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OSU / Behavioral Science / PSYCH 3313 / Where does the primary visual cortex sends its information?

Where does the primary visual cortex sends its information?

Where does the primary visual cortex sends its information?

Description

School: Ohio State University
Department: Behavioral Science
Course: Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience
Professor: Wenk
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: pharmacology, neuroscience, brain, Psychology, hearing, Vision, development, and Genetics
Cost: 50
Name: Behavioral Neuroscience 3313 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Description: study guide for midterm 2
Uploaded: 02/23/2018
13 Pages 113 Views 10 Unlocks
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Behavioral Neuroscience 3313 Midterm 2 Study Guide


Where does the primary visual cortex sends its information?



Important definition or main idea 

Important detail or smaller topic 

Pharmacology

● Neurotransmitter - released at direct synapse, used in the immediate area ● Neuromodulator/ neurohormone - long distance messaging, released into blood stream

● ATP and adenosine 


What are the 5 stages of brain development?



○ Pain perception and sleep wake cycles

○ Adenosine inhibits neurotransmitters, correlated with drowsiness ● NeuropeptidesDon't forget about the age old question of What does baroque style mean?
We also discuss several other topics like What is an empirical research design?

○ Endorphins 

■ Neuromodulators that reduce pain and enhance reinforcement ○ Substance P 

■ Spinal cord neurons sensitive to pain

○ Insulin and Cholecystokinin 

■ Digestive functions If you want to learn more check out What has the least amount of estrogen receptors tonic center or surge center?

○ Oxytocin and Vasopressin 

■ Neuromodulators and neurohormones

● Gaseous Neurotransmitters 

○ Diffuse through membrane and interact with receptors


What is the study of pharmacology?



○ Nitric Oxide 

■ Affect CNS, PNS, and smooth muscle

■ Relaxed smooth muscle in blood vessels -> dilation -> erections ○ Carbon monoxide 

Neurotransmitter

Abbreviatio n

Behaviors/ Related

Diseases

Synthesis

Acetylcholine

ACh

Learning and memory; Alzheimer’s, muscle movement

Choline and acetate combined by ChAT

Dopamine

DA

Reward circuits;

Parkinson’s,

schizophrenia,

addiction

Tyrosine -> L-dopa -> dopamine by

tyrosine hydroxylase

Norepinephrine

NE

Arousal; depression

Formed from

dopamine

Serotonin

5HT

Depression, aggression, schizophrenia

Formed from

tryptophan

Glutamate

GLU

Learning, excitatory

Product of Krebs

Cycle

GABA

GABA

Anxiety, epilepsy;

inhibitory

Formed from

glutamate, catalyzed by GAD

Endogenous Opioids Endorphins

Pain and reward

N/A

Don't forget about the age old question of What is hemagglutination, and when is it used?

● Agonist - mimics or enhances the effect of a neurotransmitter ○ Activates receptor

○ Blocks reuptake or degradation

○ Bobby pin in a lock

○ Full agonist - same effect as the neurotransmitter

○ Partial agonist - less efficient than a neurotransmitter Don't forget about the age old question of What is anarchy?
Don't forget about the age old question of What happened to beringia?

○ Inverse agonist - changes direction of channel flow

● Antagonist - blocks or decreases effect of a neurotransmitter 

○ Competitive - blocks binding site on receptor

○ Noncompetitive - binds to different part of receptor and chemically changes it or disables it

● Ways drugs affect the Neuron 

○ Synthesis

■ Affects the amount available for release

○ Storage

■ Affects vesicles in a neuron

○ Release

■ Modify the release of neurotransmitter in response to the arrival of the action potential

○ Postsynaptic

■ Mimic actions of neurotransmitter

■ Block synaptic activity by bonding to the active site

■ Influence activity of the receptor

Stimulant 

Caffeine - adenosine antagonist

Nicotine - acetylcholine nicotinic receptor agonist

Cocaine - dopamine agonist and blocks dopamine reuptake

Amphetamine - stimulates and blocks reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine

Depressant 

Opioids - reduce GABA, less inhibition of dopamine

Alcohol - GABAa agonist, glutamate antagonist, inhibitory

Hallucinogens 

Marijuana - active ingredient, THC, is endogenous receptor agonist LSD - serotonin agonist

Ecstasy - massive release of serotonin and is toxic to serotonin neurons Ketamine - NMDA glutamate antagonist

PCP - NDMA glutamate antagonist, nicotinic ACh antagonist

Genetics and Epigenetics

● Candidate gene - look for a specific gene we can link to a disorder or behavior ● Genome wide association study - large scale population studies to find common abnormalities

