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Who introduced paradigms?

Who introduced paradigms?


Ch 1  

Who introduced paradigms?

• Paradigms is a term to describe a number of competing theoretical perspectives. It was  introduced by Thomas Kuhn (1970).  

• Rational Choice: Individuals are able to make rational, calculating choices regarding behavior.  Criminal choices are made when they are adventurous.  

• Positivism: Many distinct pathological conditions may be the genesis of criminal behavior.  This means that being criminal is out of your control. Could be biological, physiological,  social. (dominated most of 20th century)  

• Interactionism: Reactions of persons and groups to particular behaviors result in some being  labeled as criminal.  

• Critical: Power elite define crimes and operate agencies of social control in their own interest,  preserving their position in society.  

Who are the fathers of classical criminology?

• Integration: Crime can best be explained by combining two or more theoretical perspectives.  

Ch 5  

• Deterrence Theory: Beccaria and Bentham are the fathers of Classical Criminology. Their  theory was based on rational decision and that a person would not engage through assuring  relative certainty, celerity and severity of the punishment. Certainty: certainty of punishment,  their has to be a knowledge that such criminal behavior will be caught and there will definitely  (certainly) be a punishment. Celerity: there must be a speedy trail and punishment for a crime.  This ensures that the punishment and crime are thought as one instead of the effects of possible We also discuss several other topics like Who was the name of the first ivf baby? what year was she born?

punishment being diminished. Severity: the punishment should be equal to the crime. If too  harsh then the system can lose credibility and could cause outrage among people.  

What is strain theory?

Ch 7  

• Strain Theory: stress, frustration, or strain, generally a product of failed aspirations, increases  the prospects for norm violations (the general societies values are violated: crime). Norms are  violated to alleviate the strain that accompanies failure. The blockage of legitimate goal  attainment encourages deviant solutions (robbery, illegal business).  We also discuss several other topics like What is the best way to avoid unintended pregnancy?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is a measure of how far a reaction proceeds until it reaches chemical equilibrium and there is no further product concentration increase?
We also discuss several other topics like What is a pacemaker of the heart?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four systems that regulate and maintain body chemistry?
If you want to learn more check out What is metamemory?

- Merton ~ Social Structure and Anomie ~ (1938) Social conditions place pressures on people  differentially throughout the class structure and people react individually to these conditions.  Merton felt that deviant desires were socially generated. He believed that all societies had a  cultural system that 1) denotes socially approved values and goals 2)details acceptable norms  or institutionalized means for achieving these goals. In America, society pressures that the  goal is wealth. The means to achieve such wealth though is unfeasible for those at the bottom  of the social structure.

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