Recognize that hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface or inside the cell and that this depends on the chemical structure of the hormone:
● If the hormone is lipid soluble, then it passes through the target cell’s cell membrane to bind to the receptors that are inside the target cells. ● If the hormone is NOT lipid soluble, then it just binds to the receptors that are on the surface of the target cell’s cell membrane.
Explain how hormones function in your body, including the roles of endocrine cells, circulatory system, target cells, receptors, and signal transduction. ● Endocrine cells release hormones into the bloodstream
● As they’re in the bloodstream, it travels through the circulatory system ● While they’re in the bloodstream, hormones randomly move and happen to bump into target cells (this is RANDOM) If you want to learn more check out what does the varicella zoster virus do?
● Once they bump into the target cells, they bind to the receptors (whether on the surface, if it’s NOT lipid soluble, or through the cell membrane, if it’s lipid soluble)
● The moment the hormones bind to its target cells, it starts signal transduction pathways (from reception to transduction to response)
Contrast tropic and non-tropic hormones.
● Tropic hormones: hormones that regulate (stimulate or inhibit) the release of other hormones (example: GnRH)
● Non-tropic hormones: hormones that act DIRECTLY on their target cell !
Contrast releasing and release-inhibiting hormones and explain where they are produced in the body.
● Releasing hormones stimulate the release of other hormones while release-inhibiting hormones prevent the release of other hormones; both of these type of hormones are produced in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Create and evaluate analogies to explain how hormones function in the human body.
● Think back to the analogy you and your group members made!!!! ● Analogies must include these key terms:
○ Endocrine cell
○ Circulatory system (aka blood vessels)
○ Target cell(s)
○ Receptor (be sure you can determine if it’s on the surface of the membrane or in the actual cell)
○ Effect of hormone in the cell
○ Small amount of hormone can still have a large effect
○ Target cells exist in different kinds of tissues We also discuss several other topics like What is Biological Psychology?
■ Target cells in different kinds of tissues may respond to If you want to learn more check out What is Phylogenetic tree?
hormones in different ways
Explain how positive and negative feedback loops function
● Positive feedback loop: a change in parameter in one direction triggers a response that moves that parameter in the SAME direction (it’s almost like something keeps challenging it; it appears when there’s a “finale” that ends the loop: birth)
● Negative feedback loop: a change in a parameter in one direction triggers a response that moves that parameter in the OPPOSITE direction (=homeostasis, goal is to balance)
Identify positive and negative feedback loops in the hormonal control of reproduction, and explain the parts of the loop
● The hormonal regulation of human male reproduction includes at least one negative feedback loop
Explain hormonal control of male reproduction, using unlabeled figures as a guide.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is asset?
Make predictions about the effects of disturbing parts of the male reproductive systems.
● Just remember the function of hormones and what stimulates/ inhibits what (the concept map above can help you out)
○ No testosterone receptors in the endocrine cells in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland
■ As a result…
● The release of GnRH would not be inhibited
● Without the receptors, testosterone cannot have an affect
on the cells in the hypothalamus or in the pituitary, so
testosterone CANNOT inhibit the release of GnRH or
LH (FSH can still be inhibited because inhibin receptors
Be able to sketch a picture of the structure of reproductive anatomy for males, including the following parts: seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, penis, testicles.
● Anatomy for males
If you want to learn more check out what are The World System?
● Cross-section of the testis
If you want to learn more check out What is pyrimidines?
Explain the role of Sertoli and Leydig cells in sperm production, including their structure and how hormones interact with these cell types
● Sertoli cells: facilitates spermatogenesis (sperm production) ○ Structure: if you do a cross-section of the seminiferous tubule, then each “pie slice” you see would be a sertoli cell
○ FSH binds to its receptor on sertoli cells and weakly stimulates spermatogenesis
● Leydig cells: secretes testosterone
○ Structure: if you do a cross-section of the seminiferous tubule, then the “pink ovals” would be a leydig cell
○ LH binds to its receptor on leydig cells and stimulates the production and secretion of androgens (male hormone, such as testosterone) ■ Androgens also bind to receptors in the nuclei of sertoli cells and thereby also weakly stimulate spermatogenesis
● Binding of FSH to its receptor increases expression of the androgen receptors, so spermatogenesis is thus strongly stimulated (strong if both hormones are present)
Explain hormonal control of female reproduction, using unlabeled figures as a guide.
Recognize and be able to explain the order of events in hormonal regulation of female reproduction.
● Ovarian cycle
○ Ovaries produce an egg that can be fertilized
○ This cycle governs the ovary, including the release of an egg ○ The cycle is regulated by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
■ Ovaries are endocrine glands
■ Hormones produced by the ovaries circulate in the blood, and regulate the uterine cycle
■ There are three phases of the uterine cycle (follicular phase→ ovulation→ luteal phase)
● Menstrual (or uterine) cycle
○ The uterus creates a hospitable environment for an embryo
○ This cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the uterine lining
○ The cycle is regulated by hormones produced in the ovary (such as estrogen and progesterone)
○ There are three phases of the menstrual cycle (menstrual flow phase→ proliferative phase→ secretory phase)
■ Proliferative phase: building up lining
■ Secretory phase: continue to build up lining OR it disintegrates ● REMEMBER!!!! The menstrual cycle and menstruation (period) are NOT the same thing!!!!!!!!!!!
