GH11113STUDY BUIDE: EXAMI
CHARFER 1: matter, measurement, & Problem
Atoms aret solving
EVERYWHERE Atoms: submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamentala I building blocks of ordinary matter. If you want to learn more check out What are the rewards of financial planning?
Atoms bind together in specific geometrical arrangements called
COMPOUNDS! Scientific Methodi Observation - Hypothesis Experiment → Formulas of Laws & Theories
We also discuss several other topics like What are the techniques of integration?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the branch of psych that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan?
to WHY do we use the scientific method?
To help us understand nature by observing nature & its behavior,
and by conducting experiments to test our ideas.
• Scientific Law
• Brief statement that summarizes past observations and
predicts future ones "In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed
If you want to learn more check out How are the four financial statements linked?
Law of conservation of Mass
• Allows you to predict future observations We also discuss several other topics like How much of a diet normally consists of carbohydrates?
• You CANNOT violate a scientific law THE CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
• Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass
States of matter:
Solid: atoms or molecules are closely packed in a fixed
location they vibrate, but do NOT move fixed volume & rigid shape We also discuss several other topics like Which critique did capitalists like albert augustus pope make of competition?
Crystalline (patems w/order) or amorphous (no order) Liquid atoms or molecules are packed like solids but
are able to move relative to eachother
fixed volume but not a fixed shape * ability to flow helps them assume the shape of
their container.. Gas atoms or molecules have A LOT of space between
free to move relative to each other These qualities make gas compressible
CHAPTER 1 cont.
THE CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER BY COMPONENTS
PURE SUBSTANCE snade up of only one
Component & its conposition is invarianty
tre properties & YES compositions
MIXTURE (made up of two or
more components in proportions that
CHEMICAL CHANGE ELEMENTS
A solid & liquid is separated best by
(phase) (2 phases)
PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES
Physical change alter only the state or appearance, but not composition Chemical Change: changes that alter the composition of matter
Atoms rearrange transforms the original substance into different
substances Lo Rusting
• Physical Property property that a substance displays without changing
its composition s odor, taste, color, appearance, melting point, Borling point, Density
• Chemical Property property that a substance displays only by
- changing its composition via a chemical change. Lo Flammability, corrosiveness , Acidity, Toxicity Significant Figures
• used for precision
D ALL non-zeros are significant 2) INTERIOR zeros are significant 3) LEADING zeros are now significant
4) TRAILING zeros after a decimal are
CHA r t 2: 4toms & Elements
om ting DOYATCe Pranged to Down Low boot in a che
YPOCHON Le consists of
a nucleus that contains protons & neutrong
elecawns in large, empty space around the nuclers lons
• The number of electrons in a neutral arom is equal to the number of protons
Positively charged ions (wat) are called cations
Negatively charged ions (61-) are called anions. Atomic Mass: axia, atomic weight
Written right under the element's symbol
irepresents the average mass of isotopes. MOLAR MASS : Counting Atoms by weighing Them
*Avogadro's number: i mole = 6.02214 x 1023 particles
g element motor mol element number of atomo
1) A pure silver ring contains 2.80 x 1022 silver atoms.
How many moles of silver atoms does it contain?
80 x 1022 Agatonts x 1 mol Ag =0.04649 61 mol Ag.
- 6.022x10 23 atomsag asigfias 3 sigfigs CHARTER 3: Molecules, compounds, and Chemical Equation Chemical Bonds: composed of atoms held together by chemical bonds
Lolonic-ocour between metals and non metais
Covalent occur between two or more non metais & Chemical Formula - indicates the elements present in the compound
and the relative number of atoms orions 4 Empirical Formula: gives the relative number of atoms of
each element in a compound La Molecular Formula: gives actual number of atoms of each
elements LD Structural Formula: uses lines to show covalent bonds & how atoms
. are connected or bonded to each other.
0465 mol Ag
Molecular compounds composed of two or more covalently bonded nonmetal
olonic compounds: composed of cations lusually a metall and anions
(usually one or more non metais) bound together by ionic bonds
LHART 3 cont.
•Polyatomic lonigroup of charged species
NaNO3 - Nat & NO
Cacos Car & CO 3 2
KClO K* & Clot binary compounds: contain only two different elements,
name of cation Those name of anion 7
h (metal) + (nonmetal) tide
•Type II Binary lonic compounds
Thame of cation
Sebase name of onion ? L (metal)
Lenonmetal) tide /
• oxyanions anions containing oxygen & another element
hypo-less than ClO2 chlorite
-ite fewer C103 chlorate
-ate more CIOs perchlorate
per - more than Molecular compounds
w name of 70
prefiy bose name of
Listelemente Janeelement tide
Binary Acids = Ht cation & nonmetal anion
[base name of 7
Lion metal tic J
roxyacids have H t cation
& poly atomic anion
- ge: Гboft na yu of 7
• Loxyamon tic lacid]
ite. Thase name of 7 acid
-ite: Loxyallion -ous lui
• Formula Mass
# of atoms of 1st atomic mass
# of orbins of formula mass =
. atomic mass Clement inchen, formal
and tlement . Empirical Formula: simplest, whole number ratio of the atoms
of elements in a compound 11 Convert percentages to grams 2) convert grams to moles 3) write pseudo formula 4) Divide all by smallest # of moles 5) Make whole #