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KSU / Physics / PHY 11030 / How old is the universe according to big bang theory?

How old is the universe according to big bang theory?

How old is the universe according to big bang theory?

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School: Kent State University
Department: Physics
Course: 7 Ideas That Shook the Universe
Professor: Jonathan secaur
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: 7ideas, 7ideasthatshooktheuniverse, Physics, and Studyguide
Cost: 50
Name: 7 Ideas that Shook the Universe Midterm 1 Studyguide
Description: First studyguide for Emmons's 7 Ideas lecture. Exam on Feb 20th, 2018. Good luck!
Uploaded: 02/18/2018
16 Pages 195 Views 3 Unlocks
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7 Ideas that Shook the Universe Midterm 1 Study Guide 


How old is the universe according to big bang theory?



Key - Black = Everything, ​Highlight​ = Important, ​Highlight​ = Key Terms Lecture 1: ​Introduction [Ch. 1]

Chapter 1

● Physics: studying the laws and rules of the universe

-Ideas of the Universe

● Idea 1: We are not located at the center of the Universe

● Idea 2: We can predict the future

● Idea 3: Energy - Makes the Universe go

● Idea 4: Heat gives direction to the Universe

● Idea 5: There is a maximum speed limit


What does a finite universe imply?



○ Max 186,282 miles/sec 

○ 7 times around the equator of the earth in one second 

● Idea 6: Everything has a double nature

○ A. Particle Nature

○ B. Wave Nature

● Idea 7: Conservation Laws

○ Some laws may change, but not these

○ Cannot create or destroy: 

■ Energy

■ Momentum

● Big Bang: Giant explosion that started the universe.

○ Universe is 13.7 billion years old 

○ Biggest evidence: Train whistle leaving, the pitch has a higher pitch as it leaves, or a lower pitch as it goes by

Chapter 2: Scientific Method and Space


Is the universe two-dimensional or three-dimensional?



● 5 Steps of the Scientific Method 

○ Define problem (ex. Going to lunch, have no money to buy it) We also discuss several other topics like Why is organismal diversity study important?

○ See if problem has been solved before [research]

○ Make guesses [hypotheses] (borrow money from a friend, rob a bank, skip lunch) ○ Test each guess [experiment]

○ State answer and give percent of certainty

Lecture 2:​ 3 “Ingredients” of the Universe [Ch. 2]

-Space

● Three dimensions of space

○ Length 

○ Width 

○ Height 

● 1 Dimensional Universe 

○ Finite Universe - boundaries you can’t get through

○ Infinite - no boundaries and can keep going on forever

○ Finite universe made of only a line without any width for items to pass each other.

○ Finite can become like infinite by creating a loop with the line.

● 2 Dimensional Universe 

○ Finite can become infinite if one of the four sides going infinitely 

○ Turn paper 2D finite to infinite by looping two sides, but if they go the other ways, it will still seem finite

○ Wrap the paper around a sphere to make infinite

● 3 Dimensional Universe 

○ Finite universe, no one knows how far our universe is If you want to learn more check out How does the visual pathway look when we see a stimuli?

○ We can’t tell how if our universe is infinite or finite, we can’t live long enough to find the end

● Units of Space 

■ Inch

■ Foot

■ Yard

■ Mile

○ English System

○ Metric system: meter

■ 1/10 millionth between the north pole and the equator 

■ The distance around the earth is 40 million meters 

■ 1967, stopped changing the meter

● Took an orange light (krypton gas)

● 1,650,763.7321 wavelengths of orange krypton light

● Distance that light will travel in 1,299,792,458/sec 

-Time

● Day

○ How long it takes the earth to rotate: 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds ○ This is the sidereal day 

○ Earth spins to the run, west covers sun, east goes down in the morning ■ We base our lives on the day being 24 hours long, this is called the solar day 

● Matter (mass)

Lecture 3: ​Time and Matter [Ch. 3]

Chapter 3

-Time

● Minute = 1/60th of an hour

● Hour = 1/12th of the solar day

● Jiffy = 1/60th of a second

● Micro = million Don't forget about the age old question of What are the aspects of damage limitation in military?

