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What is Renaissance?

What is Renaissance?

Description

School: Carleton University
Department: OTHER
Course: History and Theory of Architecture 2: 1600 to Present
Professor: Michael windover
Term: Spring 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: History and Theory of Architecture 2 Complete midterm study guide (ARTH 1201-B )
Description: These notes cover EVERYTHING about the monuments that will be on the exam, including the photos our prof will use.
Uploaded: 02/16/2018
50 Pages 3 Views 6 Unlocks
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ARTH 1201 B - History and Theory of Architecture 2: 1600 (sort of 1400) to Present Week 1


What is Renaissance?



The Renaissance

-the rebirth of Classical ideas

• Renaissance (the present) re-imagines itself using elements of the past via patrons and  humanists.

• *modernity also looks at the past in some sense, but looks to the future much more

Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, Italy, begun 1296; Filippo Brunelleschi’s dome, 1420-36

• Italian Gothic merging with the beginning of Renaissance ideologies. Original builders  did not know how to get a dome over the crossing space without collapsing.  


what is Santa Maria del Fiore?



Centuries later, Brunelleschi was inspired by The Pantheon, but with a double drum  and an inner dome as well as outer dome.

• For structural strength and aesthetic, the eight-sided form was made into a circular  form via herringbone bricklaying. There is also an oculus just like at The Pantheon,  though eight-sided.

• Brunelleschi looked to the past to fix modern problems.

Old Sacristy, San Lorenzo, Florence, Filippo Brunelleschi, 1421-28. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of financial market?

• Medici (patron) asked Brunelleschi to rebuild old Sacristy (where relics are) • Focus on perfect measurement… Example of Humanism: man is at the center of all things  (Vitruvian Man) church says since God made man, creating an ideal image, if we take that into  consideration, making buildings after human proportions is godliness. Partaking in pure  geometric shapes.


What is Pietra serena?



• Pietra serena (grey sandstone), plain surfaces, Triumphal arch, Clear proportions - making a point to show how the architecture works. Don't forget about the age old question of what is Sinoatrial node?

• Radically new way of creating space.

Palazzo Medici, Florence, Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, 1444-59

• From heavy to light through masonry: 1st floor: heavy rusticated masonry, strong Florentine  values, hammer-dressed. 2nd Floor: smooth rustication, channeled masonry, ‘piano nobile’ (the  nobles always lived in the middle - Medici crest shown). 3rd Floor: ashlar masonry • Study of Classicism: similar logic to the Colosseum (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian)If you want to learn more check out Who made the portrait of Louis XIV of France ?

• Main floor doors once opened to the public Don't forget about the age old question of what are Thor’s other attributes?
Don't forget about the age old question of what is the meaning of Self-Defense?

• Courtyard contrasts the outside.

• Looking back to antiquity in a self-conscious way.

Leon Battista Alberti

• Vitruvius who? Move away from him.

• On the Art of Building in Ten Books”.

• Rethinking his ideas.

• Focusing on new - how stuff ought to be built; architecture having place in society.  Sigismondo Malatesta

• Pope was not a fan - publicly consigned him to Hell.

• Lord of Rimini.

• Humanist, soldier

San Francesco (Tempio Malatestiano), Rimini, Leon Battista Alberti, designed 1450 (1450-61)

• Sigismondo wanted Alberti to make *his* Pantheon, Not finished ($$$) We also discuss several other topics like what is global village?

• Imagery: columns, frieze, Roman lettering, Triumphal arch, Plan was to have a dome • Use of earlier materials for authenticity

• References local Roman arch (Arch of Augustus), purple circles, arcuated areas • Arch with piers (Alberti: arch should be decorative and held up with piers for structure;  column used in trabeation via attached column)

• Alberti designed his own capitals

Villa Medici, Fiesole, Italy, Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, 1455-59

• First villa built since antiquity

• Light, open = prosperous and peaceful area (ignoring surrounding wars)

• Villa + landscape architecture + terracing, early Renaissance garden

• Very ordered environment.

• Loggia (covered exterior gallery or corridor).

• Simplified form, classical.

Architectural Culture Associated with Humanism

• Increasingly more sophisticated use and invention of arch forms adopted from the “classical  tradition”.

• The celebration of architects as great artists.

Week 2

Spiritual Power: From Renaissance to Baroque

Renaissance (the architecture of contemplation)

Baroque (the architecture of emotion)

• Linear/Austere

• Planar/Articulation of relations

• Closed/Integrated & abstract

• Multiplicity/Equality of parts

• Absolute clarity/Light sources clearly  shown

• Painterly/Rich

• In depth/Illusionism

• Open/Complex & allusive

• Unity/Subordination of parts

• Relative Clarity/Hidden light sources

Religious situation in Europe 1560 : Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther

• Martin Luther, on observing practices within the church not based on the scripture, wanted to  transform the church and think critically about its evolution.  

Martin Luther wrote the 95 theses, which included:

Criticism of indulgences:

Buying pardons for sins.

Selling certificated of grace.

Challenges sacraments of confession and penance.

Challenges authority of the Pope.  

• translating the Bible into vernacular.  

• Johannes Gudenberg’s development of the printing press = widespread dissemination of texts.  People are empowered to interpret the Bible for themselves. This leads to riots and iconoclasm (the breaking of images).  

• criticized the Pope for taking money from poor parishioners to build the lavish cathedral  instead of using his own money.

• Pope Julius II decided to rebuild St. Peter’s, following the fall of Constantinople, to move the  heart of Christendom to Rome

• St. Peter’s is a martyrium, home to the relics of St. Peters. Interested in humanist ideals, Pope  Julius II hires Bramante to redesign St. Peter’s.  

Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Donato Bramante, begun 1502

• Tempietto (little temple) built where St. Peter was crucified, features a Centralized Plan • Bramante understands the ancient ordersThe first structure to have a colonnaded porch and  interior cella since antiquity

• Uses basic geometry – square and circle – to create sense of divine contemplation • This is not a replica or copy of an antique building but something new. Bramante applied his  knowledge of antiquity, following closely the logic of Alberti (like using columns only for  trabeated and not arcuated parts of the structure)

• Inside is a statue of Peter holding the keys, with a low relief of him being crucified below

Plan for St. Peter’s, Rome, Donato Bramante, 1505

• Centralized plan, massive piers, huge scale, simple ratios

• Humanist ideals – Man is the measure (Vitruvius man)

• Circle and Square, basic geometries, stability

• Helps see divine order

• Topped with a hemispherical dome, like the Pantheon, but much larger, capped with a lantern

Belvedere Courtyard, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, Donato Bramante, 1504-85

• Pope’s private area connecting the Vatican Palace and the Summer Palace.  • largest earthwork undertaken since antiquity

• Parterres: a level space  

• in a garden or yard filled with ornamental arrangement of flower beds

• Still designed in the classical tradition. Very ordered rhythm of paired pilasters and arches,  creating a rhythm for the elevation.  

Plan of St. Peter’s, Rome, Michelangelo Buonarroti, begun 1546

• Drawn in linear perspective and shows the progress that had been made when Bramante died. • Massive piers, pilasters and capitals, entablature running around entire interior  • Dome held up with pendentives, massive scale of the structure  

• People compared the Basilica under construction to the ruins of the Basilica Nova in Rome.  Saw the Pope as acting like an emperor.

North-West facade, St. Peter’s, Rome, Michelangelo Buonarroti, begun 1546

• centralized plan, and added a small colonnaded porch

• Massive sculpted and buttressed piers, walls undulate and curve somewhat, His plan is much  more unified and sculptural

• ribbed, attenuated dome – based on Duomo, but larger

• He articulated the dome with double columns, simplifying the form so the decoration and  horizontality of the design would be visible from the ground. The Lantern is topped with a  globe.  

• Giant orders on the exterior to unify the elevations and draw your eye upward • Sculptural exterior with an entablature that almost appears to fold in the corners • Overall, has a lot of vitality; Vasari (the first art historian) praised Michelangelo, because he  knew the rules of Classicism and could break them in the right way to create masterpieces

Context

• Series of meetings (council of Trent) between 1545 and 1563 to reflect on the reformation • The council reaffirmed:  

o Church as sole interpreter of scripture  

o The veneration of saints

o Use of architecture, sculpture, painting, and music to enhance  

devotional practice

• This is Counter Reformation

Il Gesù, Rome, Italy, Giacomo Vignola, Giacomo della Porta, 1568-76

• Mother church to Jesuits

• Pope founded the Jesuit order, and elite order that took orders directly from the Pope, goal  of converting people, members must have an unquestioning submission to church and the  pope as the source of all truth.

• Barrel vaulted basilica plan – carries sound well, so good for preaching and for an order  focused on the word, or liturgy. You also see in the counter-reformation a return to liturgical  practices over ‘pagan’ centralized plans.  

• Façade has giant orders and volutes, similar to Michelangelo’s ways  

• The middle, around the doorway, is main focus, with architectural detailing in higher and higher  relief – aka pilasters to engaged columns

• Chiaroscuro: the effect of contrasted light and shadow created by light falling unevenly or from  a particular direction 

• Sculpture of a founding member stepping on the head of non-believer – “ submit to the word of  God or be crushed.”

East facade, St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, Carlo Maderno, 1606-12.

• Added three bay nave to Michelangelo’s Church

• Quality of light and size overwhelms the senses

• Coffered barrel vaulted ceiling with subtle transverse rib

• Same pilaster and arch rhythm down the nave as Belvedere courtyard

• Disappearing dome effect - as you approach the Basilica, the dome  

disappears.

• Around the entrance we see more three-dimensional elements (speaks front door) • giant orders, and also single-story orders to give a human scale to massive structure • Red stone around benedictional balcony. Below balcony relief of Jesus handing the keys of the  church to St. Peter.

St Peter's Basilica and Colonnade, Rome, Italy, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1656-1666

• Bernini is baroque – he finished what Bramante started • Plan shaped like a keyhole – Vatican city feels like you are surrounded by open arms • using ovals and trapezoids – far from calm, perfect forms of Renaissance, more  dynamic

• Arms that reach out and bring you into the church, inviting you in – good example  of using architecture to increase devotion

• Tuscan giant orders create a forest of columns

S Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, Italy, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1658-76

• Another Jesuit commission

• Convex and concave forms, undulating, theatrical = this is Baroque

• Front door emphasized

• Stairs that fall out, roll out in front of you.

• Columns on exterior spaced as if pulled apart to make way for you.

• Walls on either side embrace you in a similar oval shape to the St. Peter’s colonnade • Transverse oval plan

• Interior stages the miracle of the martyrdom of St. Andrew in aedicule as he ascends to  heaven, breaking through the pediment as if about to rise through the dome • Different intercolumniation

S Ivo alla Sapienza, Rome, Italy, Francesco Borromini, 1642-60

• Borromini is the rival of Bernini.

• This is a chapel dedicated to wisdom at the University of Rome

• Concave façade: play of concave and convex forms around drum of dome • On the interior, there is no drum around the dome

• Telescoping dome: a dome inside a dome, often entenuated

• Lantern is like a shell or papal crown. It is also based on the Fibonacci number sequence • Centralized plan based on a six-pointed star – the seal of Solomon. Two equilateral  triangles are also reminiscent of the holy trinity

• Very sculptural on the interior with undulating interior walls

• Coming from the lantern are gold rays and tongues, a reference to Pentecost • On in inside things get resolved as you go up, on the outside things get more complicated • Everything in this church – from the plan to elevation, to iconography – symbolize holy  wisdom

Week 3

Political Power: Renaissance to Baroque in France

Powerful Kingdoms emerging: Translating ideas Italy to France

• France: Invasion of Italy (Charles VIII); Louis XII also invades (takes over Sforza Humanist court). • Due to invasion, Bramante and others move South to Rome.

