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What does baroque style mean?

What does baroque style mean?

Description

School: Carleton University
Department: ART AND ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY
Course: History and Theory of Architecture: 1500 to Present
Professor: Michael windover
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: history, and, Theory, Of, Architecture, midterm, study, and guide
Cost: 50
Name: History Theory Midterm Study Guide
Description: This midterm covers all the monuments from the quiz until now plus the concepts.
Uploaded: 02/23/2018
12 Pages 95 Views 6 Unlocks
Reviews


History/Theory Midterm Study Guide


What does baroque style mean?



Monuments 

o Hardwick hall

 1590

 Architect: Smythson

 Location: United Kingdom

 Patron: Elizabeth, Bess of Hardwick

∙ Ornamentation: “ES” Elizabeth Shrewsbury

∙ Statement of power  

 Prodigy House (Houses bought by excessive wealth instead of giving  this money to the poor or less fortunate)

 Symmetrical (Bilateral symmetry)

∙ Excessive window glazing (lots of money) We also discuss several other topics like What is philosophy as a science?

∙ England is almost always raining, wanted as much light as possible ∙ Look out onto the landscape, control of the land

∙ Classical

 Enclosed courtyard


What are the main characteristics of neoclassicism?



∙ Bess of Hardwick could come out of dressing room and look down  on guests

 Rooms get bigger as you go up each floor

∙ Bigger rooms = more important ppl

 Long gallery

∙ Filled with windows

∙ Portraits of royal family to show of

∙ Influence from Palladio

o Villa Rotunda

 1570

 Architect: Palladio

 Location: Italy

 Identical sides with temple facades

 Aided wind movement

 Hierarchy: Servants below

 Triangular pediments on houses was new If you want to learn more check out What has the least amount of estrogen receptors tonic center or surge center?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the components of blood?

 Usually reserved for temples/churches


What is the difference between baroque and rococo?



If you want to learn more check out What is anarchy?

 Almost like a secular temple

 Believed that temples were evolved from houses so it only made  sense to have it the other way around

 Only for special ppl

 Dome in the middle

 Another new idea

 Plan on one page from Palladio’s four books on architecture

 Use of circles and squares to form plan

o Queen’s House

 1616

 Architect: Inigo Jones  

 Location: United Kingdom

 Half of imperial staircase

 Chimneys

 Inverted version of the Palazzo Chiericati

o Banqueting House

 1622 If you want to learn more check out What are the examples of bias/prejudice in primary sources?

 Architect: Inigo Jones

 Location: United Kingdom

 Appears renaissance, classical

∙ Channeled masonry

∙ Attached columns, Ionic columns

∙ Circular and triangular pediments

∙ Composite columns near top with swags

∙ Causes lighter feel to the top

 Ceiling painting by Rubens

∙ Glazing

∙ Linear, use of square (renaissance), bilateral symmetry, swags  along the top

 Ruben, the painter

∙ Painted in renaissance buildings

 Unique to English renaissance

∙ Fireplaces, loggias

o Covent Garden

 1630

 Architect: Inigo Jones

 Location: London

 Contained the first Anglican church

∙ Referred to Etruscan architecture

∙ Use of Quoin (added stress to the side of the building)

o St.Paul’s Cathedral

 1633

 Architect: Christopher Wren

 Location: London

 New plan is more boring than before

∙ Old plan was too “pope-ish”

 Double dome of final plan (1675-1709)

2

∙ Similar to Val-de-Grace Don't forget about the age old question of What is ir theory?

∙ Dome also resembles Bramante’s Tempietto

∙ Saucer domes

∙ Lightness emphasized

 Clear, comprehensible space

 Elevation was similar to Banqueting space

 Used flying buttresses to let in light because used fake windows  Similar to the Louvre

∙ Second level minus the dome

 Paid for by the ppl of London

 Last stone was placed on Christopher Wren’s 76th birthday  CW spent 9 months in France

∙ Met Bernini

∙ Took French influences and adapted them in England ∙ Used gothic even though not supposed to

