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UF / History / ART 125 / What are the characteristics of a woman from willendorf?

What are the characteristics of a woman from willendorf?

What are the characteristics of a woman from willendorf?

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: History
Course: Introduction to the History and Principles of Art 1
Professor: Elizabeth ross
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Art History
Cost: 50
Name: ARH 2050 Midterm Study Guide
Description: This includes a breakdown of the format of the exam, some essay tips, and a chart with all the final slides for the first two parts
Uploaded: 02/23/2018
13 Pages 43 Views 5 Unlocks
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ARH 2050 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE  


What are the characteristics of a woman from willendorf?



Exam format  

I. 3 single slide IDs, 5 mins each

1. creator, if known (most of the slides will not have a named maker) 2. title

3. date  

a) NOTE: for this exam, many of the slides will have a range of years  spanning a ruler’s reign instead of a single year. It’s ridiculous, I know, so  you should start memorizing sooner rather than later. 

4. place it was made

B. Use the rest of the time to write about the most important aspects of the image.  This will end up being about 1-2 paragraphs long, no bullet points

II. 2 slide comparisons, 10 mins each

A. ID both slides, using numbers 1-4 in part I.

B. Compare/contrast the images point by point. This should be a short essay, no  bullet points


What is seated scribe?



C. Think: Why would these two images be put together? This will be the subject of  your essay. Make sure to talk about both slides together, rather than writing all  about the first and then about the second.

III. Essay, 15 mins

A. NOTE: Unlike the slide IDs, we haven’t really covered what the essay will look  like, what it could ask, etc. so this guide may not help much on part III.  Therefore, I’ll be focusing more on parts I and II to minimize the chance of failing  horribly, but here is what I’ve gathered. Don't forget about the age old question of What is equilibrium?

B. There will be one question. Answer the question.  

C. Incorporate materials from the lectures, image boards, and readings. You can  answer the question with any relevant slide that was on the image boards,  whether or not it was on a slide list. 


Where is the temple of hatshepsut?



1We also discuss several other topics like What is the royal standard of ur?

D. Use specific examples, and try to avoid rewriting what you covered in parts I  and II.

Stuck on a slide? Information you can include in your essays  1. What is it and what does it show?

2. What makes it important/interesting? What is the meaning behind the work?

3. What is the context in which it was made/found? The site always provides a  cultural/historical context that helps understand the meaning.

4. How does the work relate to the place it was made?

5. What function did it serve?

6. What were the religious, social, cultural, or political meanings behind the image?  There’s almost always more than one, as with Ancient Egypt rulership is  inseparable from religion, and in Ancient Greece religion is often tied to cultural  events and art is meant to show social status. We also discuss several other topics like What is zong?
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7. What are the most important visual aspects?

8. Is there any symbolism shown?  

9. What themes covered in lecture could you relate to the work?

10. Are there any other works that relate to this one? How? Maybe they’re from the  same site, from the same period, or have similar imagery. This is typically the  anchor for a slide comparison.

2

Slide list  

NOTE: You will need to copy the second column exactly as shown in order to correctly  ID the slide. I also included some points you can mention in your essay, but make sure  to look over the image boards on Canvas if there is anything I missed.

Slide: if you can't see the  picture, either Google the  title or look at the slides on  Canvas.

Maker, title,  

date, location

info

Woman from  Willendorf

circa 24,000  

BCE,  

Austria

• symbol of fertility

• stumpy feet and small size indicates it was a portable  charm rather than free-standing

• not much is known about the purpose or function, but  theories suggest that it is meant to ensure a safe  pregnancy

• based on the proportions, lack of face, and different  perspectives/angles, some suggest that it was carved  by a pregnant woman looking at herself

Stele of Prince  Wep-em-nefret,  circa  

2551-2528  

BCE,  

Old Kingdom,  Giza, Egypt

• twisted perspective

• painted wall relief on a tomb

• shows pictures of offerings

• meant to 1) ensure that the offering ritual would  happen and 2) provide Wep-em-nefret with backup in  case he needed these things in the afterlife

Seated Scribe, circa  

2450-2325  

BCE,  

Old Kingdom,  Saqqara, Egypt

• realistic, detailed, sculpture  

• attached to a base, meant to be viewed from the front • red skin: conventional male

• seated: conventional pose

• eyes were crafted separately and inlaid

• papyrus is balanced on his kilt

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3

Khafre,  

circa  

2520-2494  

BCE,  

Old Kingdom,  Giza, Egypt

• one of many sculptures of the pharaoh Khafre placed  in his pyramid temple

• rectilinear posture, the figure attached to the block,  and separate views from the front and side: traditional  egyptian style

• wearing the traditional nemes, fake beard, kilt, and  bull tail — shows his wealth and power

• The side of the throne shows a papyrus and lotus  intertwined, symbolizing Khafre’s rule over the united  Lower and Upper Egypt

• his head is being held by a falcon, the symbol for the  god Horus (divine protection)