• France impressed by Humanism, so Kings hire Italian designers and architects but also train their  French designers and architects in the Italian style.  

• Francis I was a prominent Royal patron and commissions many chateaux

Château of Chambord, Chambord, France, Domenico da Cortona, c. 1519

• Architect NOT French = Italian

• Bottom layer Classical, simpler, upper portion more Gothic (still holding onto  French Gothic tradition)

• Conical roof in Medieval tradition - vertical element

• Chimneys: It gets cold in France - not hiding the feature, instead the feature is  used in the architectural aesthetic

• Classical features: Pilasters near windows

• Closed or smaller loggias (again, it gets cold)

• Example of previously mentioned ‘translation’: taking ideas from Italian Renaissance and  Baroque to translate into French context.

• Moat included for nostalgia: New (Italian Renaissance) + Nostalgia (Gothic/Medieval). • Chateau form with symmetrical plan

• Stone work in a complex form: stairwell is a double helix so those going down don’t have to  bump into those going up

• Coffering emblazoned with sculpture. Salamander = emblem of Francis I.

Louvre, Paris, France, Pierre Lescot, 1546-59, courtyard side of west wing of Cour Carrée

• Ground level “arcade” - closed off.

• Piano nobile marked by pedimental windows.

• Sculptural work and pilasters inspired by the work of Michelangelo.

• French tradition: Pavilions (sections that come out); verticality (still sense of Gothic  with long windows); pitched roof and chimneys (easier for snow to fall off a pitched roof). • Corinthian engaged columns.

Sabastian Serlio (1475-1554)

• Writing on architecture.

• First time we see Orders of the Classical tradition drawn on a page.

• Starting to illustrate books on architecture with images.

• Manual for the grammar of architecture “Tutte l’opere d’architettura et prospettiva” (1537- 1551)

• Compared Italian houses to French (more windows in French and pitched roofs). 1. Written in vernacular for architects.

2. Not overly theoretical or scholarly.

3. Heavily illustrated.

4. Codified 5 Orders: 1.Tuscan 2.Doric 3.Ionic 4.Corinthian 5.Composite

Philibert de L’Orme (1514-1570)

• Literature means you don’t have to go all the way to Italy -> more accessible for everyday  architects.

• Supports creating a uniquely French style.

• Allegory of the Good Architect:

3 eyes: seeing past, present and future.

4 hands.

Nature: architectural rules coming from nature.

Characters are surrounded by earlier buildings to learn from.

Château of Anet, gatehouse, Anet, France, Philibert de l'Orme, 1549-52

• Built for Henri II’s favorite mistress, Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566) she co-signed  important documents with the King

• Gatehouse:

○ Hunting theme

○ Doric order with entablature and triglyphs (reminiscent of Bramante)

○ Tympanum with sculpture of Diana (goddess of the hunt)

○ Fashionable for people to in France to connect themselves to Roman gods • French tradition: parapet (looks like filigree)

Context: Huguenots and Henri VI

• Huguenots = French Protestants.  

• Massacres happening after Henri II dies.

• Henri VI preaches toleration of religions.

• Issues of chaos - how to provide order?

The Place Royale (Place des Vosges), Paris, France, 1605-1612

• Square plan = geometric form giving sense of order, especially in times of religious upheaval. • Two pavillions on either end

• Modern nobility move into the apartments

• Space where King is represented in the city (even if he’s not there)

• Architecturally this is order and stability from chaos

• Piano nobile, Rusticated arch with large keystone, arcade runs underneath • French feature: Dormer windows (windows in pitched roofs)

• Quoin (masonry blocks at the corner of a building)

Val-de-Grâce, Paris, France, François Mansart and Jacques Lemercier, 1644-1667

• Dome: internal and telescoping

• Longitudinal plan.

• Original plan by Mansart, finished by Lemercier

• Similar to Il Gesu

• Detached columns going back to Classical antiquity.

• Altarpiece: Reference to St. Peter’s and to Bernini and  

the Solomonic columns. King = divinity Louis XIV = “the Sun King”

Louvre, Paris, France, Louis Le Vau, Claude Perrault, and Charles Le Brun, 1667-70, east façade  (Colonnade)

• Colonnade of paired columns emphasizes verticality, chiaroscuro, and just how big the  monument is (how to deal with a long facade)

• Parapet wall running along top, hiding pitched roof

• Looking classical.

• This is considered French Baroque.

• It’s more restrained than the Italian Baroque but is still trying to be  

dramatic.

• Iron in columns creates added support.

• Apollo in pediment - Louis XIV taking on persona via his nickname “Sun King”.  • This stood for new French ideas  

Château of Vaux-le-Vicomte, near Melun, France, Louis le Vau and André le Nôtre (landscape), 1657- 1661

• French Baroque; built for Nicolas Fouquet (financier of the King).

• Playing with rules:

• Mansard roof; giant pilasters; front pediment; two symmetrical wings (one for family  and one for in case the King comes to visit).

• Corinthian order pilasters with caryatids in Grand Salon.

• Great statement to have dome on a residential  

monument.

• Crisp masonry of French tradition.

• Long and large landscape: organized symmetrically with grand vistas that go on forever. • Blend of woods (bosco) and parterres.  

• Louis XIV jealous so arrests Nicolas and builds Versailles.

Plan of the palace and gardens, Versailles, France, André Le Nôtre, begun 1661(constrs 1662-1690) • Absolutism: King is the whole world.

• 37,000 acres of land drained and a river was diverted more or less 30 miles  to source water fountains of the palace.

• Controlling landscape with army to show power, fully grown trees uprooted  and replanted

• Plan by Andre le Notre (1661) shows expanse of landscape.

• Creating little “rooms” in parterres = bosquet (ex. An outdoor ballroom)

West facade of Château of Versailles, Versailles, France, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, 1678- 1689. • Massive scale.

• Enfilade (no hallway - rooms open into other rooms)

• King’s bedchamber built in 1700 has a lot of gold

• Marble courtyard from the East

Galerie des Glaces, Château of Versailles, Versailles, France, Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le  Brun, 1678-84.

• Galerie des Glaces ensconced in world view created by Louis XIV  

• Glass = $$$Shows wealth and power

• Supporting luxury arts in France

Renaissance

Baroque

Italian

Religious Power  

Contemplation  

Humanism  

Rediscovery of Antiquity  

Perfect

Forms  

Linear  

Planar

Articulation of Parts

Religious Power

Emotion

Counter-Reformation

Imperfect Forms

Hidden Light Sources

Chiaroscuro

Richly Ornamented

Undulating Forms

French

Political Power  

Translation of Italian Idea

Equal Registers  

Muscular Sculptures  

Steep Pitched Roofs  

Chimneys  

Verticality (elongated windows) Pavilions  

5-part façades  

Geometric Forms

Political Power

Trying to create National Style

Emphasis on Piano Nobile

Refined Sculpture

Low Pitched Roofs

Chimneys

Stepped Facades

Verticality (elongated windows) Pavilions

5-part façades  

More restrained, more staid, still  dramatic with light and dark

Absolutist Monarch

Week 4

Classicism Comes to Britain

-The phoenix – resurrection in the ashes (symbol for London rising out of the ashes and rebuilding its  churches after the Great Fire of 1666.)

Europe in the 16th Century

• Francis I built many chateaus, Henry VII had many wives and founded a protestant church to get  around the Pope’s rules to divorce

• Religious situation in Europe 1560 – Henry wants own religion

• Henry VII’s daughter Mary I brings back Catholicism as the religion of the state and monarch  during her reign.

• Her sister Elizabeth I brings back Anglicanism

• 1534 Anglican church established

Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, United Kingdom, Robert Smythson, 1590-96

• Prodigy house: built quick

• Patron= Elizabeth of Hardwick (powerful female patron), “ES” carving on house  statement of wealth and power...she was Elizabeth Shrewsbury

• Very symmetrical, reminiscent of English castles (towers) and long windows like  English gothic cathedrals (heavy glazing)

• Windows: think about Serlio comparing Italian and French windows: English and French have  more windows. Power in having windows to look out onto a spectacular view.  

• Reference to Tuscan order

• Ideas of Palladio – Italian residences would have loggias on the side, the “loggia” is in the  middle with the English design

• Inside – power of configuration: spatial politics

• Rooms get larger as we move up floors = hierarchy of classes/scales

• Patrons wanted to bring the royal to them with their ceremonial spaces, and guest rooms for  reigning monarchs - showing loyalty to crown, support, and that they had the means to • Humanist court; Classical tales in tapestries.

• Long gallery on top floor with pictures of royal family - space was used for exercise  

Elizabeth, has no heirs so she finds James I  

• Scottish and English crowns united – wants to get Stewart line (not a Tudor) showing that he  understands Humanism, hires Inigo Jones as architect of the king

• James I brings in classicism with Inigo Jones

Inigo Jones

• Inigo Jones in architect of the king with all 4 books of Palladio

• Travels to Vicenza and sees Palladio’s work such as Palazzo Chiericati (1550-42).  o Loggia’s; Ionic (lighter, top) and Doric (heavier, bottom) orders

o Pedimental windows

o Plan: bilateral symmetry (each side is equal/same when cut in half)

o Showing that Palladio studied Classicism; this Palazzo was the next step up from  Bramante’s Il Tempietto.

Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, Italy, Andrea Palladio, 1566-70

• Temple-esque like pantheon in Rome

• 4 identical sides (symmetry), one big piano nobile - hierarchy of floors

• Triangular pediments above doorways/porch now made their way to residential  monuments (not just above windows), dome, Inigo jones was very influenced by  Palladio

• Dome on house = new idea, later adopted heavily by the French

• Palladio elevates his architecture to level of Classical masters; perfect symmetry • Built for retired guy who worked for Pope- pleasure pad

Queen’s House, Greenwich, United Kingdom, Inigo Jones, begun 1616

• Very symmetrical composition, not many windows, classical looking

• Public road runs through it (bridge connecting)

• Sort of a prodigy house

• less medieval and Gothic; much more classical = 1st Classical building in England • inverted version of Palladio’s Palazzo Chiericati - it’s the reverse loggia; Italian  monuments needs air to flow through to keep cool; English monument would rather  keep warm.

• 3 parts: sides and ‘inner loggia’.

• Parapet along the top, clear organization with stepping forward front

• Hall with double volume space

• Staircase with no central post and tulips in iron work

Banqueting House, Whitehall, London, United Kingdom, Inigo Jones, 1619-22 • Bilateral symmetry, ionic order at bottom, paired pilasters on side, engaged  columns, bottom is channeled masonry

• Façade is broken into 3 parts  

o Bottom: channeled masonry

o Ionic order: paired pilasters on the sides and engaged columns in the  

middle

o Pedimented and arched windows (piano nobile)

o Corinthian order pilasters and engaged columns on top. (Heavy to light - following  rules).

