of mind   ▪ e.x. participants smell flower and explain what is happening in  mind   o William James   ▪ Functionalism: what are the functions of human thoughts,  feelings, behaviors  ▪ contribution to survival, natural selection (influenced by Darwin)  1920s:   o Watson and Skinner   ▪ Behaviorism: dismissed introspection, science rooted in  observation and measurement   o Sigmund Freud  ▪ Psychoanalysis: physical problems like IBS caused by mental things   ▪ Sexual desires blocked/repressed cause issues   ▪ The unconscious wishes, importance of childhood   1960s   o Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers   ▪ Humanistic psychology: people do bad things but if situations are  changed they can do good   ▪ Studied happy and healthy people to see how to get that way  Modern Psychology  
background image o Cognitive psychology: how we perceive, process and remember  information   o Cognitive neuroscience: the brain activity underlying mental activity    Overall:   o 1900s= science of mental life,   o 1920s= behaviorists, only observable behavior,   o 1960s= studied internal mental processes, helped with neuroscience,   o today: study behavior and mental processes   Nature vs. nurture   o Nature: genes, traits from birth   ▪ Plato: good and beauty are inborn   ▪ Descartes: some ideas are innate   ▪ Darwin: innate tendencies exist because of nature of species   o Nurture: everything non genetic: traits from environment/experience   ▪ Aristotle: knowledge comes through senses   ▪ Locke: mind is a blank slate written on by experience   Evolutional psychology: how natural selection shaped people   o common origin gives inborn human nature in common   Behavioral genetics: we are different because of different combinations of 
genes, experiences and environments  
Contemporary psychology:   o Cross cultural psych: study of different cultures   o Gender psych: male and female differences, what are they from? genetic  or from society?  o Positive psych: focus on happy people how did they get like that so can  help people with mental illness   Biopsychosocial approach: cause of thins is a combination of   o Deep level: biology: genes, brain   o Mid level: psychology: thoughts, emotions, behavior  
background image o Outer level: environment: society, culture, education  o e.x. alcoholism: genes(deficient in dopamine), negative perception of  world, individualist culture: take care of yourself, don’t rely on other   Psychologies perspectives   o Neuroscience: how body and brain enable senses, emotions, memories   o Evolutionary: how natural selection promotes survival of genes   o Behavior genetics: how genes and environment influence individual differences  o psychodynamic: how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts   o behavioral: how we learn observable responses   o Cognitive: how we encode process, store, retrieve information   o Social cultural: how behavior and thinking varies across cultures   Psychology to be better person/student:   o sleep, exercise, set goals, prioritize relationships, distribute study time, rhink  critically, process class information, test yourself   Chapter one: thinking critically  Need for psychology: must work on thinking   o Cannot rely on intuition and common sense  o Must use critical thinking: does not blindly accept arguments:   ▪ checks source, discerns bias, examines assumptions, evaluates  evidence, assessing conclusions    ▪ Errors in critical thinking:  Hindsight bias: after learning about some research think 
you can predict the outcome 
Overconfidence: overestimate knowledge (people more 
certain then accurate)  
Perceiving order in random events: think you can predict 
outcome, occurs because human brain wants order  
Scientific method: testing ideas: theory—> hypothesis—> research/observation  o Theory: the big picture: set of principles that explains phenomenon   o Hypothesis: informed prediction, testable, consistent with theory   o Operational definitions: how research variables are defined, procedure 
background image o Replication: try again with same concepts and procedures   Descriptive research: systematic, objective observation to give clear picture 
of people’s behavior  
o Methods:   o Case study: examine 1 group/person (can be unrepresentative)   o Naturalistic observation: watch in natural setting with no change  o The survey: gather information through self report   ▪ Take a sample: cannot interview everyone   population: every person interested, sample: those who 
actually take survey  
Random sampling: selection of participant driven by 
chance, everyone has equal chance of being in sample 
descriptive research results:   Correlation: when two traits are related (vary and change together)  ▪ Use scatterplots:  Correlation coefficients: indicate strength of relation  o  range from -1 to 1 (closer to 0 weaker correlation)   positive correlation: one variable goes up so does 2nd (0-1)   negative correlation: one goes up other goes down (-1 to 0)   ▪ Does not equal causation   Experimentation: method of determining causation  o Definition: manipulating one factor in situation to determine its effect   o Experimental group: receives treatment  o  control group: doesn’t receive treatment   o Do random sampling and random assignment to control/experimental  Independent variable: variable manipulated by experimenter  Dependent variable: the outcome factor   Experimenters need to be aware of confounding variable (don’t want): other 
variables that may effect dependent variable 

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School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory psych
Professor: Thomas Hebert
Term: Fall 2017
Tags:
Name: Psych exam 1
Description: prologue, chapter 1, 2, 3, 4
Uploaded: 02/16/2018
16 Pages 64 Views 51 Unlocks
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  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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