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Jefferson State Community College - HIST 102 - Study Guide - Final

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Jefferson State Community College - HIST 102 - Study Guide - Final

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background image Topic 1 The Renaissance The Middle Ages o Will for mankind
o Sinfulness
o The hereafter
o The Great Chain of Being
Renaissance Defined o Time period: 14 th  and 16 th  century o Rebirth: Humans back at the center; reconnection with classical  civilization o Felt in many areas: literature, philosophy (Humanism), art and  architecture, science and technology, politics Italy divided into city-states Center of trade between East and West; started the Crusades Growth of business: banking, manufacturing Monied families competed with other families and other city-states; wealth 
used to gain influence and adorn residences and public buildings.
Italy: the need for unification; other countries messing with these states Machiavellian ambassador when Florence was a republic (1498-1512) o Deceitful and cunning
o Ambassador to Florence
o Republic: ruled by the people
o Sometimes has powerful people that take over (de Medici family)
Spain invaded (1512) and republic ended in favor of de Medici family; 
Machiavelli fired, imprisoned, tortured, left for his country estate.
o Wrote The Prince Idealism vs. Realism New way of doing politics: what is and what actually works 
(realism)
Idealism: What should be (honest and trustworthy leadership 
leads to dependability).
Real politics Machiavelli is the first to put into words the advice on realism 
and idealism. Once he believes that order is established, he 
believes that the Republic take is more idealistic.
Early Renaissance Writers and Scholars The Prince
o Advice to the Medici on how a ruler should act to maintain order and 
control o Idealism v Realism Key Points:
background image 1. Expect the worst (Milan allowed France to go through its  territory on the way to Naples; France took over Milan.) 2. Better to be feared than loved and be a “lion and a fox.”
3. “Ends justify the means”; desperate times call for 
desperate measures and only desperate times call for 
desperate measures
4. One can cheat and lie Art Giotto (1266-1336) o Florentine painter; focused primarily on frescoes that later influenced  the likes of Michelangelo, Da Vinci, and Raphael. o Many consider him the father of the Artistic Renaissance – physical and emotional accuracy in portraying humans (typically saints and religious
figures.)
o Scrogvengi Chapel
o Classic Byzantine art (schematic)
o Emotional depiction separates Giotto from other artists.
Donatello (1386-1446) o Revived the free standing male nude
o Contrapposto
o Biblical subject, but also represented the Florentine Republic
o Probably commissioned by de Medici
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) o Duomo Santa Maria del Fiore of France Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower, 1296-1436) o 4 million bricks; largest brick/mortar dome in the world
o Rib mechanism, 2 domes within the single dome to stop the structure 
from caving. o Classic architectural features
o Lily: Flower of Florence
Botticelli (1445-1510) o Birth of Venus
o Lorenzo de Medici’s villa
o Birth from the sea; being blown to the sea by the Zephyrs (wind gods).
Leonardo de Vinci (1452-1519) o A child prodigy.
o Skilled in science and art.
o Interested in everything, no subject off limits.
o Some 400 detailed drawings of Machines
o Use of chiaroscuro
o Benois Madonna (1475)
o Salvator Mundi (Savoir of the World)
Mantegna (1431-1506) o Dead Christ
o Humanism
Michelangelo o Is God reaching to touch Adam, or has he just let go of him?
background image o Michelangelo’s Davis (17ft tall, sculpted from one block of marble.)
o Became the symbol of the Florentine Republic.
Raphael – “School of Athens” o Shows great thinkers/philosophers of Athens. The Northern Renaissance Jan van Eyck – Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife o Oil is the main base of painting during the Northern Renaissance. Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) o Self portrait, in his home until his death.
o Oil painting
Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468) o Movable type printing press. Humanism: produce individuals of virtue and wisdom; through the classics of 
Greece/Rome. New artist vision with a focus on humanity.
Age of rebirth; Renaissance. Began in city-states. The emphasis on individualism and new way of seeing the world would prove 
beneficial to others who sought to reform spiritual matters.
These reforms would result in a religious revolution that would alter the course of 
Western Christianity.

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School: Jefferson State Community College
Department: Art History
Course: Western Civilization II
Professor: Joseph Irvin
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: WesternCiv
Name: Western Civ Final Materials (Running List)
Description: These notes will cover topics present on the final
Uploaded: 02/21/2018
10 Pages 59 Views 47 Unlocks
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