• Stands out because it is very different and white

• Open space for Banquets

• Double cubed plan, inside  

• Orders mirror outside with ionic (bottom) and Corinthian (top) (sophisticated and proportional) • Ceiling is painted but is still English renaissance building painted for Charles I (divine king) • Paintings - Baroque in an English Renaissance building = mixing styles, but focusing on  Renaissance

• Civil war after Charles I is beheaded outside of Banqueting Hall

St. Paul’s, Covent Garden, London, United Kingdom, Inigo Jones, 1631-35 (rebuilt 1795)

• Covent square:

o Urban square, brings money

o Pavilions for king and queen

o Influence from all over – Place Royal

o Commercial area and houses and garden for the market

• St. Paul’s Church/Chapel is the First Anglican church

• Inspiration much older than classicism, like church of Rome with Tuscan style • Inigo Jones wanted to create something separate aesthetically from the old Church (Catholicism) • Projecting eave, stone simple design, back looks something like a “noble barn” • Responding to new liturgy.

• (Old) St.Pauls Cathedral because of The Great Fire in 1666. Everything was mostly timber so lots  of the city burnt, lots of churches had to be rebuilt  

Christopher Wren

• Tasked with rebuilding London, creates plan for London in 1666 that looks like gardens at  Versailles and Vau-le-Vicomte

• 1665-1666 spent time in France, meets Bernini and takes ideas back to England  • Makes “Great Model” St.Paul’s Cathedral, London 1673  

o with great dome and the 1st model’s curvaceous, the 2nd has some of Bramante’s ideas o Curvaceous space, domes on domes, Classical temple porch….*too* Baroque for the  Church of England...too “Pope-ish”/Catholic.

o New plan is simple; very English- combines Romanesque and Gothic church styles o This plan was accepted, so while building, Wren made many changes to bring it back to  his original majestic and domed idea.

o Telescoping dome like in Val-de-Grace, inner masonry dome, brick cone to hold  lantern, lead outer dome.

o Some of Bramante’s ideas are there (dome), such as Il Tempietto

o Compare to the Church of St. Peter’s dome in Rome; instead of paired columns, we  have a niche in the English version.

St. Paul’s, London, United Kingdom, Christopher Wren, 1675-1709

• Has telescoping dome with lantern on top, outer dome is lead covered

• Similar to Bramante’s Tempieto and Michelangelo’s Plan for St. Peters

• Lifted 365’ (Wren was an astronomer and connected science with religion)

• Saucer domes down the nave, domes making out each bay, column  

doubling like Louvre

• Clear comprehensive space because it is an Anglican Church

• Compare to St. Peter’s with a lighter processional rhythm, St. Paul’s has  

more sculptural, clear, comprehensible space.

• Elevation: like Banqueting House (similar doubling)

• Parapet with balustradePrinciple Façade- Pediment, twin towers, open spire, doubling  columns, Intercolumniation is more dynamic

• False walls put up around, hiding flying buttresses inside and hiding light source • English Baroque, has pulpit and saucer domes, lots of light – all about “the word” • Renaissance ideas to create something new but with Baroque theatricality =  English Baroque

• Made for and payed by the people on England (coal taxes)

Christ Church, Spitalfields, London, United Kingdom, Nicholas Hawksmoor, 1714-29

• Romanesque-like - Pre-papal statement, mimicking Romanesque (back exterior) • Serliana (from Serlio)

• Serliana shape repeated in windows, Serliana window above chasel

• No sculptures, mystical alters, heavy stain glass

• Bold, clear, alluding to older than Classical aesthetics

• Huguenot church

• Inside: white and light-filled– Anglican church so light needed to read prayer books • Space to listen to sermon; focus of Protestant churches.

• Churches = England, power and religion.

St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London, United Kingdom, James Gibbs, 1721-26.

• Not payed for through coal taxes but by royal family

• Bottom Level looks like Maison Carree – refers to Roman Temple

• Gibbs was well read and borrows heavily from Classicism.

• Roman temple form but with a tower on top (spire) with bells  

• Serliana window, rustication shows expense and knowledge of classicism • Pedimented structure looks pre- Pope with spire

• Spire though, is coming from Gothic tradition

• Rusticated arches, pedimented structure

• Important of towers: contains bells which mark when mass is going on and identifies your  neighborhood, (geographical regions around spire) and for parishioners

• Inside- side aisles not for saint veneration but to get to your seat, Chancel (‘altar’), pulpit  (word is spoken here)

• Galleries for poorer parishioners

• Giant order columns

• Barrel vaulted roof ornamented with plaster, the ceiling is elaborate with different coffered  pattern/ structure

• “Gibbsian Preaching Box”

• James Gibbs “A Book of Architecture Containing Designs of Buildings and Ornaments” (1728). • Lots of detail in his design

Week 5

Developing Good Manors (Manners)

● The English didn’t really adopt the Baroque in full. They decided to do their own thing.

● Mannerism = sort of like Humanism before it; it’s a way of showing one’s place in society (how  you show good manners and knowledge of antiquity). Popular among the elite such as  politicians.

● It’s not Baroque, but Neo-Palladian. Mainly because the Baroque period was starting to merge  into something else  

● Neo-Palladian: focus on truth, experience and antiquarianism. It’s a new aesthetic.

● “Vitruvius Britannicus”, 1717 by Colen Campbell: Sets a new course in architecture. Connecting  England to a longer history of Vitruvius with politics of the time.

Renaissance –> Baroque

Renaisance

-

Baroque

1500

1600

1700

St.Peters (1505)

St.Peters (1666)

Louvre (1546)

Louvre (1667)

St.Pauls ( )

St. Pauls ()

From Baroque to Neo-Palladianism

Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, UK., John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor, 1705-24

• Built for John of Churchill, Duke of Marlborough

• Built on grounds of battle of Blenheim to show victory

• Corps de logis: main house with surrounding wings. Like Baroque Vaux-de-Vicomte  with projecting pavilions.  

• Classical tradition, theatricality of events in architecture

• Parterres in landscape

• English Baroque: oversized keystones, bow window, English projecting  

curved form with caryatid-like figures (like we’ve seen at Louvre) - they are paired to  follow the pilasters

• Wings sweep out to surround you (like at St. Peters).

• Temple facade with giant orders like Vaux-de-Vicomte - sense of unity and verticality. • Broken top pediment alluding to grand hall with three stories of windows.

• Play of rustication on side wing entrances.

• Witt and play: cannonballs and trophies of war, statue of lion biting rooster (England vs France). • Chiaroscuro; English Baroque.

• Bust of Louis XIV looted during battle and placed on roof of Blenheim = war trophy. • Anti-Versailles: playing on French Versailles and twisting it into an English monument.

• Crenulated towers with finials (ornaments at the top) that look like shooting canon balls – plays  for military victory of man and space there(Churchill won the battle with cannons) • Symmetry; kitchen to the left, stables to the right - they are arranged similarly. Kitchen far from  dining hall - issue of planning, but no matter, ceremony is most important.

• Also similar to Hardwick Hall with long halls/galleries.

• Enfilade style, long galley on left side, ceremonial staircase on outside,

English History

● Politics and architecture: Charles I -> Oliver Cromwell -> Charles II (Catholic and French  sympathizer) -> James II (ditto) -> William + Mary (super Protestant) -> Queen Anne (supporters  = Tories) -> George I (supporters = Whigs).

● Anthony Ashley Cooper: wants to bring back order, connection between Protestantism, politics  and architecture. Called for the return of styles following Inigo Jones and Palladio = purer  aesthetic and relation of great proportion, balance and order and harmony with nature.

Chiswick House, London, United Kingdom, Lord Burlington (Richard Boyle), 1725-29  

• Moves towards Neo-Palladianism

• Bilateral symmetry with more complicated forms than Palladio (octagon vs circle) but still  basic geometry and shapes. More Baroque, octagonal dome with thermal windows (like  Roman Baths of Diocletian)

• Showing-off architectural knowledge.

• Chimneys (colder climates) specifically in rows along sides of roofno decoration on  out side walls, not much embellishment, stress is shown, clean pristine  

proportions, one big Piano Nobile

• “Whig” architecture.

• Statues of Palladio and Inigo Jones on grounds to show influence

• rusticated lower base and smooth surfaces above, relieving arches on back

• Attached to his house - not living space, but just to hang out– place for pleasure, parties • Interior: ceilings are very decorated and like Banqueting Hall’s, scholarly idea to detail • Serliana windows in relieving arches playing with light and shadow.

• Maiden heads are a reference to the origins of the Corinthian order.  

• Clearly reading Vitruvius.

• Scholarly desire and recreation of truthful representation of antiquarianism.  

Grand Tour

• Wealthy people would tour through Europe and learn what’s happening everywhere • They leave, go to famous places, take-in the different information and sights, and bring the ideas  back home with them

• Ancient Rome = awe  

• Pompeii and Herculaneum = room with beautiful paintings

Library, Kenwood House, Hampstead, London, United Kingdom, Robert Adam, 1767- 69

• Taking ideas from Pompeii (roman)and applying them in a British context – wall paintings • Robert Adams was architect of the king for a bit

• Light blue walls, Corinthian pilasters and columns, painted barrel vaulted ceiling, space with  apses

• Sense of excitement and play on what Adam saw on his travels

• Very proportional, ornament - Anthemion, unifies space inside and out

• Mirrored space to add the outside in and to illuminate (smaller scaled Versailles) • Focusing on residential spaces and details.  

• Outside: orangerie where oranges are grown

• Balancing on either side

• Ornament = Anthemion

• Unifies space inside and out

• Adam Style = “Adamesque” (pastel, white, sculptural)

Empiricism

• John Locke – “no innate ideas; our experience is what gives us sense of fact, not mythical forces (the world gives us ideas). Therefore, architecture should follow a purer, antiquarian form.” • Classicism – digging into the past (taking ideas from Athens)

• Edward Burke “beauty should come from nature, mathematical ideas are not beauty.”

Grounds of Chiswick, London, United Kingdom, William Kent, c. 1727

• Wavyer designs in the landscape as opposed to geometric Versailles.  

• More natural.

• Looking at what others are doing in terms of harmony with nature.  

• Winding paths - Squiggly lines are forms of nature, more natural looking landscaping • Grounds have mini versions (playhouses) of other monuments known as a Folly • Folly’s - small scale temple-like structure (like Pantheon) sometimes with an obelisk. • Stimulating ideas while happening upon them in these spaces.

• Genius and aesthetic should come from the land.

Grounds of Stourhead, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, Henry Hoare (architecture by Henry Flitcroft),  1741-81

• Has Neo-Palladian house, artificial lake, elaborated landscaping

• Built for banker Henry Hoare II

• His way of showing off his wealth is to show that he can build a landscape - a natural one, not  like what Louis XIV tried doing.  

• Winding paths around like/creating mythological adventure through history and time (experience ancient myths, history and connection of this region to Hoare’s family) • Clear views, very picturesque (Pantheon-esque folly)

• Built an artificial lake, Plan is ‘squiggly’, picturesque

• Compare to Claude Lorrain's “Aeneas at Delos” (1672) - gardens become landscape painting.

Grounds of Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, Lancelot “Capability” Brown,  after 1764

● Success of English garden is based on being as simple as possible:

○ Gentle, rolling hills

○ Artificial lake with water courses.

○ Planting trees in clumps.

● Result should look natural, not curated, despite it being planned and designed ● Ha Ha Wall allowing a view for a great panorama without having animals or other  ‘nuisances’ coming onto the property

● Mastering nature while trying to be in harmony with it

● Sham ruins: fake ruins to remind people of the past

NEO-GOTHIC

Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, United Kingdom, Horace Walpole, begun 1748

• Neo-Gothic

• Taken from English Medieval tradition (Gothic) - Looking at England own  

‘antique’ history  

• It looks like a giant overgrown folly

• Walpole (1st prime minister’s son) sold tickets so that people could come  

see his home.  

