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UOP - CHEM 027 - Class Notes - Week 4

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UOP - CHEM 027 - Class Notes - Week 4

School: University of the Pacific
Department: Engineering
Course: CHEM027
Professor: Dimitry Izotov
Term: Fall 2017
Tags:
Name: Chapter 14 Notes
Description: Hybridization, Orbitals, Molecular Orbitals
Uploaded: 02/22/2018
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background image Chapter 14 Covalent Bonding: Orbitals  14.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model The LE model says that molecules are just a bunch of atoms attached together by 
sharing electrons via atomic orbitals. Lewis structures help explain the valence 
electron arrangement for the molecules. The VSEPR model shows the type of 
molecular geometry
If there’s four C-H bonds in methane, they should all have bond angles of 90 o  but  they have angle values of 109.5 o . This phenomenon can be explained by combining  the 2s and 2p orbitals to create a more efficient bonding model.  Hybridization: mixing native atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding Sp 3  hybridization simply means that there is one s orbital and three p orbitals.  Usually occurs in a tetrahedral set of atomic orbitals.  Sp 2  hybridization is one s orbital and 2 p orbitals. Whenever an atom has three  electron pairs around it  Double bonds are made of one sigma and one pi bond.  Sigma bonds are bonds where the electron pair is shared in a space right between 
the two atoms. The space above and below the area for the sigma bond is used for 
electron bonding as well. This region is used for the pi bond. 
Sp hybridization is when there is one s orbital and one p orbital at 180 degrees. This
one has two effective electron pairs around it. (Note: multiple bonds count as one 
effective pair)
# of effective e -  pairs      type of hybridization         molecular geometry   2 sp linear 3 sp 2   trigonal planar 4 sp 3 tetrahedral 5 dsp 3 trigonal bipyramidal 6 d 2 sp 3 octahedral How to Describe a Molecule with the LE model 1. Use Lewis Structures 
2. Use VSEPR
3. Figure out the hybrid orbitals from there
14.2 The Molecular Orbital Model It is another way to describe molecules. 
background image Similarities between the MO model and the LE model are that they can hold two 
electrons with opposite spins and the square of the MO wave function shows the 
electron probability. 
When electrons are forced to occupy higher energy MOs, it is called anti-bonding. 
When the electrons occupy lower energy MOs, then this is known as pro bonding. 
The MO bonding theory focuses more on the sigma and pi bonding methods. The 
antibonding MOs are shown as asterisks in the diagram. 
Having a greater number of bonding electrons than antibonding electrons means 
that a molecule is stable. 
Bond order helps predict stability through the following equation Bond order= ¿ of bonding electrons ¿ of antibondingelectrons 2 Larger bond order indicates greater bond strength. 14.3 Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules Homonuclear diatomic molecules: molecules composed by 2 identical atoms Atomic orbitals must overlap in space to participate in molecular orbitals. Only the 
valence atomic orbitals contribute significantly to MOs.
A lot of materials don’t have magnetism until they are put in a magnetic field. 
Paramagnetism: the substance is attracted to the magnetic field (unpaired 
electrons). Diamagnetism: the substance is repelled from the magnetic field (paired 
electrons)
 Bond energy increases with bond order; bond length decreases with increasing 
bond order
INSERT STEPS ON HOW TO CREATE MO DIAGRAM 14.4 Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules (those containing two different 
atoms)
INSERT STEPS ON HOW TO CREATE MO DIAGRAM 14.5 Combining the LE and the MO Models In molecules that require resonance, the pi bonds are the ones that are delocalized.  14.6 Orbitals: Human Inventions

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School: University of the Pacific
Department: Engineering
Course: CHEM027
Professor: Dimitry Izotov
Term: Fall 2017
Tags:
Name: Chapter 14 Notes
Description: Hybridization, Orbitals, Molecular Orbitals
Uploaded: 02/22/2018
3 Pages 18 Views 14 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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