-7 celestial objects that do the same

● 88 pictures in the stars = constellations, sun went through 12 = zodiacal constellations ● 7 days of the week for each object to worship (don’t memorize) 

○ Sunday = the sun

○ Monday = the moon

○ Tuesday = tiu (mars)

○ Wednesday = waden (mercury)

○ Thursday = thor (jupiter)

○ Friday = freya (venus)

○ Saturday = saturn

● Month = time for the moon to complete its phases, extra days added on to each month ● Year = 364 1/4 days Don't forget about the age old question of What is covariation in psychology?

● Platonic year = 25,800 years

○ North star at now = polaris 

○ North star at 1000 years from now = vega 

-Metric System

● Kilogram - weighs 2.2 pounds on earth

● Matter is the function of the atoms, weight is the gravity pulling on it -English Unit

● Measuring mass

○ Slug = weighs 32.2 pounds on earth

-Two ways to determine the mass of an object

● Use scales

● More mass in an object, the harder it is to start, the harder it is to stop ○ I = changing motion, changing speed 

● Push on the object and watch how long it takes to build up speed (acceleration) Chapter 4: The Earth

● Third planet from the sun

● Circumference - 25,000 miles Don't forget about the age old question of What is the relative ease with which the electron cloud in a molecule, ion, or atom can be distorted, inducing a temporary dipole?

● Diameter = circumference/pi (25,000/3.14)

● Diameter = 8000 miles

● Biggest circumference is the equator (great circle)

● Line is not the shortest distance on a sphere, an arch is. 

● Gravity moves objects down towards the center of the earth

-Layers of the Earth

1. The crust - 20 miles thick - light rocks 

2. Mantle - 1800 miles thick - molten heavy rocks 

3. Core - 2200 miles thick - molten heavy metals (iron and nickel) 

-3 layers of the atmosphere

1. Troposphere - 0-7 miles - most of the air 

a. We breathe O2 

2. Stratosphere - 7-45 miles - very cold and thin air - contains ozone layer 3. Ionosphere - 45-200 miles - acts like a mirror for radio waves 

Lecture 4: ​Coordinates of the Sky [Ch. 5]

-Observer’s Sky Don't forget about the age old question of What is the numerical compact of data most generally describes?

● Azimuth (heading) tells which direction to look

○ North 0, east 90, south 180, west 270

● Altitude tells how high to look

-Geocentric theory

● Geo means earth - centric means center

● Incorrect theory, but useful in learning a more complex coordinate system of the sky -Celestial Sphere 

● Imaginary clear ball around earth

● North Celestial pole (NCP) 

○ Polaris is famous because it’s position is right above the north pole ■ North star 

■ Located at the NCP, thus directly above the north pole of earth 

■ You can find polaris using the pointer stars of the big dipper 

■ Take the distance of the dipper and do the distance 5 times and you reach polaris

● South celestial Pole (SCP)

● Celestial Equator

● Latitude of kent = 41 or 42

● Longitude of kent = 81

-2 Rules Pertaining to Polaris

● The altitude of Polaris = your latitude on earth

● As the earth rotates once each day, polaris does not appear to move in the sky. But stars, the sun, planets, etc. appear to make circles around polaris once each day 

Lecture 5: ​Heliocentric Theory [Ch. 6]

● Point above: Zenith 

○ Polaris your zenith

● Meridian: Line that cuts the western and eastern part of the sky

-Lines of Declination

● Lines above latitude lines on earth

● Declamation lines are numbered starting at the celestial equator

● NCP (north celestial pole) - 90 declination 

● Positive and negative is above or below equator 

-Right ascension lines

● Lines above the longitude lines on earth

● Right ascension lines start where the sun is on the first day of spring (vernal equinox) ● Ecliptic: the path the sun seems to travel around the sky once each year ○ Crosses the equator at two points (have a declination of 0)