• Completely different to Chiswick.  

• Based on idea of serendipity (coined by Walpole) = a chance meeting of spaces. Exterior and interior follow medieval aesthetic

• Gothic screens inspired by old St. Pauls

• Interested in ancient British history rather than Classical antiquity.

• Neo-Gothic vs Neo-Palladian = happening at the same time, both focus on picturesque. • Wrote “The Castle of Otranto” (1764) as the first Gothic novel which focused on the  suspension of belief and getting inspired by his own home (space responding to literature). • Conical pendant vaulting aka fan vault.

Fonthill Abbey, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, James Wyatt, begun 1796

● For William Beckford (1759-1844) - millionaire, gothic novelist. Doesn’t like Walpole do  builds his own house to show him up.

● Neo-Gothic but NOT picturesque; it is sublime.

● Sublime is another suitable aesthetic for English monuments Terror, Awe, Overwhelming ● House is a monument TO Beckford.

● We are meant to feel terror and awe when entering the space, especially with  the high ceilings (feeling of being dwarfed).

● Beckford wanted taller tower, loses fortune, sells space, tower falls over with  gust of wind 2 years later. Result= very picturesque ruin.

Week 6

Rococo and Reaction

• Rococo coming out of Late Baroque and the Holy Roman Empire.

• Holy Roman Empire was central/North Europe

• Intimacy is key with Rococo - interior residential spaces.

• Neoclassicism best put into practice at Ste-Genevieve.

• The French Academy is picking up and creating more architects with fresh new ideas - visionary  architecture

• Holy Roman Empire (800-1806):

o Groups of electing nations that elect their Emperor.

o Mix of Protestant and Catholic Emperors.

o No capital; various imperial seats, Vienna being a main one (from 1483-1806)  where the Imperial residence was.  

Vierzehnheiligen, near Bamburg, Germany, Balthasar Neumann, begun 1744

• Basilica of the Fourteen Helpers

• Site of miraculous healing therefore, a pilgrimage church

• Baroque-ish due to convex and concave elements in facade and interior.

• Curvy; playing with space: the entryway comes out out at you and the rest of the monument  goes back in

• Onion spires (Zwiebelturm) shows delicacy (found on Bavarian (German) churches and Russia)

• Channeled rustication for aesthetic but also base support

• Interior - light and ‘frothy’, pendentive paintings on ceiling, sense of drama • White and pastel with some dramatic frescoes on ceiling

• Baroque: ambiguity of light sources

• Similar to Borromini style

• Cartouche: oval frame in pendentives

• Plan: ovals, wavy; Baroque play of movement

• Columns acting as screens to hide light.

• Undulating surface (smooth, wave-like)

• Stucco - popular in Rococo

• Highly decorative and with lots of movement = Late Baroque

• It’s a bit Rococo- moving more away from religious and classical elements, and full of foliage  appendages.

Würzburg Residenz, Würzburg, Germany, Balthasar Neumann, bgn. 1720. Stair Hall,1737-53.

• New style similar to French - almost on the scale of Louvre or Versailles.

• For the Prince-Bishops, by Neumann who was an army engineer  

• Cour d’honneur: processional space before entry, essentially a gate.

• Garden facade not dissimilar to Vaux-le-Vicomte.

o Both have oval ‘Bombay’ projections

o Pavilions

o Both face onto Baroque garden.

• Play of progression and recession

• C / U shaped plan.

• Open courts for light and air circulation

• Huge area for staircase, designed to have people move a certain way

• Stair hall is a ceremonial space with frescoes (largest in the world) by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.  Playing with spatial politics: walking into the space a certain way to experience the space • “Imperial Stair” just like in Versailles, statues all of the way up

• Chapel has Solomonic columns and is opulent and decorative

• Astrology, continents embodied: world coming together in a Baroque space • Balcony for Prince-Bishops to look down at guests as they ascend stairs

• Kaiseraal (imperial Hall)- Grand ceremonial hall, vaulted ceiling, classical knowledge in paintings  (Fresco), pinks and yellows

o Images of bishops crowning Holy Roman Emperors, politics and religion

o Oval forms and undulating surfaces.

o Constant play of real and not with the gilded stucco popping out of the painting  but also blending in

o Gesamtkunstwerk: total work of art where architecture, painting and sculpture look  indiscernible from one another = they are all one artwork

• White Hall - Stucco by Antoni Bossi.

o Dramatic contrast from such an opulent space (Kaisersaal) into a very stark space o Rococo space: NO Classical features

o Heavy foliage, highly decorative and delicate, all white with dark brown doors and  floor

o Like a huge frosted cake

Louis XIV dies and his great-grandson Louis XV becomes king. Styles changing.

Salon Ovale de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, France, Germain Boffrand, 1736-39.

• Hotel particulaire = townhouse in Paris

• Outside facade: paired columns similar to Louvre

• Built for the Princes of Soubise; attempting to connect to Royals

• High screening walls.

• Double columns adding rhythm

• Rococo: Term given later, after the movement happened: ‘rocaille’ are decorative rocks  and seashells made into artificial grottoes; ‘coquille’ are seashells; ‘baroco’ means  something irregular and misshapen.

• Artificial play of space, play of artificiality and natural.

• Gilded plaster on ceiling - example of ‘good style’

• NO classical order, many swirly lines

• Architecture showing the breaking down of class; space lining up with social form at the time:  middle class making money and purchasing luxurious interiors. Artificial vs real wealth.

François Boucher, The Luncheon, 1739

● Seeing how space was used

● New sense of intimacy

● Fluid forms

● Playful sense of Rococo

● Interest in excotic (coffee, Buddha statue)

Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace, Munich, Germany, François de Cuvilliés, 1734-39.

● Intimate space

● Ionic pilasters: women. Fits female patron (princess) get-away from the larger palace ● Balustrade to shoot pheasants

● Sculptures of Classical elements, ex. Diana (vs. Chateau of Anet)

● Francois bringing what's fashionable in French style to Germany

● Rococo = extension of Baroque

● Kennel room for dogs

● Enfilade: room to room to room configuration

● Tile room: sense of the exotic.

● Main space: fun play of ornament, pastel,  

complimenting powdered wigs and pastel dresses of the time

● Inside – interest in nature, combo of natural and artificial

Ermenonville, René de Girardin with Hubert Robert, Ermenonville, France, 1766-70.

● Jardin anglais: English garden

● Landscape with winding paths, man made ponds and rivers, clumps of trees and follies ● Temple de Philosophe: garden folly with classical columns (Doric) dedicated to thinkers  and philosophers

● Context: Enlightenment Philosophers

● Key thinker of the time: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

● Rousseau: The natural state is close to goodness - the more primitive, the better. He  heavily critiqued Rococo. Supported breaking down barriers of classes. Supported  empiricism, sensation and reason. Suggested to be critical of our environment and where  we came from.

● Garden: guidebook made by the son, so you know what you are seeing as you walk through.  Social philosophy given architectural form

Abbé Laugier: 

● Anti-Baroque.  

● returns to basic principles and to return to Ancient Greek Classicism

● Good architecture found through reason and nature

● Inspired by monuments like Maison Carree

● ‘Primitive hut’ - philosophical origins of architectural history, turning to nature for beauty ● Post / lintel / sloping roof.

● “Let us keep to the simple and natural” “Architecture owes all that is perfect to the Greeks” ● Architects touring Classical sites and ruins

● Royals supporting such thinkers

Ste-Geneviève (Panthéon), Paris, France, Jacques-Gabriel Soufflot, 1757-90

● France losing colonies, so needing to show they still have power

● Building a church for the patron saint of Paris

● Free standing porch

● Columns based on temple of Baalbek in Lebanon, connecting to civil society ● Every part has a structural rationale: the columns actually hold up the weight. Supports  are clear (columns, piers)

● Dome (like Wren’s St. Paul’s)

● Tie rods and iron bracing used in pediment: using contemporary engineering with Classical  aesthetic to create ‘good’ + rational architecture

● History + reason + science

● Ambulatories on the sides, Greek cross plan with dome in middle and domes on side  ● Classical Greek and roman with gothic elements inside

● Evolution of church planning

● NEOCLASSICISM

● Gothic tradition (flying buttresses) mixed with other elements: learning lessons throughout  architectural history

● Light and airy spaces, max light with Gothic elements: flying buttresses holding up the walls ● Creating logical, reasonable space through rationality

● Flying buttresses hidden outside by parapet wall

● Mathematics used, proportions, (contemporary ideas+philosophy/math)

French Academy of Architecture-1670

● Jacque-Francois Blondel taught architecture at his private school, in 1762 he merged the school  with the academy

● Pensionnaires: students going to do field work.

● Blondel: Cours d’architecture (Lectures on Architecture) 1771-77.

● “the architect should begin with the naked mass, and be content with this, before trying to add  ornament”.

Ecole de Chirugie (School of Surgery), Paris, France, Jacques Gondouin, 1769-74

● School of Surgery; modern medicine

● Designed by a pensionnaire student

● Screening wall with Ionic colonnade, no French pavilions sticking out

● Triumphal arch entranceway (Louis XV with Minerva (goddess of wisdom), sculpted) ● Courtyard, public hall, room for experiments, theatre for midwives, anatomical  theatre

● New form but referencing Pantheon and tradition of Greek amphitheatre

● Education around body and surgery, this is the uplift of the surgeon profession  ● No distracting decorations, no rococo, no pilasters, all about education

Royal Saltworks, Arc-et-Senans, France, Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, 1775-79.

● Student of Blondel

● Created design to build ideal industrial town - utopian space

● “There is no one on Earth incapable of being saved by an architect”. (Ledoux) ● Philosophy of society and architecture, architects can save society

● Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans:

○ Workers with houses and gardens

○ Tax collectors with better houses and gardens

○ Director’s house in the middle, between factories

● Gateway: reference to Paesum; primitive Classicism

● Reference to caves where salt water is coming from, sculptures of pipes with water pouring  out (function of place to get salt from water)

● Architecture parlante – speaking architecture, explains own function

● Director’s house with blocked columns; rustication; sense of metamorphosis and change (semi rusticated columns)

● Domestic architecture for factory: dormer windows act as chimneys

Cenotaph for Sir Isaac Newton, Etienne-Louis Boullée, 1784.

● Monument to the Enlightenment, massive scale

● Never built

● Ideas of the sublime. Herculean monument

● Newton: 3 Laws of Motion

● Spheres, pyramids, cubes: distilled to their essence

● Sphere punctuated with incisions to see the night’s sky during daylight -

early idea for planetarium

● Study through empiricism

● Illuminated during the night via a giant lantern.

● Monument to a man of Science and Enlightenment research.

Architectural Terminology

Renaissance+Symetry+Geometry

• Circular in the center, square around, then keep adding square for perfect mathematics,  symmetry etc.

