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UA - EN 210 - Study Guide - Midterm

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UA - EN 210 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image The American Renaissance Historical Background Puritan Literature:
spiritual not entertaining history as a circle did not write fiction, but poetry (Taylor, Bradstreet) sermons very common (Winthrop)  Puritan Society:
self- governing congregations free schools for children (teach them to read the bible) religious beliefs form lives of people
Providence: God’s master plan Predestination: Saints and Sinners (not everyone is saved) Covenant of Work and Grace (follow God’s laws and form a good community)  On the way … American Revolution:
Revolutionary war (1775) Great Britain vs. 13 colonies  → aim: independence of the colonies
→ Victory of the colonies
Declaration of Independence (July 4th, 1776) George Washington becomes the first president of the US Benjamin Franklin - The Autobiography Enlightenment: Formal, Didactic, Rational, Rhetorical American Expansion:
The Frontier, The West Nature Romanticism: Lyrical, subjective, irrational, unrealistic  In America, most books that were sold during that time were written by classic European,  especially English, authors (before the American Renaissance)  → no international copyright laws:  European authors could be printed without paying royalties (American authors were
too expensive 
→ high competition among American authors Civil War (1861 – 1865) north vs. south: → northern states: Beginning of the industrialization, Abolition of slavery (1820)
→ southern states: slaves were important for cotton industry
1865: capitulation of the southern states
→ abolition of slavery
background image Literature The American Renaissance ( ~ 1830s – 1865) first genuinely American literary period (Americans sought their own voice) about American topics:
American landscape nature people the Frontier (Die Siedler bewohnten einen relativ schmalen Streifen entlang der amerik.
Ostküste. Der Westen war unbekanntes und unerforschtes Land (Wildnis, in der die 
Ureinwohner lebten – bewusste Abgrenzung). Mit der Zeit wurde die Grenze stückweise
weiter nach Westen geschoben)
melting pot (people from many different countries, races and religions came to America
(wanted to live the American Dream). They brought their own cultures and traditions to
America → mixed up) American Dream  freedom Transcendentalism (mid-19 th  century) General informaton
important American movement in philosophy and literature „people, men and women equally, have knowledge about themselves & the world 
around them that „transcends“ or goes beyond what they can see, hear, taste, touch or 
feel“ believe in inherent (innewohnende) goodness within nature  Conviction that human beings could rise above their animal instincts and live 
accordingly to higher principles 
Belief in progress and collective sense of optimism  Beliefs and interests: supernatural, self-reflection, spirituality, American newness  most important writers
Walt Whitman
 most influential because of his direct words without sugar coat writes in free verse style, breaks with traditions in  themes: city, unity and diversity, the individual Henry David Thoreau
criticizes the Americans: “they turned themselves into “mere machines” to acquire  pointless wealth” Ralph Waldo Emerson
our ideas of god and freedom are inborn, not learned everyone can see the truth by trusting the impulse of their hearts themes: beauty, wealth
background image Fireside poetry (middle of the 19th century, also known as schoolroom poetry) importance of fireside poetry:
very popular during 19 th  century lost importance in the 20 th  century  important poets:
William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878) Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809 – 1894): style: wry & playful, social group: upper class Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882): style: sentimental, social gr.: middle class James Russell Lowell (1819-1891): style: intellectual John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892): social group: working class H.W. Longfellow: “Paul Rivere´s Ride” published in 1861 (beginning of the Civil War) story of Paul Revere, who was one of three riders who were supposed to warn the 
American Army 
Battles of Lexington and Concord ahead content: it´s the story of Paul Revere, who was one of three horsemen who were supposed  to warn the American Army when the British Army goes by sea / land to attack them fireside poetry because …  “listen my children and you shall hear”
→ father reads poem to his children (at the fireside)
important event (but no formal political statements)
→ children should know about it
no “real” violence
→ written for children, easy language
made for teaching children American history! Political message:
recalls memory of Revolutionary war call for action he doesn´t want a war, no 2 countries 
→ BUT: unity: “Advertisement for unity”
Ballad Definition
in literature: short, narrative poem, usually relating a single, dramatic event Folk (12 th  century): written anonymously, passed through generations before being  written Literary ballad: (late 18 th  century): written to mimic format of a folk ballad origins
medieval french dance songs or “ballares”: ballare = to dance  influenced by the Minnesinger 
background image form
ballad stanza: abac quatrain  variation of this pattern common dialect is used don´t have any known author / correct version themes: tragic, historical, romantic, comic Classification
European ballad: 3 groups – traditional, broadside, literary ballad American b.: European ballad vs. native American ballads (no reference to earlier song) modern ballad (since 19 th  century): sentimental ballad (a slow love song) Ode often dedicated to s.o / sth. special  themes: friendship, love, nature, moral, religion classical form: three-parted poem different forms:
the Pindaric ode: strophe, antistrophe, epode the Horatian ode: less formal than Pindaric ode, easy structure the Irregular ode Sonnet lat. “sonare” - “to sound” often used to provoke controversy contains a “volta” - a dramatic turn different forms:
The Italian Sonnet
14 lines 2 parts: octave (shows a problem / desire / … – 8 lines)   sestet (intrduces the poet´s solution – 6 lines) rhyme scheme for the octave: abba, abba (the sestet can vary in style) volta appears at the end of the octave The English Sonnet (Shakespearean – during the Elizabethan Age)
3 quatrains + a couplet rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg (usually iambic pentameter) volta appears mostly in the last two lines  The Spenserian Sonnet
3 quatrains + a couplet rhyme scheme: abab bcbc cdcd ee indefinable Sonnet
poems, that don´s fit to one of those categories, yet seem to function as one → due to volta or rhyme scheme
background image Reading assignments Emily Dickinson  1830 - 1886 secluded life wrote over 1500 poems, only 7 published during her life not concerned with outside world, contemporary politics, society or fashion fascicles: Dickinson´s manuscript
often did not settle on choice of words shows  “That after Horror – that t´was us”(1) near death experience (you can die without warning) wrote poem for herself why connected to civil war?
“metallic grin” - death is a machine, inhumane “face of steel” - refers to weapons machine imagery represents death “Granite Crumb” - represents Industrialization “I dwell in Possibility” → Das haben wir nie besprochen …. Julia Ward Howe 1819 – 1910 abolitionist political activist best known for “Battle Hymn of the Republic” ( she was asked to write it) “Battle Hymn of the Republic”(2) enthusiastic, glorification of war – is supposed to encourage soldiers – it´s a marching song plays with Puritan ideals: Americans are the chosen people → should march on (with god) → very negative “presentation” of war (1) ↔ glorification of war (2)

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Science
Course: American Literature
Professor: Caroline Klocksiem
Term: Winter 2014
Tags: americanliterature, Literature, american, poetry, and Renaissance
Name: The American Renaissance
Description: This study guide covers what's going to be in our next exam - Historical Background - Literature - Reading assignments - American Poetry into the 20th century
Uploaded: 02/21/2018
24 Pages 106 Views 84 Unlocks
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