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CSU - ANEQ 305 - ANEQ305 Class Notes- Week 6 - Class Notes

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CSU - ANEQ 305 - ANEQ305 Class Notes- Week 6 - Class Notes

School: Colorado State University
Department: Science
Course: Functional Large Animal Anatomy/Physiology
Professor: Hyungchul Han
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: ANEQ305, anatomy, Physiology, LargeAnimalAnatomy, and Colorado State University
Name: ANEQ305 Class Notes- Week 6
Description: These are the last notes to cover what will be on our next exam. This covers about half of Chapter 7: Endocrinology
Uploaded: 02/22/2018
This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 7 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image ANEQ 305 
Chapter 7: Endocrine Systems 
7.1: Introduction 
● Endocrinology ​: study of the evolution of and physiology of hormones  ○ Endocrine system: regulates and coordinates distant organs through secretion of  hormones  ○ Hormones: signal molecules delivered by circulatory fluids  ● Chemical classes of hormones  ○ Peptide and protein hormones  ■ Chains of amino acids 
■ Hydrophilic 
■ Ex. insulin 
○ Amines   ■ Derived from tyrosine 
■ Catecholamines (ex. epinephrine) are hydrophilic 
■ Thyroid hormones (ex. thyroxine) are lipophilic 
○ Steroids  ■ Derived from cholesterol 
■ Lipophilic 
■ Ex. testosterone 
● Hormone secretion and synthesis   ○ Peptides  ■ Synthesized as large precursor proteins → preprohormones 
■ Portions are cleaved and peptide hormone is packaged into secretory 
vesicles  ■ Released from cell by exocytosis  ○ Steroids   ■ Cholesterol is synthesized or obtained from diet 
■ Chemically modified by enzymatic reactions 
■ Once synthesized, immediately diffuse across plasma membrane 
● Mechanisms of hormone interaction  ○ Hormones are widely distributed, but only target cells have receptors to respond  to each hormone 
background image ○ Peptides and catecholamines bind with membrane receptors  ■ Alter shape of neighboring ion channels or 
■ Activate second-messenger systems 
○ Steroid and thyroid hormones pass through plasma membrane bind with internal  receptors   ■ Internal receptors= transcription factors that regulate certain genes 
■ Hormone receptor complex binds with hormone response element (HRE) 
on nuclear DNA  ■ Initiates synthesis for specific protein  ● Regulation of plasma concentration in hormones  ○ Negative feedback control   ■ When plasma hormone levels fall → hormone secretion stimulated  ○ Neuroendocrine reflexes  ■ Produce sudden increase in hormone secretion in response to specific  stimulus  ○ Biological rhythms   ■ Biological clocks: secretion of most hormones rhythmically fluctuates as a  function of time  ■ Readjustment of set point by CNS  ● Endocrine disorders  ○ Hyposecretion ​: inadequate secretion of hormones  ■ Primary: abnormality within a gland 
■ Secondary: deficiency of tropic hormones 
○ Hypersecretion ​: excessive secretion of a hormone  ■ Primary or secondary  ○ Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC)  ■ Human-made substances released into the environment that mimic or  oppose action of hormones  ● Complexity of Endocrine System  ○ Single endo. Gland → produces multiple hormones  ■ Anterior pituitary= 6 hormones  ○ Single hormone may be secreted by 1+ endo. Gland  ■ Somatostatin by the hypothalamus and pancreas 
background image ○ Single hormone has 1+ type target cell and induce 1+ effects (same key, different  locks)  ■ Vasopressin: H2O reabsorption in kidney, vasoconstriction of arterioles  ○ Secretion rate of hormones varies over time  ■ Ex. Estrus cycle  ○ Single target cell may be influenced by 1+ hormone  ■ Insulin and glycogen in liver  ○ Same chemical messenger may be either a hormone or neurotransmitter  ■ Norepinephrine secreted as hormone by adrenal medulla and released as a  neurotransmitter from sympathetic postganglionic nerve fibers  ● Hormone characteristics  ○ Hormone actions amplified at target cell 
○ Effective plasma concentration of hormone normally regulated by changes in its 
rate of secretion  ■ Can be affected by hormones’ transport, metabolism, and excretion  ● liver= major site for metabolic hormonal inactivation 
● Excreted through urine 
● Hydrophilic → faster secretion 
● Hydrophobic → slower (bound to plasma protein) 
■ Downregulation: increased level of hormone controlled by downreg. Of  receptors by internalization followed by degradation, causing lower 
receptor concentration by negative feedback system 
● Hormone-to-hormone interaction  ○ Permissiveness ​: one hormone needed for another’s effect  ■ Thyroid hormone and epinephrine   ○ Synergism ​: action of several hormone’s combined effect is greater than individual  effects  ■ FSH and testosterone  ○ Antagonism ​: presence of one hormone opposes the other hormone’s receptor  ■ Progesterone estrogen   7.3: Vertebrate Endocrinology- Central Endocrine Glands  ● Pineal gland  ○ Secretes melatonin 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Science
Course: Functional Large Animal Anatomy/Physiology
Professor: Hyungchul Han
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: ANEQ305, anatomy, Physiology, LargeAnimalAnatomy, and Colorado State University
Name: ANEQ305 Class Notes- Week 6
Description: These are the last notes to cover what will be on our next exam. This covers about half of Chapter 7: Endocrinology
Uploaded: 02/22/2018
7 Pages 55 Views 44 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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