Baroque+Symetry+Geometry

• Move towards emotional geometry and less of the sturdy square+square = floor plan mentality  of renaissance

Rococo

● No classical elements, HEAVILY decorated, pastels, white stucco

Parterres: Geometrical planting bed used in French Baroque gardens, symbolizes wealth and control  over nature

Enfilade: a plan without hallways, have to pass from one room to another  

Piao Nobile: 2nd floor or noble floor, taller, often has more and/larger windows, nicest rooms for living Caryatid: a column that is a sculpture, usually of a woman

Dormer: a window on a slanted roof, but-outs

Quoining: contrast of stonework on a building, usually corners (ex. Place Royal) Telescoping Dome: a dome inside a dome, often tend to be entenuated – entenuated telescoping dome Equal Registers: floors are all the same height

Loggia: a breezeway, gallery or room with one or more open sides made with arches (found in warmer  countries like Italy)

Intercolumniation: spacing between columns or, specifically, their shafts (doubling them is a very  French aesthetic feature)

Pediment: triangular piece of architecture

ARTH 1201 B - History and Theory of Architecture 2: 1600 (sort of 1400) to Present Week 1

The Renaissance

-the rebirth of Classical ideas

• Renaissance (the present) re-imagines itself using elements of the past via patrons and  humanists.

• *modernity also looks at the past in some sense, but looks to the future much more

Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, Italy, begun 1296; Filippo Brunelleschi’s dome, 1420-36

• Italian Gothic merging with the beginning of Renaissance ideologies. Original builders  did not know how to get a dome over the crossing space without collapsing.  

Centuries later, Brunelleschi was inspired by The Pantheon, but with a double drum  and an inner dome as well as outer dome.

• For structural strength and aesthetic, the eight-sided form was made into a circular  form via herringbone bricklaying. There is also an oculus just like at The Pantheon,  though eight-sided.

• Brunelleschi looked to the past to fix modern problems.

Old Sacristy, San Lorenzo, Florence, Filippo Brunelleschi, 1421-28.

• Medici (patron) asked Brunelleschi to rebuild old Sacristy (where relics are) • Focus on perfect measurement… Example of Humanism: man is at the center of all things  (Vitruvian Man) church says since God made man, creating an ideal image, if we take that into  consideration, making buildings after human proportions is godliness. Partaking in pure  geometric shapes.

• Pietra serena (grey sandstone), plain surfaces, Triumphal arch, Clear proportions - making a point to show how the architecture works.

• Radically new way of creating space.

Palazzo Medici, Florence, Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, 1444-59

• From heavy to light through masonry: 1st floor: heavy rusticated masonry, strong Florentine  values, hammer-dressed. 2nd Floor: smooth rustication, channeled masonry, ‘piano nobile’ (the  nobles always lived in the middle - Medici crest shown). 3rd Floor: ashlar masonry • Study of Classicism: similar logic to the Colosseum (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian)

• Main floor doors once opened to the public

• Courtyard contrasts the outside.

• Looking back to antiquity in a self-conscious way.

Leon Battista Alberti

• Vitruvius who? Move away from him.

• On the Art of Building in Ten Books”.

• Rethinking his ideas.

• Focusing on new - how stuff ought to be built; architecture having place in society.  Sigismondo Malatesta

• Pope was not a fan - publicly consigned him to Hell.

• Lord of Rimini.

• Humanist, soldier

San Francesco (Tempio Malatestiano), Rimini, Leon Battista Alberti, designed 1450 (1450-61)

• Sigismondo wanted Alberti to make *his* Pantheon, Not finished ($$$)

• Imagery: columns, frieze, Roman lettering, Triumphal arch, Plan was to have a dome • Use of earlier materials for authenticity

• References local Roman arch (Arch of Augustus), purple circles, arcuated areas • Arch with piers (Alberti: arch should be decorative and held up with piers for structure;  column used in trabeation via attached column)

• Alberti designed his own capitals

Villa Medici, Fiesole, Italy, Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, 1455-59

• First villa built since antiquity

• Light, open = prosperous and peaceful area (ignoring surrounding wars)

• Villa + landscape architecture + terracing, early Renaissance garden

• Very ordered environment.

• Loggia (covered exterior gallery or corridor).

• Simplified form, classical.

Architectural Culture Associated with Humanism

• Increasingly more sophisticated use and invention of arch forms adopted from the “classical  tradition”.

• The celebration of architects as great artists.

Week 2

Spiritual Power: From Renaissance to Baroque

Renaissance (the architecture of contemplation)

Baroque (the architecture of emotion)

• Linear/Austere

• Planar/Articulation of relations

• Closed/Integrated & abstract

• Multiplicity/Equality of parts

• Absolute clarity/Light sources clearly  shown

• Painterly/Rich

• In depth/Illusionism

• Open/Complex & allusive

• Unity/Subordination of parts

• Relative Clarity/Hidden light sources

Religious situation in Europe 1560 : Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther

• Martin Luther, on observing practices within the church not based on the scripture, wanted to  transform the church and think critically about its evolution.  

Martin Luther wrote the 95 theses, which included:

Criticism of indulgences:

Buying pardons for sins.

Selling certificated of grace.

Challenges sacraments of confession and penance.

Challenges authority of the Pope.  

• translating the Bible into vernacular.  

• Johannes Gudenberg’s development of the printing press = widespread dissemination of texts.  People are empowered to interpret the Bible for themselves. This leads to riots and iconoclasm (the breaking of images).  

• criticized the Pope for taking money from poor parishioners to build the lavish cathedral  instead of using his own money.

• Pope Julius II decided to rebuild St. Peter’s, following the fall of Constantinople, to move the  heart of Christendom to Rome

• St. Peter’s is a martyrium, home to the relics of St. Peters. Interested in humanist ideals, Pope  Julius II hires Bramante to redesign St. Peter’s.  

Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Donato Bramante, begun 1502

• Tempietto (little temple) built where St. Peter was crucified, features a Centralized Plan • Bramante understands the ancient ordersThe first structure to have a colonnaded porch and  interior cella since antiquity

• Uses basic geometry – square and circle – to create sense of divine contemplation • This is not a replica or copy of an antique building but something new. Bramante applied his  knowledge of antiquity, following closely the logic of Alberti (like using columns only for  trabeated and not arcuated parts of the structure)

• Inside is a statue of Peter holding the keys, with a low relief of him being crucified below

Plan for St. Peter’s, Rome, Donato Bramante, 1505

• Centralized plan, massive piers, huge scale, simple ratios

• Humanist ideals – Man is the measure (Vitruvius man)

• Circle and Square, basic geometries, stability

• Helps see divine order

• Topped with a hemispherical dome, like the Pantheon, but much larger, capped with a lantern

Belvedere Courtyard, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, Donato Bramante, 1504-85

• Pope’s private area connecting the Vatican Palace and the Summer Palace.  • largest earthwork undertaken since antiquity

• Parterres: a level space  

• in a garden or yard filled with ornamental arrangement of flower beds

• Still designed in the classical tradition. Very ordered rhythm of paired pilasters and arches,  creating a rhythm for the elevation.  

Plan of St. Peter’s, Rome, Michelangelo Buonarroti, begun 1546

• Drawn in linear perspective and shows the progress that had been made when Bramante died. • Massive piers, pilasters and capitals, entablature running around entire interior  • Dome held up with pendentives, massive scale of the structure  

• People compared the Basilica under construction to the ruins of the Basilica Nova in Rome.  Saw the Pope as acting like an emperor.

North-West facade, St. Peter’s, Rome, Michelangelo Buonarroti, begun 1546

• centralized plan, and added a small colonnaded porch

• Massive sculpted and buttressed piers, walls undulate and curve somewhat, His plan is much  more unified and sculptural

• ribbed, attenuated dome – based on Duomo, but larger

• He articulated the dome with double columns, simplifying the form so the decoration and  horizontality of the design would be visible from the ground. The Lantern is topped with a  globe.  

• Giant orders on the exterior to unify the elevations and draw your eye upward • Sculptural exterior with an entablature that almost appears to fold in the corners • Overall, has a lot of vitality; Vasari (the first art historian) praised Michelangelo, because he  knew the rules of Classicism and could break them in the right way to create masterpieces

Context

• Series of meetings (council of Trent) between 1545 and 1563 to reflect on the reformation • The council reaffirmed:  

o Church as sole interpreter of scripture  

o The veneration of saints

o Use of architecture, sculpture, painting, and music to enhance  

devotional practice

• This is Counter Reformation

Il Gesù, Rome, Italy, Giacomo Vignola, Giacomo della Porta, 1568-76

• Mother church to Jesuits

• Pope founded the Jesuit order, and elite order that took orders directly from the Pope, goal  of converting people, members must have an unquestioning submission to church and the  pope as the source of all truth.

• Barrel vaulted basilica plan – carries sound well, so good for preaching and for an order  focused on the word, or liturgy. You also see in the counter-reformation a return to liturgical  practices over ‘pagan’ centralized plans.  

• Façade has giant orders and volutes, similar to Michelangelo’s ways  

• The middle, around the doorway, is main focus, with architectural detailing in higher and higher  relief – aka pilasters to engaged columns

• Chiaroscuro: the effect of contrasted light and shadow created by light falling unevenly or from  a particular direction 

• Sculpture of a founding member stepping on the head of non-believer – “ submit to the word of  God or be crushed.”

East facade, St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, Carlo Maderno, 1606-12.

• Added three bay nave to Michelangelo’s Church

• Quality of light and size overwhelms the senses

• Coffered barrel vaulted ceiling with subtle transverse rib

• Same pilaster and arch rhythm down the nave as Belvedere courtyard

• Disappearing dome effect - as you approach the Basilica, the dome  

disappears.

• Around the entrance we see more three-dimensional elements (speaks front door) • giant orders, and also single-story orders to give a human scale to massive structure • Red stone around benedictional balcony. Below balcony relief of Jesus handing the keys of the  church to St. Peter.

St Peter's Basilica and Colonnade, Rome, Italy, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1656-1666

• Bernini is baroque – he finished what Bramante started • Plan shaped like a keyhole – Vatican city feels like you are surrounded by open arms • using ovals and trapezoids – far from calm, perfect forms of Renaissance, more  dynamic

• Arms that reach out and bring you into the church, inviting you in – good example  of using architecture to increase devotion

• Tuscan giant orders create a forest of columns

S Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, Italy, Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1658-76

• Another Jesuit commission

• Convex and concave forms, undulating, theatrical = this is Baroque

• Front door emphasized

• Stairs that fall out, roll out in front of you.

• Columns on exterior spaced as if pulled apart to make way for you.

• Walls on either side embrace you in a similar oval shape to the St. Peter’s colonnade • Transverse oval plan

• Interior stages the miracle of the martyrdom of St. Andrew in aedicule as he ascends to  heaven, breaking through the pediment as if about to rise through the dome • Different intercolumniation

S Ivo alla Sapienza, Rome, Italy, Francesco Borromini, 1642-60

• Borromini is the rival of Bernini.

• This is a chapel dedicated to wisdom at the University of Rome

• Concave façade: play of concave and convex forms around drum of dome • On the interior, there is no drum around the dome

• Telescoping dome: a dome inside a dome, often entenuated

• Lantern is like a shell or papal crown. It is also based on the Fibonacci number sequence • Centralized plan based on a six-pointed star – the seal of Solomon. Two equilateral  triangles are also reminiscent of the holy trinity

• Very sculptural on the interior with undulating interior walls

• Coming from the lantern are gold rays and tongues, a reference to Pentecost • On in inside things get resolved as you go up, on the outside things get more complicated • Everything in this church – from the plan to elevation, to iconography – symbolize holy  wisdom

Week 3

Political Power: Renaissance to Baroque in France

Powerful Kingdoms emerging: Translating ideas Italy to France

• France: Invasion of Italy (Charles VIII); Louis XII also invades (takes over Sforza Humanist court). • Due to invasion, Bramante and others move South to Rome.

• France impressed by Humanism, so Kings hire Italian designers and architects but also train their  French designers and architects in the Italian style.  

