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GWU / History / HIST 106 / who is Peter the Great of Russia?

who is Peter the Great of Russia?

who is Peter the Great of Russia?


School: George Washington University
Department: History
Course: World History, 1500-Present
Professor: Professor kennedy
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: terms, trianlge, trade, Policy, and manchus
Cost: 50
Name: World History Study Guide Midterm #1
Description: terms list and description
Uploaded: 02/22/2018
5 Pages 16 Views 15 Unlocks

World History Study Guide: Midterm #1

who is Peter the Great of Russia?


1. Peter the Great of Russia (1682-1725)  

- westernized Russia—>moved capital from Moscow to St Petersburg, transfer of fashion/ culture/technology  

- allowed women to work outside the home  

- historical significance  

- shows a more globalized world  

- shows Europe’s dominance  

- his movement of the capital north reflects how the power at that time was shifting  north(where countries like France and England were located) = trade becomes dominated  by European countries not the Mediterranean  

2. Seven Years War (1756 - 1763)  

- Anglo-French War in North America, Brits beat French  

- historical significance for British  

- leads to unprecedented global domination by British Empire  

- drawn Britain and Am colonies closer together, British soldiers get very involved in  North America—>after Britain wanted to more closely integrate colonies into Brit society  - also led to more direct involvement in Native American policy—>colonists wanted to  expand, British were more hesitant  

what is haitian revolution?

- historial significance for French  

- France went into immense debt because of 7-Year War  

- France has a bad history with debt so its interest rates were incredibly high  

3. Manchus(1644-1912)  

- rise after taking over China from the Ming  

- rule in Chinese, Confucian way  

- creates Qing dynasty and begin to rule China as gun powder empire  

- want to repress Chinese culture and promote Manchu culture = translate Chinese books,  require Manchu language, censor anti-Manchu books, required males wear Manchu hairstyles  => VERY repressive regime  

- historical significance  

- established successful dynasty in China that focused on expansion  

- shaped Chinese culture  

4. Gelugspa

- form of Buddhism  

- Origins  

- began in Tibet(but different from Tibetan Buddhism) in late 14th - early 15th century  - Dali Lama is the head, hierarchy around him  

what is tlaxcalans?

- stays in east and central Asia  We also discuss several other topics like mus 172 class notes

- dominates Tibet in 16th century

- Gelugpa in Mongolia  

- Atlan Khan unifies Mongolia and makes it Gelugpa Buddhist—>changes Tibet and  Mongolia  

- created Buddhist monasteries—>Mongols are nomads but by creating monasteries with  ranches in them, the Mongols can settle down = easier to control  

- Gelugpa monasteries create the Mongol written language  

- displaces nobility to become largest influence  

- the Gelugpa and the Qing  

- Gelugpa has many advantages for the emperor advantages—>non-exclusive, gives  emperor a closer relationship with Tibet  If you want to learn more check out arch 150 test 2

- Gelugpa Buddhists replace Chinese Buddhists in monasteries = division with Chinese  Buddhism  Don't forget about the age old question of when __________ occurs, a ripple effect flows throughout the family system.

- historial significance  

- Gelugpa became a way for Chinese to control Tibet and Mongolia, especially when Qing  can chose the Dali Lama’s successor  If you want to learn more check out arclenth

- Atlan Khan’s unification Mongolia with it overall makes the Mongol empire more stagnant  and easier to control  

5. Tlaxcalans

- ethnic group in modern Mexico  

- assisted Cortés(Spanish conquistador) in invading the Aztec empire  

- received some privileges in the new Spanish empire  

- historical significance  

- shows one reason that the Europeans were able to so quickly/easily take over the  Americas  

- led to hierarchy in the Spanish empire  

6. Jesuits

- Jesuits = a religious order  

- intellectual elite of the church, VERY obedient  

- method is working top-down—>convert the leaders and others will follow  - historical significance in China  

- their conflict with Mendicants in China(who were also trying to convert Chinese with an  opposite approach) forced the to Pope settle the debate—>says the Mendicants method is  best  

- leads to crackdown of Catholicism in b/c they fear the power of the Pope = essentially  ends missionary activities in China  

- Qing’s use Western Jesuits to help create accurate maps(they were the best cartographers)  = led to better maps  

- historical significance in French Canada  

- overall are somewhat successful in spreading Catholicism here  

- example is Tekakwitha = native convert, founds Catholic religious order with native  american influences Don't forget about the age old question of a socially recognized set of rights and obligations linked with illness is known as:
If you want to learn more check out How is the North Star found by using the Big Dipper?

