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UW - CHEM 152 - Chem 152: Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UW - CHEM 152 - Chem 152: Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: University of Washington
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Munira Khalil
Term: Winter 2015
Tags: solubility, ksp, Thermodynamics, entropy, Enthalpy, heat, work, and endothermic
Name: Chem 152: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Unit 2 and Unit 3 coverage
Uploaded: 02/22/2018
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background image Chem 152 Study Guide Compiled with Zumhdahl Unit 2: Acid­Base and Solubility Reactions Solubility Solids dissolving in water o For a slightly soluble salt, an equilibrium is set between the excess solid (MX)  and the ions in solution ¿ ( a q ) + ¿ ( aq ) + X ¿ M X ( s ) M ¿ The solubility constant: the equilibrium constant of a dissociation process + ¿ M ¿ ¿ ¿ X ¿ k s P = ¿ The common­ion effect: the solubility of MX (S) is decreased by  the presence of another source of either  + ¿ M ¿  or  ¿ X ¿   o Solubility (g/L, or g/100 mL): the maximum mass of salt that can dissolve in a  given amount of water at a given temperature o Molar solubility (mol/ L): the molar concentration of a solute in solution at a  given temperature It is the x value in the RICE table Saturation o Saturated: additional solid cannot be dissolved o Unsaturated: all solids are dissolved Unit 3: Principles of Thermodynamics Thermochemistry: Energy and Enthalpy  State functions: a thermodynamic quantity that depends on the initial and the final states 
of the system, not on its history 
o  ΔE , ΔH , V , T , P  Process functions: a thermodynamic quantity that depends on the process that the system 
undergoes to getting from the initial to final state
o  w, q  Standard states o  Compounds, P = 1 atm o Solutions, concentration of 1 M o Elements, P = 1 atm
background image Chem 152 Study Guide Compiled with Zumhdahl Energy (E): the capacity to do work or produce heat o Is conserved (First law of thermos) o Can be converted to other forms o Is a state function  o Potential energy: stored energy/ the energy an object has by its placement in a  field of force (like gravity) Molecular potential energy: electrostatic Intermolecular attractions and chemical bonds o Kinetic energy: energy due to motion Molecular kinetic energy Translational: motion trough space Rotational: motion about the center of mass Vibration: motion directed through chemical bonds Note: a monatomic atom only has translational energy o The internal energy of a system is the sum of its potential and kinetic energies,  and can be changed by work and heat E=E k + E P ΔE =q+w Work (w): a force (energy) acting over a distance to move an object o Not a state function (thus a process function) o Used for expanding/contracting gas at constant external pressure w=−PΔ V Heat (q): energy flow due to a temperature difference o Not a state function o Exothermic: energy as heat flows out of system o Endothermic: energy as heat flows into a system o Measured by a calorimeter o Given specific heat capacity, solve for heat: q=C ⋅m ⋅ ΔT Enthalpy (H): tracks energy and the pressure­volume state of a system o Is a state function
o
H=+P V Used when work is performed o Hess’s law: the change in enthalpy in going from a given set of reactants to a  given set of products is the same whether the process takes place in one step or a 
series of steps
o Standard enthalpies of formation ( Δ H ° f )
background image Chem 152 Study Guide Compiled with Zumhdahl By definition,  Δ H f 0  = 0 for elements at standard state and 25°C Used to calculate  Δ H  for a chemical reaction Δ H ° rxn=∑ n p Δ H f 0 ( product s ) ∑ n r Δ H f 0 ( r a ⅇ ctants ) Monatomic atoms o At constant volume: qv=ΔE=nCvΔT o At constant pressure (involves work): q p = ΔH=n C p ΔT Thermodynamic pathways: a series of manipulations of a system that takes the system 
from initial state to final state
o Isobaric: constant P (pressure) o Isochoric: constant V (volume) o Isothermal: constant T (temperature) Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy First law of thermodynamics o The energy of the universe is constant o Way to keep track of energy as it changes states Second law of thermodynamics o For any spontaneous process there is always an increase in the entropy of the  universe  o Entropy (S): describes the number of arrangements (positions and/or energy  levels) available to a system existing in a given state Microstates:  specific distribution of energy corresponding to a 
configuration
Configuration: a general distribution of total energy in a system o Nature spontaneously goes towards configurations with the highest probability of  occurring (contains most number of microstates) ΔS (univ) = ΔS (sys) + ΔS (surr) For a spontaneous process, ΔS (univ) must be positive For a process at constant temperature and pressure: o For a chemical reaction, ΔS (sys) is dominated by changes  in the number of gaseous molecules ΔS (surr) is determined by heat: o Positive for an exothermic process ( ΔH is negative ) Δ S Surr = ΔH
T

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School: University of Washington
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Munira Khalil
Term: Winter 2015
Tags: solubility, ksp, Thermodynamics, entropy, Enthalpy, heat, work, and endothermic
Name: Chem 152: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Unit 2 and Unit 3 coverage
Uploaded: 02/22/2018
8 Pages 66 Views 52 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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