• Francis I was a prominent Royal patron and commissions many chateaux

Château of Chambord, Chambord, France, Domenico da Cortona, c. 1519

• Architect NOT French = Italian

• Bottom layer Classical, simpler, upper portion more Gothic (still holding onto  French Gothic tradition)

• Conical roof in Medieval tradition - vertical element

• Chimneys: It gets cold in France - not hiding the feature, instead the feature is  used in the architectural aesthetic

• Classical features: Pilasters near windows

• Closed or smaller loggias (again, it gets cold)

• Example of previously mentioned ‘translation’: taking ideas from Italian Renaissance and  Baroque to translate into French context.

• Moat included for nostalgia: New (Italian Renaissance) + Nostalgia (Gothic/Medieval). • Chateau form with symmetrical plan

• Stone work in a complex form: stairwell is a double helix so those going down don’t have to  bump into those going up

• Coffering emblazoned with sculpture. Salamander = emblem of Francis I.

Louvre, Paris, France, Pierre Lescot, 1546-59, courtyard side of west wing of Cour Carrée

• Ground level “arcade” - closed off.

• Piano nobile marked by pedimental windows.

• Sculptural work and pilasters inspired by the work of Michelangelo.

• French tradition: Pavilions (sections that come out); verticality (still sense of Gothic  with long windows); pitched roof and chimneys (easier for snow to fall off a pitched roof). • Corinthian engaged columns.

Sabastian Serlio (1475-1554)

• Writing on architecture.

• First time we see Orders of the Classical tradition drawn on a page.

• Starting to illustrate books on architecture with images.

• Manual for the grammar of architecture “Tutte l’opere d’architettura et prospettiva” (1537- 1551)

• Compared Italian houses to French (more windows in French and pitched roofs). 1. Written in vernacular for architects.

2. Not overly theoretical or scholarly.

3. Heavily illustrated.

4. Codified 5 Orders: 1.Tuscan 2.Doric 3.Ionic 4.Corinthian 5.Composite

Philibert de L’Orme (1514-1570)

• Literature means you don’t have to go all the way to Italy -> more accessible for everyday  architects.

• Supports creating a uniquely French style.

• Allegory of the Good Architect:

3 eyes: seeing past, present and future.

4 hands.

Nature: architectural rules coming from nature.

Characters are surrounded by earlier buildings to learn from.

Château of Anet, gatehouse, Anet, France, Philibert de l'Orme, 1549-52

• Built for Henri II’s favorite mistress, Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566) she co-signed  important documents with the King

• Gatehouse:

○ Hunting theme

○ Doric order with entablature and triglyphs (reminiscent of Bramante)

○ Tympanum with sculpture of Diana (goddess of the hunt)

○ Fashionable for people to in France to connect themselves to Roman gods • French tradition: parapet (looks like filigree)

Context: Huguenots and Henri VI

• Huguenots = French Protestants.  

• Massacres happening after Henri II dies.

• Henri VI preaches toleration of religions.

• Issues of chaos - how to provide order?

The Place Royale (Place des Vosges), Paris, France, 1605-1612

• Square plan = geometric form giving sense of order, especially in times of religious upheaval. • Two pavillions on either end

• Modern nobility move into the apartments

• Space where King is represented in the city (even if he’s not there)

• Architecturally this is order and stability from chaos

• Piano nobile, Rusticated arch with large keystone, arcade runs underneath • French feature: Dormer windows (windows in pitched roofs)

• Quoin (masonry blocks at the corner of a building)

Val-de-Grâce, Paris, France, François Mansart and Jacques Lemercier, 1644-1667

• Dome: internal and telescoping

• Longitudinal plan.

• Original plan by Mansart, finished by Lemercier

• Similar to Il Gesu

• Detached columns going back to Classical antiquity.

• Altarpiece: Reference to St. Peter’s and to Bernini and  

the Solomonic columns. King = divinity Louis XIV = “the Sun King”

Louvre, Paris, France, Louis Le Vau, Claude Perrault, and Charles Le Brun, 1667-70, east façade  (Colonnade)

• Colonnade of paired columns emphasizes verticality, chiaroscuro, and just how big the  monument is (how to deal with a long facade)

• Parapet wall running along top, hiding pitched roof

• Looking classical.

• This is considered French Baroque.

• It’s more restrained than the Italian Baroque but is still trying to be  

dramatic.

• Iron in columns creates added support.

• Apollo in pediment - Louis XIV taking on persona via his nickname “Sun King”.  • This stood for new French ideas  

Château of Vaux-le-Vicomte, near Melun, France, Louis le Vau and André le Nôtre (landscape), 1657- 1661

• French Baroque; built for Nicolas Fouquet (financier of the King).

• Playing with rules:

• Mansard roof; giant pilasters; front pediment; two symmetrical wings (one for family  and one for in case the King comes to visit).

• Corinthian order pilasters with caryatids in Grand Salon.

• Great statement to have dome on a residential  

monument.

• Crisp masonry of French tradition.

• Long and large landscape: organized symmetrically with grand vistas that go on forever. • Blend of woods (bosco) and parterres.  

• Louis XIV jealous so arrests Nicolas and builds Versailles.

Plan of the palace and gardens, Versailles, France, André Le Nôtre, begun 1661(constrs 1662-1690) • Absolutism: King is the whole world.

• 37,000 acres of land drained and a river was diverted more or less 30 miles  to source water fountains of the palace.

• Controlling landscape with army to show power, fully grown trees uprooted  and replanted

• Plan by Andre le Notre (1661) shows expanse of landscape.

• Creating little “rooms” in parterres = bosquet (ex. An outdoor ballroom)

West facade of Château of Versailles, Versailles, France, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, 1678- 1689. • Massive scale.

• Enfilade (no hallway - rooms open into other rooms)

• King’s bedchamber built in 1700 has a lot of gold

• Marble courtyard from the East

Galerie des Glaces, Château of Versailles, Versailles, France, Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le  Brun, 1678-84.

• Galerie des Glaces ensconced in world view created by Louis XIV  

• Glass = $$$Shows wealth and power

• Supporting luxury arts in France

Renaissance

Baroque

Italian

Religious Power  

Contemplation  

Humanism  

Rediscovery of Antiquity  

Perfect

Forms  

Linear  

Planar

Articulation of Parts

Religious Power

Emotion

Counter-Reformation

Imperfect Forms

Hidden Light Sources

Chiaroscuro

Richly Ornamented

Undulating Forms

French

Political Power  

Translation of Italian Idea

Equal Registers  

Muscular Sculptures  

Steep Pitched Roofs  

Chimneys  

Verticality (elongated windows) Pavilions  

5-part façades  

Geometric Forms

Political Power

Trying to create National Style

Emphasis on Piano Nobile

Refined Sculpture

Low Pitched Roofs

Chimneys

Stepped Facades

Verticality (elongated windows) Pavilions

5-part façades  

More restrained, more staid, still  dramatic with light and dark

Absolutist Monarch

Week 4

Classicism Comes to Britain

-The phoenix – resurrection in the ashes (symbol for London rising out of the ashes and rebuilding its  churches after the Great Fire of 1666.)

Europe in the 16th Century

• Francis I built many chateaus, Henry VII had many wives and founded a protestant church to get  around the Pope’s rules to divorce

• Religious situation in Europe 1560 – Henry wants own religion

• Henry VII’s daughter Mary I brings back Catholicism as the religion of the state and monarch  during her reign.

• Her sister Elizabeth I brings back Anglicanism

• 1534 Anglican church established

Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, United Kingdom, Robert Smythson, 1590-96

• Prodigy house: built quick

• Patron= Elizabeth of Hardwick (powerful female patron), “ES” carving on house  statement of wealth and power...she was Elizabeth Shrewsbury

• Very symmetrical, reminiscent of English castles (towers) and long windows like  English gothic cathedrals (heavy glazing)

• Windows: think about Serlio comparing Italian and French windows: English and French have  more windows. Power in having windows to look out onto a spectacular view.  

• Reference to Tuscan order

• Ideas of Palladio – Italian residences would have loggias on the side, the “loggia” is in the  middle with the English design

• Inside – power of configuration: spatial politics

• Rooms get larger as we move up floors = hierarchy of classes/scales

• Patrons wanted to bring the royal to them with their ceremonial spaces, and guest rooms for  reigning monarchs - showing loyalty to crown, support, and that they had the means to • Humanist court; Classical tales in tapestries.

• Long gallery on top floor with pictures of royal family - space was used for exercise  

Elizabeth, has no heirs so she finds James I  

• Scottish and English crowns united – wants to get Stewart line (not a Tudor) showing that he  understands Humanism, hires Inigo Jones as architect of the king

• James I brings in classicism with Inigo Jones

Inigo Jones

• Inigo Jones in architect of the king with all 4 books of Palladio

• Travels to Vicenza and sees Palladio’s work such as Palazzo Chiericati (1550-42).  o Loggia’s; Ionic (lighter, top) and Doric (heavier, bottom) orders

o Pedimental windows

o Plan: bilateral symmetry (each side is equal/same when cut in half)

o Showing that Palladio studied Classicism; this Palazzo was the next step up from  Bramante’s Il Tempietto.

Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, Italy, Andrea Palladio, 1566-70

• Temple-esque like pantheon in Rome

• 4 identical sides (symmetry), one big piano nobile - hierarchy of floors

• Triangular pediments above doorways/porch now made their way to residential  monuments (not just above windows), dome, Inigo jones was very influenced by  Palladio

• Dome on house = new idea, later adopted heavily by the French

• Palladio elevates his architecture to level of Classical masters; perfect symmetry • Built for retired guy who worked for Pope- pleasure pad

Queen’s House, Greenwich, United Kingdom, Inigo Jones, begun 1616

• Very symmetrical composition, not many windows, classical looking

• Public road runs through it (bridge connecting)

• Sort of a prodigy house

• less medieval and Gothic; much more classical = 1st Classical building in England • inverted version of Palladio’s Palazzo Chiericati - it’s the reverse loggia; Italian  monuments needs air to flow through to keep cool; English monument would rather  keep warm.

• 3 parts: sides and ‘inner loggia’.

• Parapet along the top, clear organization with stepping forward front

• Hall with double volume space

• Staircase with no central post and tulips in iron work

Banqueting House, Whitehall, London, United Kingdom, Inigo Jones, 1619-22 • Bilateral symmetry, ionic order at bottom, paired pilasters on side, engaged  columns, bottom is channeled masonry

• Façade is broken into 3 parts  

o Bottom: channeled masonry

o Ionic order: paired pilasters on the sides and engaged columns in the  

middle

o Pedimented and arched windows (piano nobile)

o Corinthian order pilasters and engaged columns on top. (Heavy to light - following  rules).

• Stands out because it is very different and white

• Open space for Banquets

• Double cubed plan, inside  

• Orders mirror outside with ionic (bottom) and Corinthian (top) (sophisticated and proportional) • Ceiling is painted but is still English renaissance building painted for Charles I (divine king) • Paintings - Baroque in an English Renaissance building = mixing styles, but focusing on  Renaissance

• Civil war after Charles I is beheaded outside of Banqueting Hall

St. Paul’s, Covent Garden, London, United Kingdom, Inigo Jones, 1631-35 (rebuilt 1795)

• Covent square:

o Urban square, brings money

o Pavilions for king and queen

o Influence from all over – Place Royal

o Commercial area and houses and garden for the market

• St. Paul’s Church/Chapel is the First Anglican church

• Inspiration much older than classicism, like church of Rome with Tuscan style • Inigo Jones wanted to create something separate aesthetically from the old Church (Catholicism) • Projecting eave, stone simple design, back looks something like a “noble barn” • Responding to new liturgy.

