SLIDE ID’s & pertinent information
White Temple and Ziggurat, Uruk, Sumerian culture, ca. 35003000 BCE. ∙ Sacred to to ANU: the sky God
∙ The waiting place
∙ ANU comes down to this artificial mountain (meeting of heaven and earth) ∙ Built as a process
o First shakuru (layer) mound of mud (built of mud brick)
o New building built on top and next and next etc. creates a Ziggurat o 5 separate destructions and rebuildings
∙ Cult statue in the Cella
∙ Closer and closer to the holy of holiness
∙ THE BENT AXIS APPROACH
o Square edged reveals
o Shadows on the outer walls
∙ Tendency to adorn parts of the wall with mosaics
o Cone mosaics / stuck to the wall / ceramics
Female Head, from Uruk, Sumerian culture, ca. 32003000 BCE. Limestone. ∙ Possibly Eannafertility goddess
∙ Work of a skilled craftsman
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Figurines from Temple of Abu, Tell Asmar, Sumerian culture, ca. 27002500 BCE. Limestone, alabaster, and gypsum.
∙ Found together
∙ Height of the tallest figure approx 30”
∙ Placed in the Sella
∙ VOTIVE offering to a God
o Could perform the function of tending to the presence of the God ∙ Angularity of the faces contrasts with the round bodies
o Abstraction, angularity, simple roundness assert the presence of the object in space
o More real
∙ Huge eyes (something is happening beyond the normal)
o Responding to divine presence
∙ Purpose: the manifestation of the presence of the god himself / You feel it / Viewer takes cue from the figure
∙ Painted on by bitumen? (oil/petroleum)
Royal Standard of Ur, from Ur, Sumerian culture, ca. 2600 BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, limestone, and lapis lazuli.
∙ Most likely a sound box
∙ Divided into horizontal registers
∙ Trampling dead bodies of their defeated enemies
∙ HIERATIC SCALE
o Largest figure is the most important
o LUGAL Big man
Not simply an ensi but also has military virtue (victory)
∙ Simplicity and clarity of the figures
o Repeated poses
o Shown conceptually not realistically
o Skirts (conicus): show importance
o Top level: lyre is being played
∙ Represents a banquet
Bull Lyre, from the tomb of Queen Puabi, Ur, Sumerian culture, ca. 2600 BCE. Wood with gold, lapis lazuli, bitumen, and shell, reassembled in modern wood support. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the various types of households and families?
Inlay panel from the Bull Lyre.
o Bottom: Snake/ scorpion man
o Bear and ram are playing a lyre (same musical instrument we are looking at)
o Lion and lioness
o Top: Human headed bulls
∙ Gilgamesh figure
Head of an Akkadian Ruler, from Nineveh, Akkadian culture, ca. 22502200 BCE. Copper.
∙ Continuation of artistic and stylistic traits
∙ Damage possibly due to the invasion of the Elamites (coming from western Persia)
o Gouging out eyes
Stele of NaramSin, Akkadian culture, 22542218 BCE (reign of NaramSin) ∙ Lullaby people
∙ Contorted poses
∙ Pulling spears out of throats
o Hieratic scale (largest figure)
o Depicted above all the other figures
o Approaching star like figures
o Body is big and muscular
∙ Earliest ever example of a landscape in art history
∙ Adds dynamism to the composition
∙ Absolute deliberate celebration of the male body on display in order to draw attention to Naram Sin (a god living on Earth) Don't forget about the age old question of math 102 study guide
∙ Depicted as a God horn helmet makes him like a living god worn by only the divine in previous works
∙ Marching his way up to the gods
o Two suns can be dvine figures
∙ Akkadian people trampling the losing opposition
∙ Diagonal registers
∙ Military object
Great Ziggurat of King Urnammu, Ur, Sumerian culture, ca. 2100 BCE. ∙ Draws upon existing examples of Ziggurat
o White temple: gradual process of construction, demolition, reconstruction ∙ Constructed large from the start If you want to learn more check out nadh3
∙ Bitumen used as a cement
∙ Squareedge reveals
∙ Dedicated to the god NANNA(god of the moon) / called Sin in Akkadian ∙ Stairways connect multiple terraces
∙ Shakkuru at the top
Head of Gudea, from Lagash, Sumerian culture, ca. 2100 BCE. Diorite. ∙ Lagash was sacred to the god NINGIRSU
∙ Made from diorite (a hard stone)
o Almost black
o Extremely hard stone, heavy and difficult to carve
∙ Wool cap
o Swirls: resemble the rough texture of the wool
∙ Multiple heads of Gudea exist
o Heads and bodies separated (to make more money when selling) o Bodies contain inscriptions
Seated Statue of Gudea holding temple plan, from Girsu, Sumerian culture, ca. 2100 BCE. Diorite.