○ Summer at the maximum declination 

Chapter 6: Heliocentric Theory

● First suggested by Nicolaus Copernicus about the time Columbus discovered america (1492)

● Major proofs of the theory

○ Retrograde motion of the planets 

■ Planets appears to go back and forth around the planet

○ Parallax of nearby stars 

■ Nearest star 100 light years away

○ Seasons

○ Aberration of starlight

Lecture 6: ​Kepler’s Laws and Motion [Ch. 6]

-Kepler’s 3 laws

● Planets go around the sun in elliptical orbit with the sun off to one side ○ 93 million miles is an average between the two sides 

○ Coldest weather - closest to the sun (January 3rd) 

● As a planet nears the sun it speeds up and when it is farther from the sun it slows down ● The farther a planet is from the sun, the longer it takes to orbit the sun ○ Mercury = 88 days

○ Venus = 225 days

○ Mars = 687

○ Jupiter = ~12 years

-Planets

● Mercury: craters believed to be made by meteorite impact.

● Venus: Planet surrounded by cloud, Venus’s surface too hot, pod burned up after a few seconds

● Mars: Has large sea beds and lakes on mars, Ice caps on mars, not entirely made of water (Frozen carbon dioxide)

● Jupiter: 4 large moons and giant red spot

● Saturn: Planet surrounded by rings, Material that make up the rings is small rocks ● Uranus: Covered with thick layers of clouds’

● Neptune

○ Has some belts on it

○ Very cold

○ Clouds made of liquid nitrogen

○ Called the “Giant dark spot”, not there anymore

● Pluto: Not a planet anymore, found 100’s of planets the same size Chapter 9: Motion

● Uniform velocity: The change in an object’s distance divided by the change in time ○ Change in distance/change in time = delta Δ 

■ Delta is the greek letter which means change 

○ V = Δ D/Δ T 

● Relative Velocity: Velocity of an object added to the velocity of a frame ○ V (add R below) - V (O) + V (F) 

Lecture 7: ​Relative Velocity

● Acceleration: the change in an object’s velocity divided by the change in time ● A = ΔV/ΔT 

● Steps to acceleration

○ 1st step: choose the formula 

○ 2nd step: put in the values 

○ 3rd step: Find the answer 

● Terminal Velocity: the maximum velocity an object can reach before air resistance prevents it from continuing to move faster

○ Neglecting the effect of the air (air resistance) all falling objects on earth accelerate

Chapter 11: Velocity Time Graph

● Δd = (1/2)aΔt^2 

● Must start at rest, the acceleration can’t vary 

Lecture 8: ​Isotopic Property of Space and Forces

● Distance Formula: Δd = (1/2)aΔT^(2 -> ΔT x ΔT) 

● The second method involves a graph where plotted on the side scale is the object’s velocity and on the bottom scale is time. 

○ Velocity ~ Time Graph 

○ Velocity on the y-axis and time on the x-axis 

■ a = positive (+) 

■ a = negative (-) 

○ Line going up, velocity is faster 

○ Line is going down, velocity is slower 

○ Line is straight across, velocity is steady 

● Differential calculus: Find the slope without drawing the graph.