• (Old) St.Pauls Cathedral because of The Great Fire in 1666. Everything was mostly timber so lots  of the city burnt, lots of churches had to be rebuilt  

Christopher Wren

• Tasked with rebuilding London, creates plan for London in 1666 that looks like gardens at  Versailles and Vau-le-Vicomte

• 1665-1666 spent time in France, meets Bernini and takes ideas back to England  • Makes “Great Model” St.Paul’s Cathedral, London 1673  

o with great dome and the 1st model’s curvaceous, the 2nd has some of Bramante’s ideas o Curvaceous space, domes on domes, Classical temple porch….*too* Baroque for the  Church of England...too “Pope-ish”/Catholic.

o New plan is simple; very English- combines Romanesque and Gothic church styles o This plan was accepted, so while building, Wren made many changes to bring it back to  his original majestic and domed idea.

o Telescoping dome like in Val-de-Grace, inner masonry dome, brick cone to hold  lantern, lead outer dome.

o Some of Bramante’s ideas are there (dome), such as Il Tempietto

o Compare to the Church of St. Peter’s dome in Rome; instead of paired columns, we  have a niche in the English version.

St. Paul’s, London, United Kingdom, Christopher Wren, 1675-1709

• Has telescoping dome with lantern on top, outer dome is lead covered

• Similar to Bramante’s Tempieto and Michelangelo’s Plan for St. Peters

• Lifted 365’ (Wren was an astronomer and connected science with religion)

• Saucer domes down the nave, domes making out each bay, column  

doubling like Louvre

• Clear comprehensive space because it is an Anglican Church

• Compare to St. Peter’s with a lighter processional rhythm, St. Paul’s has  

more sculptural, clear, comprehensible space.

• Elevation: like Banqueting House (similar doubling)

• Parapet with balustradePrinciple Façade- Pediment, twin towers, open spire, doubling  columns, Intercolumniation is more dynamic

• False walls put up around, hiding flying buttresses inside and hiding light source • English Baroque, has pulpit and saucer domes, lots of light – all about “the word” • Renaissance ideas to create something new but with Baroque theatricality =  English Baroque

• Made for and payed by the people on England (coal taxes)

Christ Church, Spitalfields, London, United Kingdom, Nicholas Hawksmoor, 1714-29

• Romanesque-like - Pre-papal statement, mimicking Romanesque (back exterior) • Serliana (from Serlio)

• Serliana shape repeated in windows, Serliana window above chasel

• No sculptures, mystical alters, heavy stain glass

• Bold, clear, alluding to older than Classical aesthetics

• Huguenot church

• Inside: white and light-filled– Anglican church so light needed to read prayer books • Space to listen to sermon; focus of Protestant churches.

• Churches = England, power and religion.

St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London, United Kingdom, James Gibbs, 1721-26.

• Not payed for through coal taxes but by royal family

• Bottom Level looks like Maison Carree – refers to Roman Temple

• Gibbs was well read and borrows heavily from Classicism.

• Roman temple form but with a tower on top (spire) with bells  

• Serliana window, rustication shows expense and knowledge of classicism • Pedimented structure looks pre- Pope with spire

• Spire though, is coming from Gothic tradition

• Rusticated arches, pedimented structure

• Important of towers: contains bells which mark when mass is going on and identifies your  neighborhood, (geographical regions around spire) and for parishioners

• Inside- side aisles not for saint veneration but to get to your seat, Chancel (‘altar’), pulpit  (word is spoken here)

• Galleries for poorer parishioners

• Giant order columns

• Barrel vaulted roof ornamented with plaster, the ceiling is elaborate with different coffered  pattern/ structure

• “Gibbsian Preaching Box”

• James Gibbs “A Book of Architecture Containing Designs of Buildings and Ornaments” (1728). • Lots of detail in his design

Week 5

Developing Good Manors (Manners)

● The English didn’t really adopt the Baroque in full. They decided to do their own thing.

● Mannerism = sort of like Humanism before it; it’s a way of showing one’s place in society (how  you show good manners and knowledge of antiquity). Popular among the elite such as  politicians.

● It’s not Baroque, but Neo-Palladian. Mainly because the Baroque period was starting to merge  into something else  

● Neo-Palladian: focus on truth, experience and antiquarianism. It’s a new aesthetic.

● “Vitruvius Britannicus”, 1717 by Colen Campbell: Sets a new course in architecture. Connecting  England to a longer history of Vitruvius with politics of the time.

Renaissance –> Baroque

Renaisance

-

Baroque

1500

1600

1700

St.Peters (1505)

St.Peters (1666)

Louvre (1546)

Louvre (1667)

St.Pauls ( )

St. Pauls ()

From Baroque to Neo-Palladianism

Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, UK., John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor, 1705-24

• Built for John of Churchill, Duke of Marlborough

• Built on grounds of battle of Blenheim to show victory

• Corps de logis: main house with surrounding wings. Like Baroque Vaux-de-Vicomte  with projecting pavilions.  

• Classical tradition, theatricality of events in architecture

• Parterres in landscape

• English Baroque: oversized keystones, bow window, English projecting  

curved form with caryatid-like figures (like we’ve seen at Louvre) - they are paired to  follow the pilasters

• Wings sweep out to surround you (like at St. Peters).

• Temple facade with giant orders like Vaux-de-Vicomte - sense of unity and verticality. • Broken top pediment alluding to grand hall with three stories of windows.

• Play of rustication on side wing entrances.

• Witt and play: cannonballs and trophies of war, statue of lion biting rooster (England vs France). • Chiaroscuro; English Baroque.

• Bust of Louis XIV looted during battle and placed on roof of Blenheim = war trophy. • Anti-Versailles: playing on French Versailles and twisting it into an English monument.

• Crenulated towers with finials (ornaments at the top) that look like shooting canon balls – plays  for military victory of man and space there(Churchill won the battle with cannons) • Symmetry; kitchen to the left, stables to the right - they are arranged similarly. Kitchen far from  dining hall - issue of planning, but no matter, ceremony is most important.

• Also similar to Hardwick Hall with long halls/galleries.

• Enfilade style, long galley on left side, ceremonial staircase on outside,

English History

● Politics and architecture: Charles I -> Oliver Cromwell -> Charles II (Catholic and French  sympathizer) -> James II (ditto) -> William + Mary (super Protestant) -> Queen Anne (supporters  = Tories) -> George I (supporters = Whigs).

● Anthony Ashley Cooper: wants to bring back order, connection between Protestantism, politics  and architecture. Called for the return of styles following Inigo Jones and Palladio = purer  aesthetic and relation of great proportion, balance and order and harmony with nature.

Chiswick House, London, United Kingdom, Lord Burlington (Richard Boyle), 1725-29  

• Moves towards Neo-Palladianism

• Bilateral symmetry with more complicated forms than Palladio (octagon vs circle) but still  basic geometry and shapes. More Baroque, octagonal dome with thermal windows (like  Roman Baths of Diocletian)

• Showing-off architectural knowledge.

• Chimneys (colder climates) specifically in rows along sides of roofno decoration on  out side walls, not much embellishment, stress is shown, clean pristine  

proportions, one big Piano Nobile

• “Whig” architecture.

• Statues of Palladio and Inigo Jones on grounds to show influence

• rusticated lower base and smooth surfaces above, relieving arches on back

• Attached to his house - not living space, but just to hang out– place for pleasure, parties • Interior: ceilings are very decorated and like Banqueting Hall’s, scholarly idea to detail • Serliana windows in relieving arches playing with light and shadow.

• Maiden heads are a reference to the origins of the Corinthian order.  

• Clearly reading Vitruvius.

• Scholarly desire and recreation of truthful representation of antiquarianism.  

Grand Tour

• Wealthy people would tour through Europe and learn what’s happening everywhere • They leave, go to famous places, take-in the different information and sights, and bring the ideas  back home with them

• Ancient Rome = awe  

• Pompeii and Herculaneum = room with beautiful paintings

Library, Kenwood House, Hampstead, London, United Kingdom, Robert Adam, 1767- 69

• Taking ideas from Pompeii (roman)and applying them in a British context – wall paintings • Robert Adams was architect of the king for a bit

• Light blue walls, Corinthian pilasters and columns, painted barrel vaulted ceiling, space with  apses

• Sense of excitement and play on what Adam saw on his travels

• Very proportional, ornament - Anthemion, unifies space inside and out

• Mirrored space to add the outside in and to illuminate (smaller scaled Versailles) • Focusing on residential spaces and details.  

• Outside: orangerie where oranges are grown

• Balancing on either side

• Ornament = Anthemion

• Unifies space inside and out

• Adam Style = “Adamesque” (pastel, white, sculptural)

Empiricism

• John Locke – “no innate ideas; our experience is what gives us sense of fact, not mythical forces (the world gives us ideas). Therefore, architecture should follow a purer, antiquarian form.” • Classicism – digging into the past (taking ideas from Athens)

• Edward Burke “beauty should come from nature, mathematical ideas are not beauty.”

Grounds of Chiswick, London, United Kingdom, William Kent, c. 1727

• Wavyer designs in the landscape as opposed to geometric Versailles.  

• More natural.

• Looking at what others are doing in terms of harmony with nature.  

• Winding paths - Squiggly lines are forms of nature, more natural looking landscaping • Grounds have mini versions (playhouses) of other monuments known as a Folly • Folly’s - small scale temple-like structure (like Pantheon) sometimes with an obelisk. • Stimulating ideas while happening upon them in these spaces.

• Genius and aesthetic should come from the land.

Grounds of Stourhead, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, Henry Hoare (architecture by Henry Flitcroft),  1741-81

• Has Neo-Palladian house, artificial lake, elaborated landscaping

• Built for banker Henry Hoare II

• His way of showing off his wealth is to show that he can build a landscape - a natural one, not  like what Louis XIV tried doing.  

• Winding paths around like/creating mythological adventure through history and time (experience ancient myths, history and connection of this region to Hoare’s family) • Clear views, very picturesque (Pantheon-esque folly)

• Built an artificial lake, Plan is ‘squiggly’, picturesque

• Compare to Claude Lorrain's “Aeneas at Delos” (1672) - gardens become landscape painting.

Grounds of Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, Lancelot “Capability” Brown,  after 1764

● Success of English garden is based on being as simple as possible:

○ Gentle, rolling hills

○ Artificial lake with water courses.

○ Planting trees in clumps.

● Result should look natural, not curated, despite it being planned and designed ● Ha Ha Wall allowing a view for a great panorama without having animals or other  ‘nuisances’ coming onto the property

● Mastering nature while trying to be in harmony with it

● Sham ruins: fake ruins to remind people of the past

NEO-GOTHIC

Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, United Kingdom, Horace Walpole, begun 1748

• Neo-Gothic

• Taken from English Medieval tradition (Gothic) - Looking at England own  

‘antique’ history  

• It looks like a giant overgrown folly

• Walpole (1st prime minister’s son) sold tickets so that people could come  

see his home.  

• Completely different to Chiswick.  

• Based on idea of serendipity (coined by Walpole) = a chance meeting of spaces. Exterior and interior follow medieval aesthetic

• Gothic screens inspired by old St. Pauls

• Interested in ancient British history rather than Classical antiquity.

• Neo-Gothic vs Neo-Palladian = happening at the same time, both focus on picturesque. • Wrote “The Castle of Otranto” (1764) as the first Gothic novel which focused on the  suspension of belief and getting inspired by his own home (space responding to literature). • Conical pendant vaulting aka fan vault.

Fonthill Abbey, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, James Wyatt, begun 1796

● For William Beckford (1759-1844) - millionaire, gothic novelist. Doesn’t like Walpole do  builds his own house to show him up.

● Neo-Gothic but NOT picturesque; it is sublime.

● Sublime is another suitable aesthetic for English monuments Terror, Awe, Overwhelming ● House is a monument TO Beckford.

● We are meant to feel terror and awe when entering the space, especially with  the high ceilings (feeling of being dwarfed).

● Beckford wanted taller tower, loses fortune, sells space, tower falls over with  gust of wind 2 years later. Result= very picturesque ruin.

Week 6

Rococo and Reaction

• Rococo coming out of Late Baroque and the Holy Roman Empire.

• Holy Roman Empire was central/North Europe

• Intimacy is key with Rococo - interior residential spaces.

• Neoclassicism best put into practice at Ste-Genevieve.

• The French Academy is picking up and creating more architects with fresh new ideas - visionary  architecture

• Holy Roman Empire (800-1806):

o Groups of electing nations that elect their Emperor.

o Mix of Protestant and Catholic Emperors.

o No capital; various imperial seats, Vienna being a main one (from 1483-1806)  where the Imperial residence was.  

Vierzehnheiligen, near Bamburg, Germany, Balthasar Neumann, begun 1744

• Basilica of the Fourteen Helpers

• Site of miraculous healing therefore, a pilgrimage church

• Baroque-ish due to convex and concave elements in facade and interior.

• Curvy; playing with space: the entryway comes out out at you and the rest of the monument  goes back in

• Onion spires (Zwiebelturm) shows delicacy (found on Bavarian (German) churches and Russia)

• Channeled rustication for aesthetic but also base support

• Interior - light and ‘frothy’, pendentive paintings on ceiling, sense of drama • White and pastel with some dramatic frescoes on ceiling

• Baroque: ambiguity of light sources

• Similar to Borromini style

• Cartouche: oval frame in pendentives

• Plan: ovals, wavy; Baroque play of movement

• Columns acting as screens to hide light.

• Undulating surface (smooth, wave-like)

• Stucco - popular in Rococo

• Highly decorative and with lots of movement = Late Baroque

• It’s a bit Rococo- moving more away from religious and classical elements, and full of foliage  appendages.

Würzburg Residenz, Würzburg, Germany, Balthasar Neumann, bgn. 1720. Stair Hall,1737-53.

• New style similar to French - almost on the scale of Louvre or Versailles.

• For the Prince-Bishops, by Neumann who was an army engineer  

• Cour d’honneur: processional space before entry, essentially a gate.

• Garden facade not dissimilar to Vaux-le-Vicomte.

o Both have oval ‘Bombay’ projections

o Pavilions

o Both face onto Baroque garden.

• Play of progression and recession

• C / U shaped plan.

• Open courts for light and air circulation

• Huge area for staircase, designed to have people move a certain way

• Stair hall is a ceremonial space with frescoes (largest in the world) by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.  Playing with spatial politics: walking into the space a certain way to experience the space • “Imperial Stair” just like in Versailles, statues all of the way up

• Chapel has Solomonic columns and is opulent and decorative

• Astrology, continents embodied: world coming together in a Baroque space • Balcony for Prince-Bishops to look down at guests as they ascend stairs

• Kaiseraal (imperial Hall)- Grand ceremonial hall, vaulted ceiling, classical knowledge in paintings  (Fresco), pinks and yellows

o Images of bishops crowning Holy Roman Emperors, politics and religion

o Oval forms and undulating surfaces.

o Constant play of real and not with the gilded stucco popping out of the painting  but also blending in

o Gesamtkunstwerk: total work of art where architecture, painting and sculpture look  indiscernible from one another = they are all one artwork

• White Hall - Stucco by Antoni Bossi.

o Dramatic contrast from such an opulent space (Kaisersaal) into a very stark space o Rococo space: NO Classical features

o Heavy foliage, highly decorative and delicate, all white with dark brown doors and  floor

o Like a huge frosted cake

Louis XIV dies and his great-grandson Louis XV becomes king. Styles changing.

Salon Ovale de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, France, Germain Boffrand, 1736-39.

• Hotel particulaire = townhouse in Paris

• Outside facade: paired columns similar to Louvre

• Built for the Princes of Soubise; attempting to connect to Royals

• High screening walls.

• Double columns adding rhythm

• Rococo: Term given later, after the movement happened: ‘rocaille’ are decorative rocks  and seashells made into artificial grottoes; ‘coquille’ are seashells; ‘baroco’ means  something irregular and misshapen.

• Artificial play of space, play of artificiality and natural.

• Gilded plaster on ceiling - example of ‘good style’

• NO classical order, many swirly lines

• Architecture showing the breaking down of class; space lining up with social form at the time:  middle class making money and purchasing luxurious interiors. Artificial vs real wealth.

François Boucher, The Luncheon, 1739

● Seeing how space was used

● New sense of intimacy

● Fluid forms

● Playful sense of Rococo

● Interest in excotic (coffee, Buddha statue)

Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace, Munich, Germany, François de Cuvilliés, 1734-39.

● Intimate space

● Ionic pilasters: women. Fits female patron (princess) get-away from the larger palace ● Balustrade to shoot pheasants

● Sculptures of Classical elements, ex. Diana (vs. Chateau of Anet)

● Francois bringing what's fashionable in French style to Germany

● Rococo = extension of Baroque

● Kennel room for dogs

● Enfilade: room to room to room configuration

● Tile room: sense of the exotic.

● Main space: fun play of ornament, pastel,  

complimenting powdered wigs and pastel dresses of the time

● Inside – interest in nature, combo of natural and artificial

Ermenonville, René de Girardin with Hubert Robert, Ermenonville, France, 1766-70.

● Jardin anglais: English garden

● Landscape with winding paths, man made ponds and rivers, clumps of trees and follies ● Temple de Philosophe: garden folly with classical columns (Doric) dedicated to thinkers  and philosophers

● Context: Enlightenment Philosophers

● Key thinker of the time: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

● Rousseau: The natural state is close to goodness - the more primitive, the better. He  heavily critiqued Rococo. Supported breaking down barriers of classes. Supported  empiricism, sensation and reason. Suggested to be critical of our environment and where  we came from.

● Garden: guidebook made by the son, so you know what you are seeing as you walk through.  Social philosophy given architectural form

Abbé Laugier: 

● Anti-Baroque.  

● returns to basic principles and to return to Ancient Greek Classicism

● Good architecture found through reason and nature

● Inspired by monuments like Maison Carree

● ‘Primitive hut’ - philosophical origins of architectural history, turning to nature for beauty ● Post / lintel / sloping roof.

● “Let us keep to the simple and natural” “Architecture owes all that is perfect to the Greeks” ● Architects touring Classical sites and ruins

● Royals supporting such thinkers

Ste-Geneviève (Panthéon), Paris, France, Jacques-Gabriel Soufflot, 1757-90

● France losing colonies, so needing to show they still have power

● Building a church for the patron saint of Paris

● Free standing porch

● Columns based on temple of Baalbek in Lebanon, connecting to civil society ● Every part has a structural rationale: the columns actually hold up the weight. Supports  are clear (columns, piers)

● Dome (like Wren’s St. Paul’s)

● Tie rods and iron bracing used in pediment: using contemporary engineering with Classical  aesthetic to create ‘good’ + rational architecture

● History + reason + science

● Ambulatories on the sides, Greek cross plan with dome in middle and domes on side  ● Classical Greek and roman with gothic elements inside

● Evolution of church planning

● NEOCLASSICISM

● Gothic tradition (flying buttresses) mixed with other elements: learning lessons throughout  architectural history

● Light and airy spaces, max light with Gothic elements: flying buttresses holding up the walls ● Creating logical, reasonable space through rationality

● Flying buttresses hidden outside by parapet wall

● Mathematics used, proportions, (contemporary ideas+philosophy/math)

French Academy of Architecture-1670

● Jacque-Francois Blondel taught architecture at his private school, in 1762 he merged the school  with the academy

● Pensionnaires: students going to do field work.

● Blondel: Cours d’architecture (Lectures on Architecture) 1771-77.

● “the architect should begin with the naked mass, and be content with this, before trying to add  ornament”.

Ecole de Chirugie (School of Surgery), Paris, France, Jacques Gondouin, 1769-74

● School of Surgery; modern medicine

● Designed by a pensionnaire student

● Screening wall with Ionic colonnade, no French pavilions sticking out

● Triumphal arch entranceway (Louis XV with Minerva (goddess of wisdom), sculpted) ● Courtyard, public hall, room for experiments, theatre for midwives, anatomical  theatre

● New form but referencing Pantheon and tradition of Greek amphitheatre

● Education around body and surgery, this is the uplift of the surgeon profession  ● No distracting decorations, no rococo, no pilasters, all about education

Royal Saltworks, Arc-et-Senans, France, Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, 1775-79.

● Student of Blondel

● Created design to build ideal industrial town - utopian space

● “There is no one on Earth incapable of being saved by an architect”. (Ledoux) ● Philosophy of society and architecture, architects can save society

● Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans:

○ Workers with houses and gardens

○ Tax collectors with better houses and gardens

○ Director’s house in the middle, between factories

● Gateway: reference to Paesum; primitive Classicism

● Reference to caves where salt water is coming from, sculptures of pipes with water pouring  out (function of place to get salt from water)

● Architecture parlante – speaking architecture, explains own function

● Director’s house with blocked columns; rustication; sense of metamorphosis and change (semi rusticated columns)

● Domestic architecture for factory: dormer windows act as chimneys

Cenotaph for Sir Isaac Newton, Etienne-Louis Boullée, 1784.

● Monument to the Enlightenment, massive scale

● Never built

● Ideas of the sublime. Herculean monument

● Newton: 3 Laws of Motion

● Spheres, pyramids, cubes: distilled to their essence

● Sphere punctuated with incisions to see the night’s sky during daylight -

early idea for planetarium

● Study through empiricism

● Illuminated during the night via a giant lantern.

● Monument to a man of Science and Enlightenment research.

Architectural Terminology

Renaissance+Symetry+Geometry

• Circular in the center, square around, then keep adding square for perfect mathematics,  symmetry etc.

Baroque+Symetry+Geometry

• Move towards emotional geometry and less of the sturdy square+square = floor plan mentality  of renaissance

Rococo

● No classical elements, HEAVILY decorated, pastels, white stucco

Parterres: Geometrical planting bed used in French Baroque gardens, symbolizes wealth and control  over nature

Enfilade: a plan without hallways, have to pass from one room to another  

Piao Nobile: 2nd floor or noble floor, taller, often has more and/larger windows, nicest rooms for living Caryatid: a column that is a sculpture, usually of a woman

Dormer: a window on a slanted roof, but-outs

Quoining: contrast of stonework on a building, usually corners (ex. Place Royal) Telescoping Dome: a dome inside a dome, often tend to be entenuated – entenuated telescoping dome Equal Registers: floors are all the same height

Loggia: a breezeway, gallery or room with one or more open sides made with arches (found in warmer  countries like Italy)

Intercolumniation: spacing between columns or, specifically, their shafts (doubling them is a very  French aesthetic feature)

Pediment: triangular piece of architecture

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