∙ In and out / Square edged reveals (buttresses)
o Depicts the “dream” of the figure
o Dream of a new temple
∙ Respectful presentation to the god for the requested temple to be built
Stele of the Law Code of Hammurabi, Babylonian culture, ca. 1760 BCE. Diorite. ∙ Carved in the heavy stone diorite Don't forget about the age old question of sauvu
∙ Originates from Babylonia
o Amorites established Babylonia
o Hammurabi introduced the famous law code If you want to learn more check out george chikhladze
o Most detailed early law code
“If an architect builds a house for somebody and the house
collapses and kills the owner then the architect needs to die”
o Sense of justice Gives society a way of working
o Nobody can escape justice justice shines down on all
o The Sun God SHAMASH god of justice
o Divinity depicted by the horns on his hat
o Rising lines: rays of the sun
∙ No intercessor between subject and god
Lion Hunt relief, from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh, Assyrian culture, ca. 645 BCE.
∙ Dead contorted lions with arrows sticking out of them
∙ If you shoot a lion it falls but then suddenly comes up
∙ Lioness stabbed with 3 arrows dragging her dead body
Ishtar Gate, from Babylon, Babylonian culture, ca. 575 BCE. Glazed brick. Lion from Ishtar Gate, Babylon, Babylonian culture, ca. 575 BCE. Glazed brick.
Palette of King Narmer, from Hierakonpolis, Egyptian culture, Predynastic period, ca. 31503125 BCE. Slate.
∙ Funerary object Ceremonial version of an object that would have been used in daily life
∙ Symbol at top represents King
∙ Top view and front view
∙ SEREKH: symbol of a kingly palace
∙ Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs
∙ Earliest King that we know of
∙ Uniting the two lands
∙ Ritualistic striking / killing
∙ MA’AT: order
o Catfish and chisel
o Torso front view
o Legs and arms side view
o Wearing bulls tail
∙ HEB SED: a ceremony which reaffirms the powers of the pharaoh and his hold on ma’at
Step Pyramid Complex of King Djoser, by Imhotep, Saqqara, Egyptian culture, Old Kingdom period, 3rd Dynasty, ca. 2681 BCE.
∙ IMHOTEP: Son of PTAH (Creator God)
∙ Imhotep was the earliest known artist/ architect
∙ Earliest columns ever created out of stone
∙ Courtyard open to the sky
∙ Columns representing wreaths
∙ Process of petrification
∙ Dummy buildings
o Filled with sand
o There to serve the afterlife
∙ Step Pyramid
o Architecture traditionally is created during building process
o Form is discovered through the process of construction itself
o RA: sun god makes a journey in a boat from our world to the underworld (ORDER: MA’AT)
o Pharoah continuing his job of maintaining MA’AT
Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure, Giza, Egyptian culture, Old Kingdom period, 4th Dynasty, ca. 26012528 BCE.
∙ Khufu is RA incarnate
∙ When he passes that is a moment of continuity
∙ He will continue to deliver the disk across the sky
The Great Sphinx, Giza, Egyptian culture, Old Kingdom period, 4th Dynasty, ca. 2544 BCE.
∙ Carved out of the excavated bedrock itself
∙ Served as a protective figure for the complex
Khafre, from Giza, Egyptian culture, Old Kingdom period, 4th Dynasty, ca. 2544 BCE. Diorite.
∙ Suitable because it is hard and durable
Menkaure and His Wife Queen Khamerernebty II, from Giza, Egyptian culture, Old Kingdom period, 4th Dynasty, ca. 2515 BCE. Slate.
∙ Stone has been left in place instead of being carved away
∙ Negative space: absence of space
o Purpose of this: to create a very stable figure
o Very important to the function that this statue served
o KA Lifeforce
∙ Athletic muscular features
∙ Royal headcloth
Seated Scribe, from Saqqara, Egyptian culture, Old Kingdom period, ca. 2400 BCE. Limestone.
Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt, Tomb of Ti, Saqqara, Egyptian culture, Old Kingdom period, ca. 25102460 BCE. Painted limestone relief.
∙ TI Hierarchical scale
∙ Hunting of hippopotami in the marshes
∙ Horizontal registers
o Bottom: fish and hippopotami
o Boat and hunters (small size)
o TI (pose of immobility, afterlife)
Having joined the eternal afterlife
∙ Important: ancient tradition of hunting hippopotami
o Menace towards farming
o Nile floodsTending to cropsAttacked by hippopotami
o ISFET: chaos (that needs to be overcome by its opposite Ma’at) Job of the Pharaoh to return Ma’at
Chief administrator helps him
Senworset III, Egyptian culture, Middle Kingdom period, ca. 1850 BCE. ∙ Fragmentary head
∙ Face of an aging person
o Bags beneath the eyelids
o Lines on either side of the mouth
o Downturned mouth
o Naturalistic/ Realness
∙ Pharoah not portrayed as forever young
Tomb of Hatshepsut, Deir elBahri, Egyptian culture, New Kingdom period, ca. 1478 1458 BCE.
∙ Tomb structure making its way into the ground underworld →
∙ Place in between the cliffs
∙ Funerary complex of Hatshepsut
o Cliffs with natural striations (vertical)
o The structure is based off what is started by nature
o Geometricized by the architect/architecture (Ma’at: ordering through artisanship, manifestation of a sense of order, remains and KA statue of the Pharaoh located here)
∙ Anubis Chapel, Funerary
o Use of the Adze to carve the smooth planes that geometricized the columns (polygonal)
o King is represented with the crown of Upper Egypt / Composite: both upper and lower
o Pharaoh is represented as Osiris
Osiris is the King of the Afterlife
Temple of Ramesses II, Abu Simbel, Egyptian culture, New Kingdom period, 19th Dynasty, ca. 12791213 BCE.
∙ Gateways of a temple
∙ Walk into the gateway / into the Earth
∙ Multiple lifesize images of Ramesses as Osiris
Akhenaten and His Family, Egyptian culture, New Kingdom period, ca. 1355 BCE. Limestone.
∙ Direct relationship with the son
Queen Nefertiti, Egyptian culture, New Kingdom period, ca. 13481335 BCE. Painted limestone.
Figure (three views), from the Cyclades, Cycladic culture, Early Cycladic period, ca. 2500 BCE. Marble.
Grandstand Fresco, from the palace complex, Knossos, Minoan culture, Late Minoan period, ca. 1500 BCE. Archaeological Museum.
∙ Filled in missing parts to give an overall sense
∙ Minoan shrine
∙ Minoan religious building
∙ Commonly a part of these palace complexes
∙ Figures of women wearing dresses that expose their breasts
o Goddesses? Priestesses?
o Minoans watching what is about to happen
Flotilla Fresco, from Akrotiri, Thera, Cycladic culture, Late Cycladic period, ca. 1600 1500 BCE.
Harvester Vase, from Hagia Triada, Minoan culture, Late Minoan period, ca. 15001450 BCE.
∙ Carrying a sistrum
o Sistrum: rattle/ musical instrument of ancient Egypt
∙ Great sense of joy
o Ribs are pressing out against skin
∙ Harvest festival
∙ Minoan Style: very loose
∙ Egypt Style: Slender, athletic figures
Snake Goddess, from the palace complex, Knossos, Minoan culture, Middle Minoan period, ca. 1650 BCE. Faience. *
∙ Relationship with the Grandstand Fresco
∙ Exposed breasts/ emphasized
∙ Fertility goddess? Earth goddess?
∙ CHTHONIC: power of the Earth / power of nature
∙ Sacred figure
∙ Placed on a bench that would be in a Minoan shrine
∙ Faience: fired glass *
Bull Leaping Fresco, from the palace complex, Knossos, Minoan culture, Late Minoan period, ca. 15501450 BCE.