○ The area under a velocity time graph gives the distance moved by an object ● Integral calculus: Finding the area under the slope without drawing the graph. ○ Instead, alculate by using area of triangles and rectangles

Chapter 12: Isotropic Property of Space and Forces 

-First Force - Gravity: 

● Gravity is produced by all objects 

● Gravity is the weakest of the 4 forces 

● Gravity is an attracting force - it tries to pull things together 

-Second Force - Electromagnetic 

● The electromagnetic force is generated only by charged particles (positive or negative) ● Two positive particles will move apart (repel), two negative particles will move apart (repel) 

● One positive and one negative particle will move toward each other (attract) ○ The negative charge on the desk repels the negative charge of your hand, you aren’t actually touched anything 

Lecture 9: ​Review 

-Third Force - Strong Nuclear Force 

● Strongest force in nature and is found only in the center of atoms (nucleus) ● Keeps the nucleus of the atom together even though the positive protons in the atom are repelling each other 

○ Break nucleus apart by firing a bullet of neutrons or protons 

○ Neutron will break apart in 19 minutes 

○ Breaks into an electron, proton, and a small particle called a neutrino -Fourth Force - weak nuclear force 

● Can cause the neutron (a neutral particle found in the nucleus of atoms) to break apart approximately 19 minutes after the neutron is removed from atom. 

Chapter 13: Newton’s Laws 

● Sir Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727): Newton discovered 3 laws relating forces to motion -Newton’s First Law 

● Newton’s first law is sometimes called the “no force law” because it tells us what happens when you do not push or pull an object 

● If an object is not moving (at rest) it will remain at rest 

● If an object is moving, it will remain moving in a straight line with a constant speed ○ Friction is a type of electromagnetic force 

-Newton’s second law 

● A force will cause an object to accelerate 

● The force must not be canceled out by a force pushing in the opposite direction. In other words the force must be a net force 

○ The greater the net force, the larger the acceleration 

○ The greater the mass of an object, the smaller the acceleration 

■ Gravity does not pull the same force on all objects 

-Newton’s Third Law 

● You can not apply a force to an object without the object applying a reverse force. This law is sometimes stated, “for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.” -Newton’s Fourth Law: Force of gravity = (m1+m2)/d^2

-Units of Force 

● All units of force are defined as how hard you must push on a mass to produce a certain amount of acceleration 

○ English = mass (slug) x acceleration (ft/sec^2) 

■ Slug (ft/sec^2) 

■ A pound is the force required to cause the mass of one slug to accelerate 1ft/sec^2 

○ Metric = mass (kilogram) x acceleration (meter/sec^2) 

■ Kilogram (meter/sec^2) = pound 

○ Metric = Mass (gram) x acceleration (centimeter/sec^2) 

■ Gram (centimeter/sec^2) = dyne 

■ Dyne is the force required to cause the mass of one gram to accelerate one centimeter/sec^2) 

-Review 

● Force of gravity exists between any two objects 

● Sun were directly in front of you and went around the earth = solar day ● Apply a net force to an object = accelerates 

● North pole on the earth where to look for polaris = straight up

7 Ideas that Shook the Universe Midterm 1 Study Guide 

Key - Black = Everything, ​Highlight​ = Important, ​Highlight​ = Key Terms Lecture 1: ​Introduction [Ch. 1]

Chapter 1

● Physics: studying the laws and rules of the universe

-Ideas of the Universe

● Idea 1: We are not located at the center of the Universe

● Idea 2: We can predict the future

● Idea 3: Energy - Makes the Universe go

● Idea 4: Heat gives direction to the Universe

● Idea 5: There is a maximum speed limit

○ Max 186,282 miles/sec 

○ 7 times around the equator of the earth in one second 

● Idea 6: Everything has a double nature

○ A. Particle Nature

○ B. Wave Nature

● Idea 7: Conservation Laws

○ Some laws may change, but not these

○ Cannot create or destroy: 

■ Energy

■ Momentum

● Big Bang: Giant explosion that started the universe.