● These cycles occur at the SAME time
Make predictions about the effects of disturbing parts of the female reproductive systems
● Just remember the functions of the hormones!! (the concept map above can help you out)
● REMEMBER!! hCG functions similarly to LH
○ hCG maintains corpus luteum (corpus luteum produces progesterone, and progesterone maintains uterine lining)
Be able to sketch a picture of the structure of reproductive anatomy for females, including the
following parts: uterus, ovary, fallopian tubes, vagina, hypothalamus, pituitary gland.
Differentiate between what occurs in the female reproductive cycle when an egg is fertilized versus when it is not fertilized.
● When fertilization does not occur…
○ Disintegration results in
○ Progesterone and estrogen levels decrease
○ The lining sheds
● When fertilization does occur…
○ Progesterone and estrogen maintains the uterine lining (these hormones are produced by the corpus luteum; they promote
thickening of endometrium, which allows for a fetus to grow in) !
Create an accurate explanation for a non-biologist about how at-home pregnancy tests work and when you can expect to see a positive result if you are pregnant. ● Hormone hCG is produced by the implanted embryo
○ hCG is secreted through the urine, which is why pregnancy tests can detect whether a female is pregnant or not
○ You can expect a positive result the same day you missed your period if you are pregnant
Explain how hormonal birth control methods work.
● Take it continuously (with hormonal and sugar pills)
○ Hormonal birth control includes estrogen and progesterone or progesterone alone
○ Three weeks of the pill contains these hormones
○ One week of the pill does NOT contain any hormones
● Some women take hormonal birth control every day with no sugar pills (whether because they choose to or must)
○ In these cases, most women end up with no menstruation (it appears if they stop taking the pills)
○ Menstruation (or period) is not necessary, so doctors say it’s safe !
Draw graphs representing relative blood levels of hormones for normally-cycling women and women using hormonal birth control.
● Normally-cycling women
● Women using hormonal birth control
Be able to use the “calendar” method to predict ovulation, when menstruation will occur, and to plan for (or to avoid) pregnancy
● To plan for (or to avoid) pregnancy, you will need to know many factors such as…
○ day of ovulation (most women have cycles somewhere between 21 and 35 days; the follicular phase varies from female to female, but the luteal phase is more consistent, so generally, you would subtract 14 days from the length of the whole cycle to determine the day of ovulation)
■ Example: if a female has a cycle of 29 days, you would do: 29-14= 15, so you’d count 15 days starting from the beginning of the cycle...September 28...after 15 days...October 12!)
○ how long an egg is viable (24 hours)
○ how long sperm can persist following ejaculation (3-5 days) ○ cycle length and dates of cycle (varies→ you would determine cycle length by counting from the start of a menstrual cycle to the last day before the start of the next cycle)
● Male and female should have sex (if avoiding pregnancy, least risk) ○ 3-5 days before ovulation
○ After 24 hours have passed after ovulation
Describe types of contraception and rank their effectiveness under typical use conditions, including implants, condoms, pills, ring and patch, IUDs, sterilization, withdrawal, and calendar method.
● Most effective: implant, IUD, male/female sterilization
● Okay-ish effectiveness: injectable, pill, patch, ring, diaphragm ● Least effective: male/female condom, withdrawal, sponge, spermicide, fertility awareness based methods
○ Often irreversible for women
○ Vasectomy can often be reversed
○ Hormonal IUDs
■ Low dose of progestin
■ Lessens menstrual cramping
■ Thickens cervical mucus
■ Can lighten or even eliminate periods
■ 3 and 5 year
○ Copper IUDs
■ Completely hormone-free
■ May increase bleeding and cramps
■ Affects sperm movement
■ Won’t change regularity of your period
■ 12 year
Explain the importance and function of the placenta and how it impacts hormone production and regulation
● Importance/ function/ impact of placenta:
○ Takes over production of estrogen and progesterone from corpus luteum
○ Continues to produce these hormones as pregnancy continues ○ The placenta is the organ through where the fetus is connected to the mother
■ Maternal arteries deliver her blood to the placenta (blood flows from arteries into a pool of blood)
■ From the pool of blood, the blood exits and goes back into the mother’s bloodstream
■ The fetus is connected to the placenta by its umbilical cord (which the cord delivers blood to placenta)
■ This blood flows into capillaries, and after the blood circulates through the capillaries, it goes back into the umbilical cord
○ REMEMBER!!! Maternal blood and fetal blood NEVER come into contact!!!!
Create explanation to non-biologist how mother and fetus can affect each other’s health
● Mother and fetus can affect each other’s health because the placenta contains both maternal and fetal tissue, which allows beneficial substances (such as oxygen, nutrients, and hormones) as well as harmful substances (wastes/ carbon dioxide) to pass between mother and fetus.
Draw a model of the labor positive feedback loop
○ CRH/cortisol is released, stimulates posterior pituitary
● Posterior pituitary
○ Oxytocin is released, stimulates uterine wall
● Uterine wall
○ More contractions (which causes baby to push against and stretch the cervix)
● Cervical stretching
○ Stimulates hypothalamus to stimulate pituitary, which triggers more oxytocin to be released (and the cycle continues and intensifies until the baby is born, which ends the loop)
Differentiate between hormone levels before and after birth
● Hormone levels during pregnancy: