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UM / Chemistry / CHEM 111 / Why do we use the scientific method?

Why do we use the scientific method?

Why do we use the scientific method?


School: University of Miami
Department: Chemistry
Course: Principles of Chemistry I
Term: Fall 2014
Tags: Chemistry and Science
Cost: 50
Description: These are the study guide notes for chapters 1-3 . I will upload chapter 4 study guide as we go on because the teacher is still teaching.
Uploaded: 02/18/2018
4 Pages 50 Views 4 Unlocks


Why do we use the scientific method?

CHARFER 1: matter, measurement, & Problem

Atoms aret solving

EVERYWHERE Atoms: submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamentala I building blocks of ordinary matter. If you want to learn more check out What are the rewards of financial planning?

Atoms bind together in specific geometrical arrangements called

COMPOUNDS! Scientific Methodi Observation - Hypothesis Experiment → Formulas of Laws & Theories

What is the definition of scientific law?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the techniques of integration?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the branch of psych that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan?

to WHY do we use the scientific method?

To help us understand nature by observing nature & its behavior,

and by conducting experiments to test our ideas.

• Scientific Law

• Brief statement that summarizes past observations and

predicts future ones "In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed

What is the classification of matter by components?

If you want to learn more check out How are the four financial statements linked?

Law of conservation of Mass

• Allows you to predict future observations We also discuss several other topics like How much of a diet normally consists of carbohydrates?

• You CANNOT violate a scientific law THE CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER

• Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass

States of matter:

Solid: atoms or molecules are closely packed in a fixed

location they vibrate, but do NOT move fixed volume & rigid shape We also discuss several other topics like Which critique did capitalists like albert augustus pope make of competition?

Crystalline (patems w/order) or amorphous (no order) Liquid atoms or molecules are packed like solids but

are able to move relative to eachother

fixed volume but not a fixed shape * ability to flow helps them assume the shape of

their container.. Gas atoms or molecules have A LOT of space between


free to move relative to each other These qualities make gas compressible

CHAPTER 1 cont.



PURE SUBSTANCE snade up of only one

Component & its conposition is invarianty

tre properties & YES compositions


MIXTURE (made up of two or

more components in proportions that




A solid & liquid is separated best by



(phase) (2 phases)





Physical change alter only the state or appearance, but not composition Chemical Change: changes that alter the composition of matter

Atoms rearrange transforms the original substance into different

substances Lo Rusting

• Physical Property property that a substance displays without changing

its composition s odor, taste, color, appearance, melting point, Borling point, Density

• Chemical Property property that a substance displays only by

- changing its composition via a chemical change. Lo Flammability, corrosiveness , Acidity, Toxicity Significant Figures

• used for precision

• Rules:

D ALL non-zeros are significant 2) INTERIOR zeros are significant 3) LEADING zeros are now significant

4) TRAILING zeros after a decimal are

ALWAYS significant

molor wass

CHA r t 2: 4toms & Elements

om ting DOYATCe Pranged to Down Low boot in a che

YPOCHON Le consists of

a nucleus that contains protons & neutrong

elecawns in large, empty space around the nuclers lons

• The number of electrons in a neutral arom is equal to the number of protons

Positively charged ions (wat) are called cations

Negatively charged ions (61-) are called anions. Atomic Mass: axia, atomic weight

Written right under the element's symbol

irepresents the average mass of isotopes. MOLAR MASS : Counting Atoms by weighing Them

*Avogadro's number: i mole = 6.02214 x 1023 particles

g element motor mol element number of atomo


number Examples

1) A pure silver ring contains 2.80 x 1022 silver atoms.

How many moles of silver atoms does it contain?

80 x 1022 Agatonts x 1 mol Ag =0.04649 61 mol Ag.

- 6.022x10 23 atomsag asigfias 3 sigfigs CHARTER 3: Molecules, compounds, and Chemical Equation Chemical Bonds: composed of atoms held together by chemical bonds

Lolonic-ocour between metals and non metais

Covalent occur between two or more non metais & Chemical Formula - indicates the elements present in the compound


and the relative number of atoms orions 4 Empirical Formula: gives the relative number of atoms of

each element in a compound La Molecular Formula: gives actual number of atoms of each

elements LD Structural Formula: uses lines to show covalent bonds & how atoms

. are connected or bonded to each other.

0465 mol Ag

Molecular compounds composed of two or more covalently bonded nonmetal

olonic compounds: composed of cations lusually a metall and anions

(usually one or more non metais) bound together by ionic bonds

Shady so

LHART 3 cont.

•Polyatomic lonigroup of charged species

NaNO3 - Nat & NO

Cacos Car & CO 3 2

KClO K* & Clot binary compounds: contain only two different elements,

name of cation Those name of anion 7

h (metal) + (nonmetal) tide

•Type II Binary lonic compounds

Thame of cation

Sebase name of onion ? L (metal)

Lenonmetal) tide /

• oxyanions anions containing oxygen & another element


hypo-less than ClO2 chlorite

-ite fewer C103 chlorate

-ate more CIOs perchlorate

per - more than Molecular compounds

w name of 70

prefiy bose name of

Listelemente Janeelement tide

• Acids

harge of

Binary Acids = Ht cation & nonmetal anion


[base name of 7

Lion metal tic J

roxyacids have H t cation

& poly atomic anion

- ge: Гboft na yu of 7

• Loxyamon tic lacid]

2nd of



ite. Thase name of 7 acid

-ite: Loxyallion -ous lui

• Formula Mass

# of atoms of 1st atomic mass

# of orbins of formula mass =

. atomic mass Clement inchen, formal

15+ element

and tlement . Empirical Formula: simplest, whole number ratio of the atoms

of elements in a compound 11 Convert percentages to grams 2) convert grams to moles 3) write pseudo formula 4) Divide all by smallest # of moles 5) Make whole #

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