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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - ANTH 1500 - Week 6 Notes - 2/22/18 - Class Notes

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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - ANTH 1500 - Week 6 Notes - 2/22/18 - Class Notes

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Sociology
Course: Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Professor: Lucas Proctor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology
Name: ANTH 1500 - Week 6 Notes - 2/22/18
Description: These notes cover information from lectures on 2/19/18 and 2/21/18
Uploaded: 02/23/2018
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background image Week 6
ANTH 1500 19 and 21 Feb 2018 
  Sites discussed: • Çatalhöyük
• Göbekli Tepe
• ‘Ain Mallala
• Ohalo II
• Hilazon Tachtit
• ‘Ain Ghazal
• Jericho
The Holocene Geological period following the Pleistocene Begins 11,700 BP Onset of modern climate pattern Younger Dryas: Brief reversal in warning trend at end of 
Pleistocene
Anthropocene (human created climate)? Hunter-gather-foragers Only subsistence strategy prior to agriculture Requires mobility: must travel to food resources Dependent on resource availability Few remaining H/G/F today Broad Spectrum Revolution Hypothesis Kent Flannery, 1968 A change in H/G/F emphasis from a few high value 
resources to many lower-value resources
Exploitation of more marginal environements Driven by overexploitation? Population increases? Climate 
change?
The Fertile Crescent Term coined by R. Braidwood to describe the most 
productive area  of SW Asia.
background image Early Epipaleolithic 23,000 – 17,000 BC Wadi Madamagh, D. Olszewski The Levant (Israel/Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, etc.) Highly mobile populations Hunted gazelle, onager, aurochs, deer, goat Ohalo II, Sea of Galilee 23,000-19,000 BP Early Epipaleolithic campsite 300 m 2  in size Inundated by rising lake levels = fantastic organic 
preservation
Preserved barley grains, other grasses, almond, olive, 
pistachio, and grape
Grinding stones present with evidence for processing 
cereals
A burial, grass huts and foods from various seasons suggest
year-round occupation
Late Epipaleolithic 13,000-9,600 BC Early Natufian Period o 13,000-11,000 BC
o Small semi-sedentary villages: ‘Ain Mallala
Evidence for food processing and intensive cereal collection Late Natufian Period 11,000-9,600 BC Young Dryas A return to a more mobile lifestyle Villages abandoned Hilazon Tachtit: cave site with evidence for social complexity 
in rituals
o 28 burials
o Feasting, ritual burial of shaman?
background image The transition to Food Production… Shift from intensive collection to local cultivation Sedentism? Indisputable evidence for agriculture does not appear until 
the Neolithic
Food Production Agriculture: cultivation of domesticated plants and animals 
as the primary means of subsistence
Pastoralism Agriculture Intensive cultivation of a few speices Cereals: principal crop e.g., wheat, barley, rice, maize, millet,
sorghum
50% of world caloric intake today Store well Principal practices of agriculture… 1. Propagation: Selection and sowing of seeds or breeding of  animals 2. Husbandry: Tending of plants/animals during growth period
3. Harvesting or Slaughter
4. Storage of produce and maintenance of animals during non-
reproductive periods 5. Sedentism Archaeological evidence for agriculture 1. Domesticated plant and animal remains
2. Grinding stones
3. Flint blades/sickles with “sickle sheen” (use wear)
4. Pathologies of human bones
Domestication Process of human manipulation of genetic, behavioral, and 
morphological features
Dogs are first domesticate (30,000 ya) Artificial selection Different than exploitation (ex. Maple) or taming (foxes?)

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Sociology
Course: Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Professor: Lucas Proctor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology
Name: ANTH 1500 - Week 6 Notes - 2/22/18
Description: These notes cover information from lectures on 2/19/18 and 2/21/18
Uploaded: 02/23/2018
7 Pages 29 Views 23 Unlocks
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