○ Universe is 13.7 billion years old 

○ Biggest evidence: Train whistle leaving, the pitch has a higher pitch as it leaves, or a lower pitch as it goes by

Chapter 2: Scientific Method and Space

● 5 Steps of the Scientific Method 

○ Define problem (ex. Going to lunch, have no money to buy it)

○ See if problem has been solved before [research]

○ Make guesses [hypotheses] (borrow money from a friend, rob a bank, skip lunch) ○ Test each guess [experiment]

○ State answer and give percent of certainty

Lecture 2:​ 3 “Ingredients” of the Universe [Ch. 2]

-Space

● Three dimensions of space

○ Length 

○ Width 

○ Height 

● 1 Dimensional Universe 

○ Finite Universe - boundaries you can’t get through

○ Infinite - no boundaries and can keep going on forever

○ Finite universe made of only a line without any width for items to pass each other.

○ Finite can become like infinite by creating a loop with the line.

● 2 Dimensional Universe 

○ Finite can become infinite if one of the four sides going infinitely 

○ Turn paper 2D finite to infinite by looping two sides, but if they go the other ways, it will still seem finite

○ Wrap the paper around a sphere to make infinite

● 3 Dimensional Universe 

○ Finite universe, no one knows how far our universe is

○ We can’t tell how if our universe is infinite or finite, we can’t live long enough to find the end

● Units of Space 

■ Inch

■ Foot

■ Yard

■ Mile

○ English System

○ Metric system: meter

■ 1/10 millionth between the north pole and the equator 

■ The distance around the earth is 40 million meters 

■ 1967, stopped changing the meter

● Took an orange light (krypton gas)

● 1,650,763.7321 wavelengths of orange krypton light

● Distance that light will travel in 1,299,792,458/sec 

-Time

● Day

○ How long it takes the earth to rotate: 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds ○ This is the sidereal day 

○ Earth spins to the run, west covers sun, east goes down in the morning ■ We base our lives on the day being 24 hours long, this is called the solar day 

● Matter (mass)

Lecture 3: ​Time and Matter [Ch. 3]

Chapter 3

-Time

● Minute = 1/60th of an hour

● Hour = 1/12th of the solar day

● Jiffy = 1/60th of a second

● Micro = million

-7 celestial objects that do the same

● 88 pictures in the stars = constellations, sun went through 12 = zodiacal constellations ● 7 days of the week for each object to worship (don’t memorize) 

○ Sunday = the sun

○ Monday = the moon

○ Tuesday = tiu (mars)

○ Wednesday = waden (mercury)

○ Thursday = thor (jupiter)

○ Friday = freya (venus)

○ Saturday = saturn

● Month = time for the moon to complete its phases, extra days added on to each month ● Year = 364 1/4 days

● Platonic year = 25,800 years

○ North star at now = polaris 

○ North star at 1000 years from now = vega 

-Metric System

● Kilogram - weighs 2.2 pounds on earth

● Matter is the function of the atoms, weight is the gravity pulling on it -English Unit

● Measuring mass

○ Slug = weighs 32.2 pounds on earth

-Two ways to determine the mass of an object

● Use scales

● More mass in an object, the harder it is to start, the harder it is to stop ○ I = changing motion, changing speed 

● Push on the object and watch how long it takes to build up speed (acceleration) Chapter 4: The Earth

● Third planet from the sun

● Circumference - 25,000 miles

● Diameter = circumference/pi (25,000/3.14)

● Diameter = 8000 miles

● Biggest circumference is the equator (great circle)

● Line is not the shortest distance on a sphere, an arch is. 

● Gravity moves objects down towards the center of the earth

-Layers of the Earth

1. The crust - 20 miles thick - light rocks 

2. Mantle - 1800 miles thick - molten heavy rocks 

3. Core - 2200 miles thick - molten heavy metals (iron and nickel) 

-3 layers of the atmosphere

1. Troposphere - 0-7 miles - most of the air 

a. We breathe O2 

2. Stratosphere - 7-45 miles - very cold and thin air - contains ozone layer 3. Ionosphere - 45-200 miles - acts like a mirror for radio waves 

Lecture 4: ​Coordinates of the Sky [Ch. 5]