 Double columns = baroque

 Bilateral symmetry

 Double dome plan

∙ Similar to St.Peter’s

∙ To remind ppl of the divine and their size in comparison to the  building but not to dwarf or overwhelm them

o St.Paul’s Church

 1635

 Architect: Inigo Jones

 Location: London

 Great fire

∙ Christopher Wren

∙ Task of rebuilding the city

o Christ Church

 1714

 Architect: Hawksmoor

 Location: London

 Serliana Window (Palladian)

∙ Bottom and middle section of the structure  

∙ Looks like puzzle piece

 Completely white interior

 Protestant/Anglican church

∙ Not as much iconography as the catholic church

∙ Still has a small cross on top

 Inside is filled with light

∙ Ppl could read more, focus on scripture

 Influence of Roman antiquity

3

o St.Martin-in-the-Fields

 1721

 Architect: James Gibbs

 Location: London

 Very similar to Maison Carree

 Chancel = most holy part of the church

 Galleries on either side

∙ Light filled spaces

 Gothic Spire

 Simplified inside to avoid distractions and focus on scripture  Pulpit: most important part of the church

o Blenheim Palace

 1705

 Architect: John Vanbrugh

 Location: United Kingdom

 Not actually a palace

 John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough

∙ French Defeated at the battle of Blenheim by Churchill ∙ Built at the expense of the royal family

 Symmetrical

 Baroque

∙ Some Italian interest in concave and convex forms

∙ Similar to chateau Vaux-le-Vicomte

∙ Corp de logis

∙ Long gallery (exercise, views onto landscape)

∙ Caryatid characters (similar to the Louvre)

∙ Finial: meant to look like shooting out a cannonball

∙ Excessive glazing (like Hardwick hall)

∙ Lion sculpture tearing apart a rooster (England tearing apart  French)

∙ Chiaroscuro

∙ Bust of Louis XIV as a war trophy

 Landscape, Lancelot “Capability” Brown

∙ Create gently rolling hills

∙ Create extensive water courses and artificial lakes

 Planting of trees in little clumps to guide the eyes

 Ha Ha walls: does its job but does not catch attention of the eye,  discrete

o Chiswick House

 1725

 Architect: Lord Burlington

4

 Location: London

 Move to neo-palladianism

∙ Rusticated lower base

∙ Octagonal dome with thermal window

∙ Chimneys

∙ Looks like it can support (classical)

∙ Statues of Palladio and Inigo Jones

∙ Relieving Arch: clean, clear, pristine proportions connected with  nobility and nature (right to be ruling)

∙ Bilateral symmetry

∙ Interior is similar to Banqueting Hall

 Landscape plan, London, William Kent

∙ 1727

∙ Follows the landscape of the hill (Edmund Burke’s ideas of beauty) ∙ Follies: Small scale buildings

o Kenwood House

 1769

 Architect: Robert Adams

 Location: Hampstead, London

 Blue=lightness (Similar to Rococo)

 Barrel vault that ends in an apse

∙ Known for the interior

 Robert Adams ‘Ruins of the Palace of Emperor Diocletian at Spalato’ ∙ Added portico to preexisting building

 Adam style or ‘Adamesque’

o Stourhead

 1741

 Architect: Henry Hoare

 Location: Wiltshire, England

 Built for Henry Hoare II and Henry Flitcroft

 Picturesque aesthetic

∙ “all gardening is landscape painting”

∙ Claude Lorraine, Landscaoe with Aeneas at Delos, 1672 ∙ Taking paintings and making them real, placing them in the world

o Strawberry Hill

 1748

 Architect: Horace Walpole

 Location: United Kingdom

 Rebuilt a house that was already there without following Palladian  ideals

 Overgrown Folly, complex and exhilarating composition 5

∙ Hard to pick out features

∙ Reminders of irregular medieval architecture

∙ Coined term ‘Serendipity’

 Narrow passage to front door

 Neo-Gothic

 Wrote first gothic novel

∙ Horace Walpole

∙ The Castle of Otranto, 1764

 Picture gallery

∙ Pendent Vaulting (excessive fan vaults)

∙ Copy of Westminster

 William Beckford was against Walpole’s Strawberry Hills ∙ Wrote his own gothic novel

o Fonthill Abbey

 1796

 Architect: James Wyatt

 Location: United Kingdom

 Neo-Gothic but not picturesque

∙ Sublime: Category of aesthetic experience brought about through  terror or shock, overwhelming experience

