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Temple - CJ 101 - midterm study guide - Study Guide

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Temple - CJ 101 - midterm study guide - Study Guide

School: Temple University
Department: Criminal Justice
Course: intro to cj
Professor: elena vilincia
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: criminology
Name: midterm study guide
Description: midterm review for introduction to criminal justice and organized crime
Uploaded: 02/19/2018
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background image Chapter 1: Criminology   What is Criminology: 
Under the umbrella of sociology    ◦  Sociology is the scientific study of human societies. Branch of social science that 
looks at human social structure and activity 
  •  Criminology from a Latin word crimen “accusation” is the study of the “nature, extent, 
causes, and control of criminal behavior.”  
  •  Research includes the incidents & forms of crime & the causes and consequences; social 
& government regulations and reactions to crime.   
  ◦  Criminologists try to explain why people commit crime→ nature of crime     ▪  Defining crime is dependent on moral, political, and social “processes.” 
What constitutes a crime is relevant to time and place. 
  •  Depending on where you are people/society will view crime differently    ◦  example- murder, what instances of murder? Toxic dumping that leads to death, 
abortion, drug procession. All examples of debate & lack of consensus 
  ◦  Every society establishes its own rules & system of law that emerges out of the 
social context that they come from 
  •  When studying crime, we also have to think @ how we interpret a criminal because both 
factors help in determining why they are engaging in criminal activity & how we react to 
  ◦  example- calculated crime=increase severity of punishment or focus on root 
causes-psychological, biological, social 
5 Essential Questions of Criminologists: 
Why do crime rates vary?
   •  Why do some people commit crime more than others?     •  Why do crime rates vary across different ages, genders, racial/ethnic groups?    •  Some acts are considered criminal and some are not, why?    •  What can we do to prevent crime?  Origins of Law: 
2 main thoughts:  
  1.  source of social order 
◦  resolves & prevent social disputes so we can attempt to live together; therefore 
the law is a product of consensus.

  ◦  law is a “natural product” of informal rules of interaction of a society, based on 
morality (general consensus) of society

  2.  law is the product of conflict 
background image   ◦  law is a selective process, different moralities and different interest of people. The 
more intricate society becomes w/economic division of labor, more law has to 
regulate encounters of individuals with different roles (as this division grows the 
law tends to benefit the upper class to protect their status) 
  ▪  upperclass vs. lower class   Private Morality vs. Public Interest: 
Some matters, private morality not only have an impact on individuals but also the 
community (prostitution, drug use, pornography) 
  ◦  example- as crime rates rise in a community, more wealthy or powerful citizens 
tend to move out because of their private needs, thus leading to less public interest 
in the area and causing even more dilapidation of the community 
The Effectiveness of Law as an Instrument of Morality: 
it is very difficult because laws that are not supported by moral beliefs do not work as 
well as others 
  ◦  Behaviors may not be viewed as severe enough & are usually done in private    ▪  example- drugs & enforcement     ▪  police play a key role→ Influential→ corrupt in nature→ low 
victim complaints and use of undercover means/entrapment/
bribery → result in little control of drug use  & police corruption 
Law, Morality, & the Creation of Crime: 
A possible result of using the law to control morality is that it will result in a “permanent 
class of deviants.” 
  ◦  Example- drug addicts→ buy drugs (opiates) legally → become illegal → people 
started selling illegally & buying illegally (black market) → what was initially 
legal for white women→ drug addiction, blacks, policing & less treatment=other 
criminal behavior 
  •  Cost & harm for those subject to control→ difficult to leave lifestyle b/c options are 
Historical Explanations for Crime (into to Chapter 4): 
Supernatural Explanation 
◦   person is under the influence of evil spirits/demons    ◦  you are controlled by spiritual forces    •  resolution: get rid of by exile or execution
   ◦  high belief in faith & pleasing Gods, offender suffered due to “will” of Gods and 
not the potential harm to society 
  ▪   most severe result-witchcraft, treason→ result→ cut up, exiled, eaten → 
goal→ remove the person from group 
  ◦  private offenses had “eye for an eye” concept 
background image   ▪  little use of incarceration; end of this period punishment was restitution/
compensation- sometimes victim decided amount and evolved to $ set for 
each type of offense  
Classical School 
 18th Century, 1700-1800    •  Rationalism & Freewill    ◦  Ceseare Beccaria & Jeremy Bentham    ◦  concepts of rationalism and humanitarianism: nature of man → rational, free will, 
sought highest level of pleasure of happiness 
  •  Principles    ◦  had major impact on reformation of cj system-pain/punishment must equal the 
crime and offset pleasure=deterrence  
  •  led to social control concept → people are deterred by threat of punishment if it was 
“swift, certain, and appropriate” for the crime. Unpleasant=no gains  
  •  Problem: only focused on act not individual, can you treat incompetent person the 
same→ are they seeking pleasures? Result was the Neoclassical Revisionists (1800-1876) 
  ◦  not everyone is the same; other factors that could sway judgment    ◦  believed that most are rational and responsible enough to know right from wrong 
but paved way for system to acknowledge that sanctions should be flexible 
  ▪  example: probation/parole, etc. for certain “types” of offenders→ move 
away from uniformity/certainty of punishment emphasized in classical 
Positivist/Italian School (aka Determinism) 
19th Century    ◦  Lombroso, students Garofalo and Ferri, American approach by Sheldon William    ▪  Viewed themselves as scientists who were concerned with identifying the 
determining causes of criminal behavior in individual offenders 
  •  Rejects the Classical idea that all crime is the result of a choice that anyone can make    ◦  Criminality is determined by the effect in a cause-effect sequence    ▪  the mandate of criminology should be to search for these causes.     ▪  It was believed that with the exception of those deemed to be 'born 
criminals', the discovery of the causes of crime would allow for effective 
  ◦  therefore adopts a medical model (crime as sickness) and advocates rehabilitation 
of offenders, indeterminate sentences, and the dominance of professionals in 
correctional decision-making