• anatomy is idealistic to show

Judgment of  Hunefer,  

Book of the  

Dead,

circa 1285  

BCE,  

New Kingdom,  Thebes, Egypt

• painted papyrus scroll

• depicts Hunefer’s transition to the afterlife: his ahh  being led by Anubis to the judgement area, heart  weighed against Maat feather, and being led by Horus  to Oriris

• was bought and and kept in Hunefer's tomb to  ensure his safe transition

• shows hieratic scale and twisted perspective

Great Temple  of Amun,  

circa  

1579-1075  

BCE,  

New Kindgom,  Karnak, Egypt

• built over 1000 years to worship the sun god Amun • runs perpendicular to the Nile, has two processional  routes

• the people must pass through pylons, which are  shaped like the mountain that the sun sets over in  Egypt

• victory obelisks

• hypostyle halls has columns whose capitals resemble  the papyrus and lotus swamp

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4

Seated  

Hatshepsut,  

circa  

1479-1458  

BCE,  

New Kingdom,  near Thebes,  Egypt

• rectilinear construction, conventional seated pose:  traditional egyptian style

• painted white: conventional woman

• wearing names and bull’s tail: conventional pharaoh  attire

• She’s using the conventions of egyptian art to  normalize her female body into the idea of a pharaoh

Temple of  

Hatshepsut,  

circa  

1479-1458  

BCE,

New Kingdom,  near Thebes,  Egypt

• across the Nile from the Temple of Amun

• built into a mountain, as opposed to a pyramid • near other temples as a political move to associate  Hatshepsut with the gods and with other rulers • unified, visually cohesive, telescoped architecture  • several osirises outside

• annual ritual where a statue of Amun was carried  across the nile to be housed here

Akhenaten and  his Family,  

circa 1340  

BCE,

New Kingdom,  Amarna, Egypt

• walls relief breaks Egyptian convention in almost  every way possible

• more “naturalistic” and personal posing, despite the  alien heads and spindly limbs

• replaced all the gods with the solar disc Aten • purpose: connect the royal family with the egyptian  people

Temple of  

Ramses II,  

circa 1244-24  BCE,

New Kingdom,  Abu Simbel,  

Egypt

• victory monument, built to commemorate the  conquest over the Nubians

• four statues of Ramses shows hieratic scale (wife and  kids are smaller)

• wall reliefs show captives with bent, “defeated” body  language

• inner sanctuary has four seated statues of gods • the temple is positioned so that on a certain day of  the year, the angle of the monument allows sunlight to  shine all the way into the back room onto the two  gods in the center

5

Bull Leaping,  circa  

1550-1450  

BCE,  

Knossos,  

Greece

• wall painting from Minoan Crete

• important part of the culture

• broken and partially reconstructed

Girls Gathering  Saffron,

circa  

1650-1625  

BCE,  

Thera, Greece

• wall painting on a room used for initiation  

• shows the Minoan role of women

• saffron picking: for offering?

• fashion:

Pylos Combat  Agate,  

circa  

1500-1450  

BCE,  

Pylos, Greece

• small and incredibly detailed bead, thought to be  worn on the wrist

• found in a Mycenean tomb “Griffin warrior” • warrior slaying two enemies

• tiny ancient masterpiece is a huge historic discovery

Funerary  

Krater,

circa 740 BCE,  Athens, Greece

• large grave marker in the geometric style

• registers showing war scene and treatment of the  bodies, grieving women

• also used to dilute wine

Exekias,  

Achilles and  

Ajax Playing a  Game,  

circa 530 BCE,  Athens, Greece

• depicts Achilles and Ajax playing dice before they die  in the trojan war

• the composition of the scene works with the shape of  the vessel

• black figure technique

6

Exekias,  

Dionysos at  

Sea with Eyes  and Fallen  

Heroes,  

circa 530 BCE,  Athens, Greece

• used for drinking

• depicts Dionysus sailing at sea, surrounded by grapes  and dolphins  

• image at the bottom of the kylix is placed so that as  the user drinks the wine, the image appears to be  • eyes on the outside meant to ward evil

Euphronios,

Euphronios  

Krater,  

circa 515 BCE, Athens, Greece

alternate titles  accepted:  

Death of  

Sarpedon or  

Sleep and  

Death Carry  

Sarpedon

• red figure technique

• depicts Sleep and Death carrying Sarpedon away  from the Trojan war

• composition has v shape that reflects the shape of the  vessel

Penthesilea  

Painter,  

Achilles Killing  Penthesilea,  

circa 470-460  BCE, Athens,  Greece

• carefully composed so that the main figures are  millimeters away from touching

• scene reflects story in epic poems/ancient greek  literature

7

Woman at  

Tomb and  

Charon,  

circa 425 BCE,  Athens, Greece

• used to hold oil/perfume to anoint a corpse • left as offerings at graves

• depicts Charon (ferryman) taking someone to the  afterlife  

• extremely fragile lekythos  

• uses white-ground style alongside red figure  technique

8

Kouros,

circa 590-580  BCE,  

near Athens,  

Greece

• uses as a grave marker/votive statue

• generic young male face

• striding pose, balled fists, rigid stance reminiscent of  egyptian art made 1000 years earlier