∙ Shrinkage feeling as you walk in, height and verticality dwarfs you ∙ Tower cracked and fell from height

∙ Picturesque ruin

o Vierzehnheiligen

 1744

 Architect: Neumann

 Location: Bavaria, Germany

 Appears baroque (convex and concave curves on façade) ∙ Onion domes

∙ Channeled rustication

∙ Ashlar as you move up

 Signaled to pilgrims that the church was there

 Site of miraculous healing

∙ Story of man and 14 babies that appeared as spirits

 Interior

∙ Emphasis on light through stuccos and marble

∙ Pendentive paintings

∙ Columns act as a screen that hides the light source (baroque) ∙ Cartouche: Oval/curved frame

∙ Rich materiality with gold leaf

∙ Movement in the architecture

6

∙ Enhancing the use of flora (characteristic of Rococo)

 Floor plan

∙ Basilica with baroque influence

∙ Almost anthropomorphic (looks like a human)

∙ Undulating surface

o Wurzburg Residenz

 1720

 Architect: Neumann

 Location: Germany

 Reminds us of Versailles

 Prince Bishop would live here (Religion and politics coming together)  Originally a gate enclosed the space

∙ Seen at Versailles and Blenheim palace

∙ Called Cour d’Honneur

 Pavilions marking the corners

 Play of progression and recession

 Originally painted yellow ochre with grey classical detailing (more  emphasis on architectural details)

 Rebuilt after WW2

 Back is very similar to Vaux-le-Vicomte

∙ Pavilions at two ends

∙ Bulbous middle (Bombay projection)

 Plan

∙ U-form

∙ Open courts for air circulation and light

∙ Stair hall

∙ For prince Bishops so chapel is necessary

 Section

∙ Immense amount of space given to the stair hall

∙ Mezzanine level for servants

 Stair Hall

∙ Slow progression to get to the top

∙ Forcing people to move in a certain type of way for some reason ∙ Fresco above by Giovanni

∙ Entering a new world, needs time to observe

∙ Imperial staircase

∙ Baroque moment with play of infinity

 Imperial hall (Kaisersaal)

∙ Pink marble

∙ Fresco by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

∙ Possible worship of sun king

7

 White Hall

∙ Antoni Bossi

∙ Contrast

∙ Walls are dripping with stucco

∙ No sense of classical columns

∙ Rococo space

o Salon de la Princesse

 1736

 Architect: Bofrand

 Location: Paris, France

 Inside Hotel Suboise

 Strong example of Rococo Style

∙ Gold on white

∙ Plays on the idea of natural and artificial

∙ Light comes through window

∙ Fresco plays on infinity and the artificial used to create a sense of  nature

 Distinctions between class are breaking down

∙ Middle class may be making their way to the nobility

 Artwork

∙ The Luncheon by Francois Boucher

∙ 1739

∙ Suggestion of intimacy

∙ Cofee (fashionable new drink)

∙ Decorated clock: Lunch at a certain time now

o Amalienburg

 1734

 Architect: Francois de Cuvilies

 Location: Munich, Germany

 Artemis or Diana: gods shown on facade

 Plan

∙ Circular with bulbous projection

∙ Inside toilet (high end for this era)

∙ Dog Kennel

∙ Tile work taken from other cultures

o Ermenonville/Temple of Modern Philosophy

 1770

 Architect: Girardin

 Location: France

 Jardin Anglais

8

 Taken parts from English landscape

∙ Grounds of Stourhead

 Each Column designated to a diferent philosopher

∙ Rousseau played a key role

∙ Natural space like the garden is “good”

∙ Wants natural goodness is humans

∙ Reason

∙ All ideas associated with the enlightenment

o Pantheon/Ste-Genevieve

 1790

 Architect: Soufflot

 Location: Paris

 Decided to build this for Saint Genevieve

∙ Free standing porch

∙ Corinthian columns

∙ Academic architecture in France

∙ Church part of civic environment (suggested)

∙ Being held up by contemporary engineering (steel rods) ∙ Good rational enlightenment architecture