  •  Lombroso argued that the most serious crimes were committed by people who were 
primitive in nature: atavistic, someone who failed to evolve to a fully human and 
civilized state, apelike, could not adapt to modern civilization 
  ◦  example- physical defects and non physical-tattooing etc.    •  Crime therefore resulted from mental or physical defects 
background image   ◦  Divided into biological (physical), Psychological (mental illness and weak 
conscience, certain personalities react in deviant behavior because of 
environmental personalities) 
  ◦  Social (society is the cause, crime is normal part of society, deviance is boundary 
The Chicago School 
20th century    •  Park, Burgess et al. , sociologists at the University of Chicago    •  Social disorganization model    •  Examined 5 concentric zones that exists as cities grow, including the zone in transition, 
which is the most volatile and subject to disorder (focus on juvenile delinquents) 
  ◦  Social ecology that urban neighborhood with high levels often experience    ◦  breakdowns in the social structures and institutions such as families and schools 
and this disorganization which in turn reduces the ability of these institutions to 
control behavior and provides an environment that fosters deviant behavior 
The New Emphasis: The System 
Move away from determinism, development of the labeling and conflict perspectives    •  Becker et al.    •  Perspectives are factors that highlight on social and political systems that help cause the 
crime problem 
  ◦  these perspectives the offender is viewed as “victim of class struggle, racial 
discrimination, and other manifestations of inequality.” 
  •  Labeling (social reaction theory): crime is relative, defined, and thus created, result of 
personality factors associated with committing crime, majority labeling minorities, 
capitalist, stereotypes, mental illness, social reaction to crime rather than act that is focus  
  •  Conflict and Marxist theory: interests of dominate class for capital gain, efforts of group 
or individual trying to maximize benefits, use of law is used as a method to maintain 
existing inequalities and law surfaces as a conflict  of interests and represents the interests 
of the ruling class; symbolizes structural arrangements such as the economy, class 
system, power/authority. 
Chapter 2: Measuring Crime    •  Measuring victimization is important to researchers and the 
criminal justice system
    •  Data assists policy makers and victims services     ◦  Whether crime has gone up or down it depends on which years we 
look at and type of crime
    •  3 nationwide measurement systems exist to count & classify crime:     1.  Official Reports of Law Enforcement Departments     ▪  Uniform Crime Report most cited measure of crime     ▪  Began in 1931, and currently under the  direction of the 

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School: Temple University
Department: Criminal Justice
Course: intro to cj
Professor: elena vilincia
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: criminology
Name: midterm study guide
Description: midterm review for introduction to criminal justice and organized crime
Uploaded: 02/19/2018
16 Pages 38 Views 30 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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