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TOWSON / Psychology / PSYCH 101 / What is the focus of the positive psychology movement?

What is the focus of the positive psychology movement?

What is the focus of the positive psychology movement?

Description

School: Towson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psych
Professor: Jennifer dudley dudley
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology, Intro to Psychology, Studyguide, Study Guide, and test
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC 101: Study Guide One
Description: Study Guide: Chapters 1-4, test #1
Uploaded: 02/21/2018
7 Pages 51 Views 3 Unlocks
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PSYCH 101 Notes


What is the focus of positive psychology movement?



CHAPTER 1 

January 31, 2018

PSYCHOLOGY ​the scientific study of behavior and mental processes (wasn’t defined as a discipline until 1879 “the birth”)

- Behavior: everything a person does that is observable

- Mental Processes: thoughts, feelings (not observable)

I. PRE PSYCHOLOGY: philosophy, medicine, anthropology, biology

HISTORY ​birth of PPM

I. W. WUNDT

● noted psychology as a science apart from philosophy & biology

● “Father of Experimental Psychology (Europe)”

II. E. TITCHENER

● worked under & with Wundt


Who is the founder of psychoanalysis?



● created his version of psychology describing structuralism; structure of mind III. W. JAMES

● “Father of American Psychology”

● took structuralism and seen how we functioned; functionalism (functioning, adaptability) environmental

POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY MOVEMENT ​the scientific study of what makes life most worth living

THEORIES APPROACHES

I. PSYCHODYNAMIC unconscious thought, biological drive, childhood experiences *iceberg ef ect* see the tip of the iceberg (conscious) below is the (unconscious)

● S. Freud: founder of psychoanalysis

II. BEHAVIORAL emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavior


Who are the proponents of humanistic theory in psychology?



If you want to learn more check out What are the main parts to easton’s systems model?

● J. Watson

● B.F. Skinner​ ​(rats)

III. NEUROSCIENCE (biological) brain, body, nervous system

IV. COGNITIVE thinking, problem solving, mindfulness

V. HUMANISTIC “what it means to be human” growth, potential, self-actualization ● C. Rogers

● A. Maslow

VI. SOCIOCULTURAL social and cultural influences

VII. EVOLUTIONARY “survival of the fittest” from psychological perspective; memory, perception VIII. *ECLECTIC applies more than one approach to appease the needs of the client We also discuss several other topics like What market segment is underserved?

February 2, 2018

PSYCH 101 Notes

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION ​8-18 areas of specialization

I. * NEUROSCIENCE (DMT Molecule) mind/body medicine; hallucinogens, trauma II. * DEVELOPMENTAL lifespan

III. * COGNITIVE information processing; experimental, psychology

IV. * INDUSTRIAL businesses/psychs; John Hopkins

V. * CLINICAL assesses diagnostic treatment

vs.

VI. * COUNSELING assesses everyday issues; stress, coping skills (M.S, M.A, PsyD, PhD) VII. * SCHOOL assesses education plans & working with/educating the staf We also discuss several other topics like What is the example of dominance?

VIII. * SPORT assesses the lives & health of athletes

IX. * PSYCHIATRY trained in medicine

vs.

X. * PSYCHOLOGY trained in psychology; reduce/eliminate symptoms

XI. FORENSIC assessment of, evaluations of criminals… people in justice system XII. EDUCATIONAL assessing how people learn; motivation, intelligence, personality XIII. HEALTH assesses how human psychology & behavior af ect health

XIV. SOCIAL assesses how people act a certain way with others

XV. EXPERIMENTAL exploration of psychological questions

XVI. ADDICTION counsel, diagnose & treat those with addictions

XVII. HUMAN FACTORS design & engineer objects humans interact with for more ef icient use XVIII. PEDIATRIC assesses children’s health

XIX. MILITARY assess military personnel; PTSD, burnout… on and of field XX. MEDIA assesses how media af ects human behavior

CHAPTER 2 

February 9, 2018

PSYCH 101 Notes

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

I. OBSERVE SOME PHENOMENON

II. HYPOTHESIS

III. COLLECT DATA self report, observation

IV. DRAW CONCLUSIONS If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of prehistoric art?

V. EVALUATE CONCLUSIONS compare with other studies

TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

I. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

● Used to describe participants in an accurate way (3) Types:

1. Observation naturalistic, laboratory If you want to learn more check out What are the 8 millennium development goals?

2. Surveys/Interviews isn’t the best b/c of social desirability Don't forget about the age old question of What do you mean by democratization?

social desirability: people answer questions based on how they think they

will be perceived

3. Case Studies in depth study on one individual

II. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH

● Determines relationship between two variables (3) Types:

1. Natural Observation observing in natural environment without interfering 2. Survey Research gathering info using random sample of participants