○ 22 autosomes and sex chromosomes

○ 46 total chromosomes

○ Exons - pieces of chromosome that code for a protein

○ Introns - non coding segments between exons, most susceptible to mutation

● Heritability - variation of a trait observed in a population

○ Population, not individuals

○ Twin studies

○ 0 = genes are not involved

■ Environmental toxins

○ X = X% of variation is due to genetic differences

○ 1 = genetics are completely responsible

● Epigenetics - changes in gene expression that do not change the DNA sequence ○ Expression of genes is controlled by which portions are available for transcription

○ Mechanisms:

■ Histone modification - unwrap DNA or stop it from unwrapping ● Methyl groups block or allow for transcription

■ DNA modification - transcription may be enabled or stopped

● Also controlled by methyl groups

■ mRNA modification - blocks ribosome from transcribing mRNA ■ Affected by diet, exercise, drugs, etc.

Brain Development

● First week - 3 germ layers form

○ Ectoderm - outer layer, forms skin

and neural tissue

○ Mesoderm - middle layer, forms

connective tissue, muscles, bone,

blood vessels

○ Endoderm - internal organs and digestive system

● Second week - embryo

● Third week - ectoderm cells form neural plate, remaining become skin cells ○ Neural tube - made from neural plate, develops into brain and spinal cord ■ Folic acid is responsible for closing the tube

● The brain forms the hindbrain first and the telencephalon last

6 Stages of Neural Development

1. Cell proliferation 4. Circuit Formation

2. Migration 5. Neuron Death

3. Differentiation 6. Refinement of Connections

1. Cell Proliferation

a. Cells are totipotent - have the ability to develop into any cell of the body i. Unlimited capacity of self-renewal

b. Neural stem cells

i. Pluripotent - have the ability to be any type of neural cell

1. Ex. neuron, astrocyte, other glia, etc.

c. Neural cells produced in ventricular zone 

i. Mitosis of neural or glial progenitor cells

2. Migration

a. Radial glia - help form neurons, then form glia

i. Structural support, transport cells around nervous system

ii. Form cortex layers inside out: 6->5->4->3->2->1

3. Differentiation

a. Dorsal-Ventral differentiation

i. Dorsal half - sensory neurons

1. Use BMP protein 

ii. Ventral half - motor neurons

1. Sonic hedgehog - fast moving protein

b. Rostral-Caudal differentiation

i. Use hox genes 

4. Circuit Formation

a. Dendrites grow to provide more surface area to accept signals

b. Growth cones - swelling at the axon end of a neuron with sensory and motor capabilities that form connections with other neurons

i. Filopodia - long, fingerlike extensions

ii. Lamellipodia - flat, sheetlike extensions

iii. Guidepost cells release attractive chemicals and attract target cells iv. Fasciculation cell adhesion molecules cause axons to stick together 1. Axons growing in the same direction are bundled together

c. Synaptogenesis - axons make new synapses when they reach their destination d. Activity dependence - initial interactions in a synapse determine the activity the neuron specializes in

5. Neuron Death

a. Apoptosis - programmed cell death

b. Neurons compete for NGF​ from target cells, cells that do not obtain enough experience apoptosis

i. NGF is a chemical called neurotrophin, they interrupt cell suicide

6. Refinement of Connections

a. Synaptic pruning - brain produces extra neurons and synapses that must be eliminated, keep only the most efficient neurons and routes

b. Late or off-target neurons die

c. Organization is refined

d. Synapse is strengthened when used a lot and weakened when not used at all

Vision

● Structure 

○ Optical - captures light and forms spatial images

○ Neural - transduce light into neural signals

(boring word definitions sorry)

○ Cornea​ - outer surface of eye that bends light

○ Anterior chamber​ - between cornea and pupil, also bends light

○ Iris​ - muscle that controls the amount of light let into the eye

○ Pupil​ - hole in eye that lets light in

○ Lens​ - focuses image depending on distance

■ Accomodation​ - change the lens shape depending on the distance

● Convex​ - focus on a near object

● Concave​ - focus on far object

○ Vitreous chamber​ - fluid inside eye

○ Retina​ - photoreceptors

■ Fovea​ - central vs. peripheral vision

■ Macula​ - area surrounding the fovea

■ Tapetum lucidum​ - animals have reflective, shiny membrane at the back of the eye