• freestanding, meant to be viewed in the round • knees show perfect, geometric/mathematic proportion  of the body

• depicts male nudity as heroic and admirable (physical  excellence=moral excellence)

Polykleitos,  

Spear Bearer,  Roman copy of  Greek original  from circa  

450-440 BCE  

alternate title  accepted:  

Doryphoros

• classical greek style: poise and stillness with potential  for action/movement, straight and bent balance • ideal male proportions

• shows idealism and contrapposto

• the marble copy has braces for stability that the  bronze original did not have

• male nudity: heroic, admirable, civilized

• had a spear: poised for battle

9

Kore,  

circa 510 BCE,  erected in  

Athens, Greece

• archaic period

• made in Chios for the Athens acropolis

• very detailed, freestanding statue of an east greek  maiden wearing a chiton and himation

• female body is shown through clothing: allows  drapery to show movement and visual interest  • keep in mind the culture: different social roles,  segregation of the sexes

Kallikrates and  Iktinos,  

Parthenon,

447-432 BCE,  Athens, Greece

• peristyle colonnades

• doric order with ionic features

• ever so slightly curved to counter optical illusion of  imperfection

• different stories on each side

• filled with sculpture

Birth of Athena,  447-432 BCE,  from  

Parthenon,  

Athens, Greece

• mostly gone from the pediment of the parthenon due  to explosive damage

• bodies are posed to fit the triangle composition

Lapith Fighting  a Centaur,

447-432 BCE,  from  

Parthenon,  

Athens Greece

• from frieze on one of the sides of the parthenon • part of the “men vs centaurs” side

• dramatically poised with intertwining of figures • theme: Greek citizens vs the barbaric other

Horsemen,  

447-432 BCE,  from  

Parthenon,  

Athens, Greece

• from frieze on the north side of the parthenon • pananthenaic procession

10

Gods and  

Young Women  with Peplos,  

447-432 BCE,  from  

Parthenon,  

Athens, Greece

• from frieze on the inner layer of the parthenon • pananthenaic procession

Nike of  

Samothrace,  circa 190 BCE,  Samothrace,  Greece

• female body shown through clothing: striding and  wind swept

• goddess Nike flying onto a ship

• one side is more finished (viewing angle)

• meant to honor goddess of victory after winning naval  battle

Old Woman,

Roman copy of  Greek original  from 100-200  BCE

• movement shown through clothing and pose • hellenistic style: deviation form classical young  beautiful statues, evokes different emotion/pathos • wearing a party dress that no longer quite fits • headdress suggests she participates in the festival of  dionysus

Pergamon  

Altar,  

circa 170-160  BCE,  

Pergamon,  

Turkey

• ionic order

• huge public monument

• large frieze contains reliefs depict Gigantomachy (gods vs giants battle)

11

Gaul  

Committing  

Suicide with his  Wife,  

Roman copy of  original from c.  220 BCE,  

Pergamon,  

Turkey  

alternate title  accepted:  

Ludovisi Gaul  Group

• viewer has to walk around statue to get the whole  story  

• action stance

• evokes pity

• hellenistic style change: heroic body language and  treatment of the body of the defeated

Man with  

Portrait Busts,  late 1st century  BCE Rome,  

Italy

 alternate title  accepted:  

Togatus  

Barberini

• portraits show geneology/funerary purposes • Republican portraiture valued the authority of  agedness: exaggerated wrinkles

12

Augustus of  

Prima Porta,

before 37 CE,  Rome, Italy

• commissioned by Augustus’ wife Livia

• purpose: commemorate her husband while promoting  her son Tiberius as the next emperor

• new era style changes: rulers wear clothes again,  young and beautiful portrayed, calls back to classical  Athens  

• addressing the troops, wearing armor

• cuirass has celestial imagery along with Tiberius  retrieving a military standard

• cupid: attempt to trace lineage to the divine

Ara Pacis  

Augustae,

9 BCE,  

Rome, Italy

alternate title  accepted: Altar  of Augustan  

Peace

• near mausoleum and giant gnomon obelisk • political platform used to promote family values as  well as peace through strength

• different stories on each side: mythical past of Rome,  present bounty of Rome

• two different processions: Roman officials, imperial  family

• figures are more static/rigid than the hellenistic period

Dioscurides,  

Gemma  

Augustea,  

9-12 CE,

Rome, Italy  

alternate title  accepted:  

Augustan Gem

• large, expensive stone cut so that the layers are  revealed through carving

• top register: Augustus deified, surrounded by  personifications of Rome, civilization, victory, etc. • bottom register: defeated barbarians, roman troops  displaying trophy

• purpose: commemorate Augustus while promoting  Tiberius as the next emperor

13

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