7. Dunmore Decree (1775)  

- General Dumore of England issues the decree during the American Revolution  - said that slaves that get free from Southern slave owners who can make it to British outpost  will be free and can fight with the British against the rebels  

- mostly gets old people, women, children not the young, fighting men he wanted  - also gets HUGE outrage from Americans—>white racial identity has become very important,  Ams believe he is a traitor to the race by arming slaves, breaking rules of civilized warfare  - historical significance  

- shows that racial identity has become very important in the world b/c whites were so  outraged when their slaves were threatened  

- at the end of the war the Brits set up freed slave colonies in Newfoundland and Sierra  Leone  

8. VOC (1602)  

- East-India Trading Co, founded by smaller Dutch companies in 1602  

- more successful at spice trade than the Portuguese b/c they work to control production as well —>may do so with violence  

- joint-stock company, controlled from Amsterdam

- historical significance  

- huge part in creating the first capital society(the Dutch), one of the first joint-stock  companies  

- reduce power/dominance of the Portuguese  

- successfully circumnavigate Africa = expands trade opportunities  

9. Mogul Dynasty (1526)  

- located in India, Islamic, huge war machine, one of the largest empires ever established there  - used a centralized rule where all of the different areas within had to pay tribute  - historical significance  

- one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empire—>helped revolutionize warfare  - one of the only empires allowed to trade with Japan  

10. Haitian Revolution

- Haiti is wealthy French colony, sugar plantation society  

- made up of the planter elite, large group of free blacks, some poor whites, 80% slaves  - society is based on class and racial inequality  

- the revolution  

- Declaration of the Rights of Man(created in French Revolution) made people believe in  equality—>revolt  

- slaves revolt led by Toussant L’Overture(most successful in history)  

- slaves and French make a deal that slavery will be abolished there and in other French  colonies as well  

- Napoleon invades again but Toussant declares independence and defeats French army =  independence in 1804

- historical significance  

- it was a very violent revolution so slave owners would argue for greater repression of  slaves/keeping slavery saying that “we don’t want a 2nd Haiti”  

- crisis of sugar production b/c freed slaves in Haiti don’t want to continue to make sugar,  want to be substance farmers, sugar production shifts to Cuba  

- other French colony slaves get freedom  

- Napoleon gives up his dream of American conquest(Louisiana Purchase)  

11. Vasco da Gama

- in 1498 Vasco de Gamma sails around the Cape of Africa

- gives Portugal more direct access to the Indian Ocean(new trade markets)  - historical significance  

- allowed expansion of Portuguese empire/control of trade  

- beginning of imperialistic trade empires  

- begins Europe’s expansion into other parts of the world to trade  

12. ”Triangle Trade”  

- refers to trade occurring between Europe, the Americas, and Africa  

- crops, livestock, goods and slaves travelled between these 3 places  

- historical significance  

- slave trade was a HUGE part = had giant historical impacts on all these places ex: slave  trade led to severe political instability in Africa, completely dominated the economies of  many places in the Americas, eventually caused Civil War in US, led to severe racism,  etc  

- exchanges of livestocks and crops also had some positive effects(ex: people could try  more types of food, people were able to diversify their agriculture) and some  negative(ex: overall reduction of biodiversity)  

13. Janissaries

- in Ottoman Empire  

- young boys from drafted from Christian families, converted to Islam and trained as soldiers  - militarily conservative—>didn’t want to modernize  

- Janissaries revolt when sultan of Ottoman wants to modernize the army and they overthrow  him  

- historical significance  

- huge part of the decline of the Ottoman Empire b/c Europe’s armies were modernizing so  they couldn’t compete with other countries  

14. Corn/Maize

- Europeans call corn “maize” and wheat “corn”  

- historical significance  

- comes from Americas to Europe  

- part of the very significant Columbian Exchange

- allows China to expand in population because it is a cheaper and easier crop to grow,  also allowed rice-field expansion because they could feed workers with this while they  cultivated rice patties  

- corn laws in Britain = laws protecting British farmers for foreign competition, in  Industrial Revolution workers form Anti-Corn Law Leagues promoting free trade for  bread/wheat b/c they want cheaper food—>declining significance of domestically  growing corn/maize(or crops in general) shows overall trend of declining importance of  farmers in societies  

15. Manchester School  

- school of economics located in Manchester, England  

- created as the city became a center of industry during the Industrial Revolution—>cities were  created because to have factory workers you had to have a large concentration of workers in  one place  

- historical significance  

- marked one of the many important shifts that took place during the Industrial Rev of  people moving from rural to urban areas  

- this movement into cities changed peoples lives ex: a lot more disease(like cholera),  power was no longer associated with agricultural land  


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