■ Cones​ - color, located in fovea

■ Rods​ - dim light, peripheral, more abundant than cones

○ Optic disk​ - blood vessels and nerves that receive the signals

■ Blind spot

○ Eye muscles​ - six muscles rotate the eye in all directions

○ Chromophore​ - captures light photons and opsin protein, determines wavelength

Rods

Cones

Peak Wavelength

502 nm

420 nm (short/ blue)

530 nm (middle/ green)

560 nm (long/ red)

Distinguish Color?

no

Color sensitive

Sensitivity in Dim Light

Excellent

Poor

Attention to Detail

Poor

Excellent

Location of Receptors

Periphery

Fovea

● Dark current 

○ Resting potential in the dark is -30 mV

○ Positive ions flow in because sodium channels are kept open by cGMP, a second messenger

○ Light releases enzymes that break down cGMP, sodium channels close, receptor hyperpolarizes

○ Photoreceptors have graded potentials​, not action potentials

● Phototransduction

○ Channels close, causing hyperpolarization in the cell body

○ There is a reduction in glutamate, bipolar cell knows a photon has been caught ■ The more photon, the less neurotransmitter

● Retina structure - reference the picture on pg. 184 of the textbook

○ Horizontal cells - lateral inhibition, responsible for center-surround receptive fields ○ Bipolar cells - bridge between photoreceptors and ganglion cells

■ Receives input from photoreceptors and horizontal cells

■ Midget - input from one cone to ganglion cells

■ Diffuse - input from several photoreceptors to ganglion cells

■ Used graded potentials

■ Identifies light and dark contrast

■ Receptive field - retina location where light affects the activity of a visual interneuron *reference image on page 189 of text

● Center - direct input from a set of photoreceptors

● Surround - indirect input from horizontal cells connected to

photoreceptors

● Antagonistic center-surround arrangement - bipolar cell response

depends on the amount of light in the center relative to the amount

of light on the surround

○ Amacrine cells - communicates information between bipolar and ganglion cells ○ Ganglion cells - each cell has an axon that forms the optic nerve as it leaves the retina, uses action potentials

■ Receive input from amacrine and bipolar cells

■ Generates action potentials 

■ Sole output of visual information to brain, axons form optic nerve

■ Contrast detectors, not light detectors

■ P-type

● 90% of ganglion cells, small receptive field

● Receive input from midget bipolar cells

● Visual acuity, color, and shape processing

■ M-type

● 5% of ganglion cells, large receptive fields

● Receive input from diffuse bipolar cells

● Motion processing and temporal resolution

■ K-type

● Similar to p-type, color sensitive but less understood

● Visual Fields - part of environment registered on retina *image on pg. 193 of text ○ Right VF processed in left hemisphere, Left VF processed in right hemisphere ○ Optic nerves

■ Ganglion cell axons bundled together and exit eye through optic disc ■ Optic nerve CN II

■ Fibers cross to opposite hemisphere at optic chaism 

■ Suprachaismatic nucleus

● Located on hypothalamus, regulates sleep/wake cycle

■ Superior colliculus 

● Located in midbrain, guides head and eye movements

■ Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) 

● Located in thalamus, projects to primary visual cortex V1

● 6 distinct stacked layers

○ 1,2 - magnocellular, receive input from M-type ganglion

cells

■ Respond best to large, fast moving objects

○ 3-6 - parvocellular, receive input from P-type ganglion cells

■ Respond best to fine spatial details of stationary

objects

● Primary visual cortex (striate cortex) 

○ Transformation of visual information

○ Topographical mapping - locations on the retina and LGN corresponding to locations in V1

○ Simple cortical cells 

■ Receptive fields maintain antagonistic center surround, produced by combining outputs of LGN cells

■ Receptive field is elongated, responds to stimuli shaped like bars of a particular slant or orientation

○ Complex cortical cells 

■ Larger receptive fields

■ No off regions

■ Preferred stimulus size and orientation, but not location in the visual field

■ Sensitive to unidirectional movement

○ Orientation column - responds to lines of a single angle for a single eye ■ Made of simple cortical cells

○ Ocular dominance column - responds to input from either left or right eye, but not both

○ Movement - complex cells

○ Color - cytochrome oxidase blobs, process color related information ○ Hypercolumn - view image on pg. 197

○ Second visual cortex

■ 2 dozen distinct, specialized areas

■ Dorsal pathway 

● Magnocellular

● Movement, locating objects, visual control of skilled

actions

● Shows how to interact with object

● Akinetopsia - motion blindness caused by damage to the

occipito-parietal junction

■ Ventral pathway 

● Parvocellular

● Responds to different shapes and color

● Storage of long-term memory

● Prosopangnosia - face blindness caused by damage at the

fusiform area in the temporal lobe

○ Specialized cortex areas

■ PPA (Parahippocampal place area) - responds preferentially to places, pictures of houses