-Observer’s Sky

● Azimuth (heading) tells which direction to look

○ North 0, east 90, south 180, west 270

● Altitude tells how high to look

-Geocentric theory

● Geo means earth - centric means center

● Incorrect theory, but useful in learning a more complex coordinate system of the sky -Celestial Sphere 

● Imaginary clear ball around earth

● North Celestial pole (NCP) 

○ Polaris is famous because it’s position is right above the north pole ■ North star 

■ Located at the NCP, thus directly above the north pole of earth 

■ You can find polaris using the pointer stars of the big dipper 

■ Take the distance of the dipper and do the distance 5 times and you reach polaris

● South celestial Pole (SCP)

● Celestial Equator

● Latitude of kent = 41 or 42

● Longitude of kent = 81

-2 Rules Pertaining to Polaris

● The altitude of Polaris = your latitude on earth

● As the earth rotates once each day, polaris does not appear to move in the sky. But stars, the sun, planets, etc. appear to make circles around polaris once each day 

Lecture 5: ​Heliocentric Theory [Ch. 6]

● Point above: Zenith 

○ Polaris your zenith

● Meridian: Line that cuts the western and eastern part of the sky

-Lines of Declination

● Lines above latitude lines on earth

● Declamation lines are numbered starting at the celestial equator

● NCP (north celestial pole) - 90 declination 

● Positive and negative is above or below equator 

-Right ascension lines

● Lines above the longitude lines on earth

● Right ascension lines start where the sun is on the first day of spring (vernal equinox) ● Ecliptic: the path the sun seems to travel around the sky once each year ○ Crosses the equator at two points (have a declination of 0)

○ Summer at the maximum declination 

Chapter 6: Heliocentric Theory

● First suggested by Nicolaus Copernicus about the time Columbus discovered america (1492)

● Major proofs of the theory

○ Retrograde motion of the planets 

■ Planets appears to go back and forth around the planet

○ Parallax of nearby stars 

■ Nearest star 100 light years away

○ Seasons

○ Aberration of starlight

Lecture 6: ​Kepler’s Laws and Motion [Ch. 6]

-Kepler’s 3 laws

● Planets go around the sun in elliptical orbit with the sun off to one side ○ 93 million miles is an average between the two sides 

○ Coldest weather - closest to the sun (January 3rd) 

● As a planet nears the sun it speeds up and when it is farther from the sun it slows down ● The farther a planet is from the sun, the longer it takes to orbit the sun ○ Mercury = 88 days

○ Venus = 225 days

○ Mars = 687

○ Jupiter = ~12 years

-Planets

● Mercury: craters believed to be made by meteorite impact.

● Venus: Planet surrounded by cloud, Venus’s surface too hot, pod burned up after a few seconds

● Mars: Has large sea beds and lakes on mars, Ice caps on mars, not entirely made of water (Frozen carbon dioxide)

● Jupiter: 4 large moons and giant red spot

● Saturn: Planet surrounded by rings, Material that make up the rings is small rocks ● Uranus: Covered with thick layers of clouds’

● Neptune

○ Has some belts on it

○ Very cold

○ Clouds made of liquid nitrogen

○ Called the “Giant dark spot”, not there anymore

● Pluto: Not a planet anymore, found 100’s of planets the same size Chapter 9: Motion

● Uniform velocity: The change in an object’s distance divided by the change in time ○ Change in distance/change in time = delta Δ 

■ Delta is the greek letter which means change 

○ V = Δ D/Δ T 

● Relative Velocity: Velocity of an object added to the velocity of a frame ○ V (add R below) - V (O) + V (F) 

Lecture 7: ​Relative Velocity

● Acceleration: the change in an object’s velocity divided by the change in time ● A = ΔV/ΔT 

● Steps to acceleration

○ 1st step: choose the formula 

○ 2nd step: put in the values 

○ 3rd step: Find the answer 

● Terminal Velocity: the maximum velocity an object can reach before air resistance prevents it from continuing to move faster

○ Neglecting the effect of the air (air resistance) all falling objects on earth accelerate

Chapter 11: Velocity Time Graph

● Δd = (1/2)aΔt^2 

● Must start at rest, the acceleration can’t vary 

Lecture 8: ​Isotopic Property of Space and Forces

● Distance Formula: Δd = (1/2)aΔT^(2 -> ΔT x ΔT) 

● The second method involves a graph where plotted on the side scale is the object’s velocity and on the bottom scale is time. 