 Interior

∙ Neo-Classicism in France (Greco-Gothic)

∙ Return to Greco-Roman world

∙ Enlightenment: rational thought

∙ Fluting in columns is immaculate

 Use of flying buttresssalon

∙ Helps stress of dome

∙ Represent cosmos

o School of Surgery

 1774

 Architect: Gondoin

 Location: Paris

 Building for modern medicine

 Screening Wall

∙ Similar to Hotel Particulier

 Arcade

 Triumphal arch as entrance

∙ Studied these in Rome

∙ Marks the way into the public space

∙ Sculpted image of Louis XV

∙ Helping the people of France by having this built (guiding that  actions of the King)

9

 Reference to the Pantheon and Greek Amphitheatre

 Lecture hall with cofered ceiling and oculus

o Royal Saltworks

 1775

 Architect: Ledoux

 Location: Arc-et-Senans, France

 Origin of the garden city idea

 Semi-Rusticated

 Ledoux has ideas included a river running through a house ∙ Architecture Parlante

∙ Inspector’s house: could test the water without leaving his home ∙ Functionality

∙ Guy living in a pipe

o Cenotaph

 1784

 Architect: Boulee

 Idea

 Monument to enlightenment

 A vision of the night sky, illuminates at night

 Giant Planetarium

Themes/Concepts 

o Baroque France

 Focus on ancient past

 All about the absolute monarchy

 Louis XIV

 Divinity of King, divine right to rule, centralization of power  More focused on a crisp and pure classicism (diferent than Italy  with flowy, rich and dynamic style)

 Not inspired by a counter-reformation (unique to Italy)

 More focus on politics

 Focus on monarchy

Italian baroque = focus on religion

French baroque = focus on politics

o The Renaissance in France

 A work of translation from Italy to France

 Had to accommodate for the weather

 Wanted to create a uniquely French style

 Italian ideas onto French medieval buildings

10

 Looking to the past to complement the present and to create a  future

o The renaissance and baroque period in England

 Henry VIII postponed the renaissance coming to England  1534, Henry split from the catholic church and made the  Anglican church

 1666, The great fire

 Christopher Wren, rebuilt the entire city from the fire, developing  of a new church style

 Too much of a connection between the pope and the  

church

 Moved away from the gothic, medieval, Romanesque and  Italian/French renaissance, baroque styles

o French Baroque:

 Concave/convex shapes

 Telescoping dome/ High dome

 Cultural exchange

 Reformation/Counter-reformation

 Garden palace-upper class residence (vacation home)

∙ Two stories with grand entrance

∙ Rusticated lower story

∙ Smooth ashlar outside

∙ Projected pavilions (3 jutting out)

o English classicism

 Prodigy house

∙ House built by wealthy families

∙ Long gallery

 Inigo jones went to Italy and studied Palladio

∙ Brought back ideas to England

 Catholic church

∙ Cruciform plans, more for people walking around masses  Anglican church

∙ Focused on the word, oral scripture

o English Baroque

 Architecture adapted to climate, more closed spaces

 Bell towers, paired columns

 Blending Italian Classicism with English tradition

 English spire

o English neoclassicism

11

 Empiricism

∙ Learning through experience

 Grande tours

∙ Architects went to go “experience” the architecture

∙ Draw everything they see

 English landscapes

∙ Make as natural as possible

∙ Being able to shape the land

∙ ‘Picturesque’

 Ruins appealing to classicism

o Late baroque and Rococo

 Stucco, pastel colors, relation to nature, light, gold leaf,  decoration/ornamentation, marble

 Intimate interiors

 Interest in the international or exotic

 No interest in the classical tradition or orders

 Architecture is hidden behind the décor (artificial)

 Distinction between classes are weakening (middle class to  nobility)

o Neo-Classicism in France

 Response to Rococo (too artificial)

 Rational, tracing architecture back to ancient Rome and Greece  Called Greco-Gothic (using the light and verticality of Gothic  period)

 Representational work

∙ Architecture standing for ideas

 In renaissance humanism had a huge impact on the movement,  in Neo-classicism the enlightenment had a huge impact on it

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