■ FFA (fusiform face area) - responds to faces more than other objects

■ EBA (extrastriate body area) - specifically involved in the

perception of body parts

● Color Vision

○ Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision 

■ Color vision is based on a combination of

short(blue), medium(green) and long(red) sensitive

cones

○ Opponent Theory of Color Vision 

■ Color vision based on exciting one color and

inhibiting the opposite

● blue/ yellow receptor, red/green receptor

● Can explain afterimage effects

○ Combined Theory

■ Red-sensitive, green-sensitive, and blue-sensitive receptors interconnected in opponent process fashion at the ganglion cells ○ Dichromacy - 2 cone photopigments

■ red/green deficiency is sex-linked

○ Monochromacy - one/ no cone photopigments

○ Tetrachromacy - 4 cone photopigments

● Visual Disorders

○ Acuity problems

■ Myopia - nearsightedness

■ Hyperopia - farsightedness

■ Astigmatism - unevenness in the shape of the cornea

○ Cortical blindness

○ Blindsight - cannot detect source of the light

Hearing

● Stimulus -> receptor cell -> neural signal

● Transduction - external energy into neural energy

● Sensory adaptation - stimulus is greatest when we first perceive it ● Processing

○ Top-down processing - expectations influence perceptions ○ Bottom-up processing - perceptions form understanding

● Sound is produced by a collision of molecules

○ Amplitude = intensity (dB)

○ Frequency = pitch (Hz)

○ Timbre = multiple frequencies

● Ultrasound - above range of human hearing, used in imaging ● Infrasound - below range of human hearing, used by animals ● Ear structure

○ Outer ear

■ Pinna - collects, focuses, and localizes sound

■ Auditory canal - tube-shape to inner ear, length and shape enhance certain sound frequencies

● Baby’s cry

○ Middle ear

■ Two membranes:

● Tympanic membrane (eardrum)

● Oval window - leads to inner ear

■ Ossicles - bones that amplify and transfer vibrations air to ● Malleus (hammer)

● Incus (anvil)

● Stapes (stirrup)

● Tensor tympani and stapedius - tiny muscles that control

the bones of the inner ear

○ Decrease oscillations when tensed

○ Tense during swallowing, talking, and general body

movements

○ Inner Ear

■ Cochlea - responds to vibrations of middle ear

● Oval window initiates liquid pressure wave

● Round window bulges out to release pressure

● Canals

○ Vestibular canal

■ Connects oval window to cochlea

■ Perilymph

■ Reissner membrane

○ Tympanic canal

■ Connects to round window

■ Perilymph

■ Basilar membrane

○ Middle canal

■ endolymph

■ High K+, low Na+ 

■ Organ of corti - transduces sound

● Hair cells

● Tectorial membrane - middle ear canal into hair cells,

controls movement

■ Inner hair cells - convey information about sound waves

■ Outer hair cells - elaborate feedback

● Tip links - connect to hair cells, increase tension when hair cells are moved by waves

○ Movement pulls open K+ channels, depolarizes cell

and releases glutamate

○ Spiral ganglion cells recept the glutamate and send

an action potential

○ Can also swing the other way and close K+ channels,

hyperpolarize cell

○ Waves pull these hairs back and forth with every

wave, constantly change the polarization of these

cells

● Central Auditory Pathway

○ Auditory nerve (CN8) -> cochlea -> brain stem

○ Cochlear nucleus - in medulla, first brainstem nucleus

○ Superior olive - where input from both ears converge

○ Inferior colliculus - midbrain nucleus in the auditory pathway ○ Medial geniculate nucleus - in thalamus, sends signals to primary auditory cortex

● Pitch perception

○ Frequency, intensity and context of stimulus

○ Tonotropic organization - neurons that fire at one frequency are located near neurons firing at similar frequencies

■ Temporal theory

● Phase locking

○ Firing a single neuron at a distinct point in the

period of a sound wave

● Volley Principle

○ Multiple neurons can provide a temporal code for

frequency if each neuron fires at a distinct point but

does not fire every period

■ Place theory - frequency depends on the location of maximum vibration in the basilar membrane

● High pitch = near oval window

● Low pitch = in center of coil

● Loudness Perception

○ Large amplitude - more vibration

● Sound localization

○ Comparison of arrival times of sounds at each ear ○ Pinna helps in vertical plane

○ Analyzed by superior olive

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