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MU - MBI 111 - Study Guide - Midterm

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MU - MBI 111 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image True Pathogen:   M​ icrobes capable of causing disease in healthy people with normal immune  defenses    Opportunistic Pathogens:   Microbes capable of causing disease when the hosts defenses are compromised  or normal microbiota that causes disease after entering part of the body where they do 
not belong 
  Infectious Dose:   Minimum number of microbes required to cause an infection in a hose (ranges  from one cell to billions of cells depending on microbial type)    Acute Infection:   Infection that develops quickly, with severe but short-lived effects 
Chronic Infection:   Infection that professes and persists over a long period of time 
Communicable Disease:   Disease in which the pathogen spread from one host to another, directly or  indirectly    Contagious Disease:   Communicable disease in which the pathogen is EASILY spread from host to  host 
Non-communicable Disease: 
Disease that does not spread from host to host   
Latent Disease: 
Occurs when a disease causing agent remains inactive in the body for long  periods, but then becomes active to cause disease 
Long term of permanent damage to tissues or organs following a disease   
Cause of a disease 
background image Subclinical Infection:   Infection that exsits with no symptoms of disease   
Endogenous Infection: 
Infection caused by normal microbiota (usually in a body site in which they are  not normally found or in an immune compromised host) 
Exogenous Infection: 
Infection caused by pathogenic microbes that originate outside the hosts body   
Localized Infection: 
Invading microbes are limited to a relatively small area of the body   
Systemic Infection: 
Invading microbes or microbial products spread throughout the body   
Focal Infection: 
Invading microbes “break loose” from a localized infection and are carried to  other tissues 
Mixed Infection: 
Infection that involves more than one type of pathogenic microbe   
Sporadic Disease: 
Disease that occurs occasionally   
Endemic Disease:  
Disease occuring at some (more or less) constant or expected level in a  population  
Epidemic Disease: 
Occurrence of a disease in excess of the endemic level (in excess of normal or  expected level) 
Pandemic DIsease: 
Worldwide epidemic   
background image Incidence:   Number of new cases of a disease occurring in a given population during a given  time period 
Number of cases of a disease present in a given population at a given point in  time 
Specific group of signs and symptoms that always accompany a particular  disease 
Microbes and Humans live together in 3 Ways: 
Commensalism  One organism benefits, other is unaffected   Mutualism  Both organisms benefit  Parasitism  One organism benefits at the expense of another   
Ability of microbes to cause disease in host   
Level of pathogenicity   
Virulence Factor: 
Characteristic that assists microbe in disease   
Adhesion to Host Cells: 
Surface molecules on bacteria attach to complementary binding sites on host  cell surfaces  Different Bacteria: Different attachment structure 
Different Host Cells: Different binding sites/receptors 
Evasion to Host Cells  Resistance to engulfment by immune system cells 
Certain bacteria live within host allowing evasion of attack 
background image Antigenic Variation:  Surface molecules change overtime 
"One step ahead of immune" 
Exotoxins: Diphtheria Toxin  Kill host cells by stopping protein production 
"Pseudomembrane": Block breathing 
Damage nerve & heart cells 
Exotoxins: Botulin Toxin 
Block nerve triggering muscle: No contraction & flaccid paralysis (sometimes  death) 
Exotoxins: Cholera Toxin: 
Binds to intestine (small) 
Severe Diarrhea 
Exotoxins: Hemolysin 
Breaks open red blood cells & other host cells leading tissue damage   
Bacterial Virulence Factor: 
Molecules or cell structures that: 
Allow attachment to hose 
Allow immune system invasion 
Damage host organism (Directly or Indirectly) 
Virulence depends on arsenal or virulence factors 
Study of when & where diseases occur and how they are transmitted 
Emphasis on disease prevention & control 
Natural hose of habitat of pathogen 
Places where normally live/multiply 
Human Reservoirs  People with clinically recognized disease   

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School: Miami University
Department: Microbiology
Course: MBI 111
Professor: Josephcarlin
Term: Fall 2015
Name: MBI 111: Study Guide
Description: Details about scientists, diseases, and other key terms found in the book
Uploaded: 02/19/2018
16 Pages 42 Views 33 Unlocks
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