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ASU - BIO 2012101 - Evolution Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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ASU - BIO 2012101 - Evolution Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Evolution Exam #1 Study Guide Evolution Change in the properties of groups of organisms over the course of generations  Populations diverge from common ancestral populations Pre-Darwinian Thoughts Plato and Aristotelian Essentialism Eidos or essence of each creature vs. actuality Special creation Scala Naturae (hierarchical values of organisms) Lamarckian world view Law of use and disuse Inheritance of acquired characteristics Spontaneous generation of new life progressing up the chain Thomas Malthus : only a fraction of any population will survive and reproduce  Lyell & Hutton Uniformitarianism in Geology o Current physical processes explain what happened in the past o Changes were gradual Darwin
*1859 On the Origin of Species was first published*
Evolution - Descent with modification Common Ancestorship Populations Change Some variability in populations is hereditary Some variations help (adaptations) or hinder survival  All things overproduce babies Next generation favors adaptations Gradualism Natural Selection – best adapted individuals have more reproductive success Understand the difference:  After 1859 to 1940: Widespread acceptance of descent with modification  Widespread non-acceptance of natural selection Re-discovery of genes and genetics
background image Neolamarkianism Mutationists Advent of population genetics Modern Synthesis: 1940-1945 Merger of genetics with evolution  16 tenets listed in your book Set stage for actual evolutionary analyses Since the Synthesis Molecular genetics Neutral theories of evolution Gene sequences  Genomics Many new computational tools Modern evolutionary biology does not equal Darwinism Tree of Life
*Know the basics – three domains, Archaea are ancestral to eukaryotes, Animals and Fungi closer than 
plants
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Genus
Species Codes of Nomenclature Every species has a UNIQUE two part name (Binomial) Species name = Genus + Specific Epithet (italics) Species published with Latin description and a Type Specimen (Holotype) Authority Oldest valid name is to be used (Priority) Synonymy  - history of name revisions Cladogenesis
-New “Clades” (monophyletic groups – all taxa that have evolved from a common ancestor) originate 
at internal nodes 
Anagenesis -Groups diverge form each 
other along their individual 
respective lineages
Phylogenetic Information “Chara c
t
e
rs or  “Traits” (State) Phenot ypic

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School: Appalachian State University
Department: Biology
Course: Intro Evolutionary Biology
Professor: John Walker
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: evolution
Name: Evolution Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Test Format: -50 Questions -T/F & Multiple Choice
Uploaded: 02/16/2018
3 Pages 40 Views 32 Unlocks
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