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MU - MBI 111 - Study Guide - Midterm

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MU - MBI 111 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image True Pathogen:   M​ icrobes capable of causing disease in healthy people with normal immune  defenses    Opportunistic Pathogens:   Microbes capable of causing disease when the hosts defenses are compromised  or normal microbiota that causes disease after entering part of the body where they do 
not belong 
  Infectious Dose:   Minimum number of microbes required to cause an infection in a hose (ranges  from one cell to billions of cells depending on microbial type)    Acute Infection:   Infection that develops quickly, with severe but short-lived effects 
 
Chronic Infection:   Infection that professes and persists over a long period of time 
 
Communicable Disease:   Disease in which the pathogen spread from one host to another, directly or  indirectly    Contagious Disease:   Communicable disease in which the pathogen is EASILY spread from host to  host 
 
Non-communicable Disease: 
Disease that does not spread from host to host   
Latent Disease: 
Occurs when a disease causing agent remains inactive in the body for long  periods, but then becomes active to cause disease 
 
Sequelae: 
Long term of permanent damage to tissues or organs following a disease   
Etiology: 
Cause of a disease 
background image Subclinical Infection:   Infection that exsits with no symptoms of disease   
Endogenous Infection: 
Infection caused by normal microbiota (usually in a body site in which they are  not normally found or in an immune compromised host) 
 
Exogenous Infection: 
Infection caused by pathogenic microbes that originate outside the hosts body   
Localized Infection: 
Invading microbes are limited to a relatively small area of the body   
Systemic Infection: 
Invading microbes or microbial products spread throughout the body   
Focal Infection: 
Invading microbes “break loose” from a localized infection and are carried to  other tissues 
 
Mixed Infection: 
Infection that involves more than one type of pathogenic microbe   
Sporadic Disease: 
Disease that occurs occasionally   
Endemic Disease:  
Disease occuring at some (more or less) constant or expected level in a  population  
 
Epidemic Disease: 
Occurrence of a disease in excess of the endemic level (in excess of normal or  expected level) 
 
Pandemic DIsease: 
Worldwide epidemic   
 
 
background image Incidence:   Number of new cases of a disease occurring in a given population during a given  time period 
 
Prevalence: 
Number of cases of a disease present in a given population at a given point in  time 
 
Syndrome: 
Specific group of signs and symptoms that always accompany a particular  disease 
 
Microbes and Humans live together in 3 Ways: 
Commensalism  One organism benefits, other is unaffected   Mutualism  Both organisms benefit  Parasitism  One organism benefits at the expense of another   
Pathogenicity: 
Ability of microbes to cause disease in host   
Virulence: 
Level of pathogenicity   
Virulence Factor: 
Characteristic that assists microbe in disease   
Adhesion to Host Cells: 
Surface molecules on bacteria attach to complementary binding sites on host  cell surfaces  Different Bacteria: Different attachment structure 
Different Host Cells: Different binding sites/receptors 
 
Evasion to Host Cells  Resistance to engulfment by immune system cells 
Certain bacteria live within host allowing evasion of attack 
 
background image Antigenic Variation:  Surface molecules change overtime 
"One step ahead of immune" 
 
Exotoxins: Diphtheria Toxin  Kill host cells by stopping protein production 
"Pseudomembrane": Block breathing 
Damage nerve & heart cells 
 
Exotoxins: Botulin Toxin 
Block nerve triggering muscle: No contraction & flaccid paralysis (sometimes  death) 
 
Exotoxins: Cholera Toxin: 
Binds to intestine (small) 
Severe Diarrhea 
 
Exotoxins: Hemolysin 
Breaks open red blood cells & other host cells leading tissue damage   
Bacterial Virulence Factor: 
Molecules or cell structures that: 
Allow attachment to hose 
Allow immune system invasion 
Damage host organism (Directly or Indirectly) 
Virulence depends on arsenal or virulence factors 
 
Epidemiology 
Study of when & where diseases occur and how they are transmitted 
Emphasis on disease prevention & control 
 
Reservoirs 
Natural hose of habitat of pathogen 
Places where normally live/multiply 
 
Human Reservoirs  People with clinically recognized disease   
 

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School: Miami University
Department: Microbiology
Course: MBI 111
Professor: Josephcarlin
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Name: MBI 111: Study Guide
Description: Details about scientists, diseases, and other key terms found in the book
Uploaded: 02/19/2018
16 Pages 42 Views 33 Unlocks
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