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FSU - CLP 4143 - Study Guide for Section 2 - Study Guide

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FSU - CLP 4143 - Study Guide for Section 2 - Study Guide

School: Florida State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Natalie Sachs-Ericsson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology
Name: Study Guide for Section 2
Description: This study guide covers all the powerpoint slides for the class under Section 2.
Uploaded: 02/17/2018
This preview shows pages 1 - 5 of a 22 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Abnormal Psychology  Study Guide Exam 2 Depressive Disorders Mood Disorders o Unipolar Persistent Depressive Disorder Major Depressive Disorder o Bipolar Bipolar I Bipolar II Clyclothymia o All mood disorders require the presence of at least one type of  mood episode: Major Depressive Episode Manic Episode Hypomanic Episode Major Depressive Episode o At least 5 of the following most of the day, nearly every day, for  at least two weeks: Mood depressed* Sleep changes Interests (lack of) * Guilt or worthlessness Energy decrease Concentration Appetite changes Psychomotor agitation/retardation Suicidality * At least 1 of these is required o A. Presence of a major depressive episode
o B. Not better accounted for by another condition
o C. Significant distress of impairment
o D. No history of manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes (this would
indicate bipolar disorder) Persistent Depressive Disorder o At least 3 of the following more days than not for two or more  years Hopelessness Energy loss/fatigue Self-esteem low Sleep changes Appetite changes
background image Decision-making/concentration impaired 2 years depressed mood* *Required o A. Depressed mood and 2+ other symptoms for 2+years
o B. No period for 2 or more months without symptoms
o C. Not better accounted for by another condition
o D. Significant distress or impairment
o E. No history of manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes (this would
indicate bipolar disorder) Depressive Disorder Specifiers o 1. With psychotic features  mood-congruent or mood-incongruent o 2. With anxious distress
o 3. With mixed features
o 4. With melancholic features
o 5. With catatonia 
o 6. With atypical features
o 7. With peripartum onset
Prevalence of Depressive Disorders o Major Depressive Disorder: 1 of 6
o Persistent Depressive Disorder: 1 of 20 
o Gender: 2x more common in women than men
o Age: Lowest in older age (60+)
Course of Depression o Onset: typically in adolescence/young adulthood
o Longer episodes = more severe, higher likelihood of recurrence
o Without treatment: long-lasting, recurrent
o Longer remission: Recurrence less likely
Causes of Depression o Biological Factors Family Influences Heritability: 20% for men, 40% for women Environment Vulnerability (diathesis) + Stress = Depression Serotonin Transporter Gene “long” allele “short” allele LL much more resilient to depressive disorders Neurotransmitters Low serotonin When serotonin is low, it may “permit” other 
neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine) to 
range more widely, contributing to mood 
irregularities and dysregulations
background image Endocrine System Increased cortisol levels in depressed patients Stress hormones prevent neuron growth Low hippocampal volume may lead to depression o Psychological Factors Stressful Life Events Multiple/severe stressors Personal loss Context and meaning matter! o Vulnerability (diathesis) + Stress = Depression Learned Helplessness and Depress Attributional Style Internal: “it’s all my fault” Stable: “Additional bad things will always be my fault Global: “Everything in every situation is my fault” Negative cognitive styles Beck’s cognitive triad for depression o World: “Everything is against me”
o Future: “Nothing will ever change”
o Self: “I’m worthless”
Cognitive Distortions 1. All-or-nothing thinking o “black and white” 2. Over-generalization o This is bad; it will always be bad 3. Mental filter o Dwelling on the negatives  4. Discounting to positives o Positive qualities don’t count 5. Jumping to conclusions o Mind reading/fortune telling 6. Magnification/Minimization o Reaction out of proportion 7. Emotional reasoning o I feel this way; therefore, it’s true 8. Should statements o I shouldn’t feel this way… 9. Labeling o “I’m an idiot” 10. Personalization and blame o Self-blame for things that can’t be controlled o Social Factors Interpersonal Stress Marital dissatisfaction/deterioration
background image Cultural norms – gender differences Social support Depression Treatments o Biological Treatments Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Most widely used medication Block presynaptic reuptake of serotonin (increase 
levels)
Less severe side effects (better tolerated) Examples: Prozac, Zoloft Mixed Reuptake Inhibitors Blocks reuptake of multiple neurotransmitters 
(serotonin and norepinephrine)
 Examples: Wellbutrin, Effexor Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors Blocks enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitters 
(ex. Serotonin, norepinephrine)
Severe interactions with other medications/foods Prescribed when other meds are not effective Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) Block breakdown of neurotransmitters (ex. 
Norepinephrine)
Numerous side effects (blurred vision, weight gain) Ex. Tofranil, Elavil Electroconvulsive Therapy Electric shocks to the brain that causes localized 
seizures 
Used when medications are not helping Controversial; safety has improved Transcranial Magnetic Stimulations (TMS) Magnetic coil alerts electrical activity in the brain.  o Psychological Treatments Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Challenge negative thoughts o “Is this situation actually dangerous?”
o “What else could these sensations mean?”
Behavioral exercises o Engage in avoided behaviors and situations
o Practice coping with panic sensations
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) Goal: Identify and address interpersonal sources of 
depression 
o Grief, loss
background image o Role disputes
o Role transitions
o Interpersonal skills deficits
Behavior Activation Goal: help a patient become more active through 
engagement in activities that align with their values
Usually, effective treatments… Are time-limited Involve work in and out of session (ex. Homework) Involve clear goals Are more effective when combined with medications Bipolar Disorders Manic Episode o Distinct period of elevated or irritable mood
o Lasts at least 1 week
o At least 3 of the following:
Grandiosity Racing thoughts Talkativeness Distractibility Impulsive activities Increased goal-directed activity Reduced need for sleep o Marked impairment
o Often results in hospitalization
o May have psychotic features
Hypomanic Episodes o Distinct period of elevated or irritable mood
o Lasts at least 4 days
o At least 3 additional symptoms
o Some impairment (not marked)
o No hospitalization
o No psychotic features
Bipolar I Disorder o A. Must have experienced at least one manic episode Can have been less than 7 days if hospitalization was 
required
o B. Not better accounted for by another condition.  Bipolar II Disorder

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School: Florida State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Natalie Sachs-Ericsson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology
Name: Study Guide for Section 2
Description: This study guide covers all the powerpoint slides for the class under Section 2.
Uploaded: 02/17/2018
22 Pages 66 Views 52 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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