○ Velocity ~ Time Graph 

○ Velocity on the y-axis and time on the x-axis 

■ a = positive (+) 

■ a = negative (-) 

○ Line going up, velocity is faster 

○ Line is going down, velocity is slower 

○ Line is straight across, velocity is steady 

● Differential calculus: Find the slope without drawing the graph.

○ The area under a velocity time graph gives the distance moved by an object ● Integral calculus: Finding the area under the slope without drawing the graph. ○ Instead, alculate by using area of triangles and rectangles

Chapter 12: Isotropic Property of Space and Forces 

-First Force - Gravity: 

● Gravity is produced by all objects 

● Gravity is the weakest of the 4 forces 

● Gravity is an attracting force - it tries to pull things together 

-Second Force - Electromagnetic 

● The electromagnetic force is generated only by charged particles (positive or negative) ● Two positive particles will move apart (repel), two negative particles will move apart (repel) 

● One positive and one negative particle will move toward each other (attract) ○ The negative charge on the desk repels the negative charge of your hand, you aren’t actually touched anything 

Lecture 9: ​Review 

-Third Force - Strong Nuclear Force 

● Strongest force in nature and is found only in the center of atoms (nucleus) ● Keeps the nucleus of the atom together even though the positive protons in the atom are repelling each other 

○ Break nucleus apart by firing a bullet of neutrons or protons 

○ Neutron will break apart in 19 minutes 

○ Breaks into an electron, proton, and a small particle called a neutrino -Fourth Force - weak nuclear force 

● Can cause the neutron (a neutral particle found in the nucleus of atoms) to break apart approximately 19 minutes after the neutron is removed from atom. 

Chapter 13: Newton’s Laws 

● Sir Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727): Newton discovered 3 laws relating forces to motion -Newton’s First Law 

● Newton’s first law is sometimes called the “no force law” because it tells us what happens when you do not push or pull an object 

● If an object is not moving (at rest) it will remain at rest 

● If an object is moving, it will remain moving in a straight line with a constant speed ○ Friction is a type of electromagnetic force 

-Newton’s second law 

● A force will cause an object to accelerate 

● The force must not be canceled out by a force pushing in the opposite direction. In other words the force must be a net force 

○ The greater the net force, the larger the acceleration 

○ The greater the mass of an object, the smaller the acceleration 

■ Gravity does not pull the same force on all objects 

-Newton’s Third Law 

● You can not apply a force to an object without the object applying a reverse force. This law is sometimes stated, “for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.” -Newton’s Fourth Law: Force of gravity = (m1+m2)/d^2

-Units of Force 

● All units of force are defined as how hard you must push on a mass to produce a certain amount of acceleration 

○ English = mass (slug) x acceleration (ft/sec^2) 

■ Slug (ft/sec^2) 

■ A pound is the force required to cause the mass of one slug to accelerate 1ft/sec^2 

○ Metric = mass (kilogram) x acceleration (meter/sec^2) 

■ Kilogram (meter/sec^2) = pound 

○ Metric = Mass (gram) x acceleration (centimeter/sec^2) 

■ Gram (centimeter/sec^2) = dyne 

■ Dyne is the force required to cause the mass of one gram to accelerate one centimeter/sec^2) 

-Review 

● Force of gravity exists between any two objects 

● Sun were directly in front of you and went around the earth = solar day ● Apply a net force to an object = accelerates 

● North pole on the earth where to look for polaris = straight up

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