3. Archival Research analyzing data collected by others

correlation doesn't equal causation

III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

● Independent Variable what you’re studying

● Dependent Variable result of what you’re studying

● Experimental Group manipulating variables

● Control Group no manipulation

ANALYZING DATA

I. DESCRIPTIVE STATS uses data to provide descriptions of population ● Central Tendency mean, median, mode

● Dispersion how much variability is there with the dispersion

II. INFERENTIAL STATS uses data to make predictions/inferences on population

ETHICS

I. APA

II. INFORMED CONSENT granted permission knowing the potential consequences III. CONFIDENTIALITY information cannot be shared outside of said people IV. DEBRIEFING researcher explains the purpose of the study & use of deception (if used)

V. DECEPTION providing false or incomplete information to participants VI. HUMAN vs. ANIMAL

PSYCH 101 Notes

CHAPTER 3 

February 12, 2018

PSYCH 101 Notes

NERVOUS SYSTEM ​body’s electrochemical communication system

- Complexity performs (7) basic, interrelated tasks

- Integration the brain integrates information from the environment

- Adaptability plasticity is the brain’s physical attribute to heal

Contralateral Arrangement​ injury on right side of the brain impacts opposing side - Electrochem. Transmission

I. CENTRAL (CNS)

1. Brain

2. Spinal Cord

II. PERIPHERAL (PNS)

1. Somatic

2. Autonomic

● Sympathetic / Parasympathetic

○ Homeostasis

BRAIN

I. HINDBRAIN lowest part of the brain, near vertebrae 

● Medulla breathing/reflex

● Pons sleep/arousal

● Cerebellum controls leg & arm movements

II. MIDBRAIN between brains eyes & eyes 

● Reticular Formation communicates information involves walking, sleeping & attention III. FOREBRAIN highest level of the brain 

- Memory, emotion

● Limbic System

1. Hippocampus responsible for storing memory

2. Amygdala alerts us to dangerous situations; survival, emotion

● Thalamus sorts & places information

● Hypothalamus stress, addiction, reward

● Basal Ganglia voluntary movements

IV. CEREBRAL CORTEX

- highest mental functions; thinking, planning

● Two Hemispheres

1. Right: Abstract, more creative connects to corpus callosum

Corpus Callosum ​a band of nerve fibers joining r&l hemispheres

2. Left: logic, reasoning

● Lobes

1. Occipital holds visual cortex

2. Temporal holds auditory cortex; hearing, language, processing

3. Parietal sensations

4. Frontals personality, intelligence

MALE vs. FEMALE BRAINS

PSYCH 101 Notes

I. MALE

● More Neurons

● One Channel

● “Doing”

II. FEMALE

● Less Neurons

● More Connections Between Neurons

● “Feeling”

BRAIN RESEARCH

I. BRAIN LESIONING burning out particular areas to get more information II. ELECTRICAL RECORDING

● EEG records electrical patterns in brain (seizures, dizziness, head injuries, etc) III. BRAIN IMAGING

● CAT SCAN x-ray (cross-sectional images) of specific area of body

● PET measures glucose

● MRI creates magnetic field around person's body

NEUROTRANSMITTERS ​brain chemicals that communicate info throughout brain & body I. DOPAMINE responsible for voluntary muscle movement

II. ACETYLCHOLINE associated with memory, learning & muscle action III. SEROTONIN sleep, mood - associated with stress

IV. NOREPINEPHRINE stimulates heart, intestines

V. GABA contributes to motor controls & vehicles / regulates anxiety VI. GLUTAMATE associated with headaches, seizures

VII. ENDORPHINS natural pain & stress fighters

VIII. OXYTOCIN love and hormones

IX. SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor) antidepressants for anxiety & depression ● Zoloft

● Paril

● Prozac

● Lactipro

X. SNRI (Serotonin- norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor) antidepressant drugs ● Cymbalin

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

I. HORMONES chemicals released into bloodstream

II. GLANDS

1. Pituitary (Master Gland) Usually is stimulated during puberty

1. Adrenals stress

2. Thyroid metabolism

a) Hyperthyroid too fast

b) Hypothyroid too slow, deal w/ weight gain

PSYCH 101 Notes

3. Pancreas micose

4. Gonads ovaries & testes, where puberty hits (pubic hair, periods...etc)

III. PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body, carries out commands of CNS & is responsible for carrying out information to & from spinal cord

1. Somatic conveys info from skin and muscles to CNS, regulates temp. & pain 2. Automatic deals w/ digestion: regulates breathing, heart rate

1. Sympathetic arouses the body, prepares us for emergencies

2. Parasympathetic

3. Homeostasis

CHAPTER 4 

February 16, 2018

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