The Lioness Gate, Mycenae, Mycenaean culture, Late Helladic period, ca. 1250 BCE. ∙ Two rampant lionesses
o Heads are missing possibly made of valuable metal (stolen)
∙ Standing with paws placed on religious altars (on which offerings are made) ∙ We recognize this from Crete
∙ Column tapers downward minoan influence
∙ Message: the association between the lionesses and the military
o Military rests on religious founding which flanks the administration (palace) symbolized by the column
∙ Replacing heavy ashlar blocks with a lighter weight stone in the middle (decorated)
∙ Relieving Triangle: when you relieve the weight over an opening in a triangular way
o Created by a technique called CORBELING
Each successive piece of masonry juts out more and more until it comes together at the apex
Signature architectural techniques of the Mycenaeans
“Treasury of Atreus”, Mycenae, Mycenaean culture, Late Helladic period, ca. 1300 1250 BCE.
∙ Tombs structure
∙ Beehive tombs
∙ Treasury because the bodies of important individuals were placed within along with their valuables (ex. Gold mask)
∙ Ashlar masonry lined entryway called DROMOS
∙ Dromos leads you to the opening (has the relieving triangle)
∙ Dig down half way of the hill/ side, corbelling 360
∙ Largest unified space of the ancient world
∙ Single monolithic rock over the entryway
Megaron, Pylos, Mycenaean culture, Late Helladic period, ca. 13001200 BCE. ∙ Part of the central complex
∙ Different rooms that are created with structures that recall Minoan architecture o Technique: stone and mudbrick
∙ Wanax priest King of Mycenaean citadel
∙ Cult room
o Sequence of rooms that open to the main chamber (circular hearth inside it)
o Hearth used for animal sacrifices
∙ Prefiguring Greek tradition, architecture, and temples
o Hearth is outside of Greek temples
Dagger blade, from Grave Circle A, Mycenae, Mycenaean culture, Late Helladic period, ca. 16001500 BCE. Gold, silver, and niello (a sulfur alloy).
Dipylon Vase, from Athens, Greek culture, Geometric period, ca. 750 BCE. ∙ Amphora
o Used for storing and shipping wine or olive oil (liquids)
∙ Size: As big as a human
∙ Used as a grave marker for a woman who came from a very powerful Athenian family in the 8th century BCE
∙ Covered in decoration
o Highly geometricized decoration (deemphasizing the human form) o Horizontal bands or registers
o Stitching diaper patterns meander patterns
∙ Funerary Scene of people ripping out their hair and mourning the dead woman o Simple and geometric figures (triangles)
o Dress: woman
∙ During this time, the Homeric epics happened
Griffinhead protome from a bronze tripod cauldron, from Kameiros, Rhodes, Greek culture, Orientalizing period, ca. 650 BCE. Cast bronze.
Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greek culture, Classical period, 470s BCE.
East pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greek culture, Early Classical period, 470s BCE.
Dying Warrior from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greek culture, Early Classical period, 470s BCE.
Dying Warrior from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greek culture, Early Classical period, 470s BCE.
Kouros, from Anavysos, Attica, Greek culture,Archaic period, ca. 540525 BCE. Marble.
Kore, from Chios (?), Greek culture, Archaic period, ca. 520 BCE. Marble.
Temple of Artemis, Corfu, Greek culture, Archaic period, ca. 600580 BCE. ∙ Goddess of the hunt
∙ Triglyphs and metapies
∙ Top: Triangular shaped area: pediment
∙ Tympanon: top part
West pediment of Temple of Artemis, Corfu, Greek culture, Archaic period, ca. 600 580 BCE. Limestone.
Siphnian Treasury, Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greek culture, Archaic period, ca. 525 BCE.
∙ Korai: gift to the gods
∙ Caryatids: Korai maidens that function as columns
Battle of Gods and Giants, from the north frieze of the Siphnian Treasury, Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greek culture, Archaic period, ca. 525 BCE.
Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice, by Exekias, Greek culture, Archaic period, ca. 540 530 BCE. Blackfigured amphora.
∙ Visual poetry
∙ Figures from epic poetry but here are not fighting
∙ Playing dice
o Achilles 4: wins this hand
Achilles dies after winning: tragedy
∙ Slows down time: contemplate inner meaning of the work
∙ Context: drinking party known as the Symposium?
Dancing Revelers, by Euthymides, Greek culture, Archaic period, ca. 510500 BCE. Red figured amphora.
Kritios Boy, Greek culture, Early Classical period, ca. 480 BCE. Marble. ∙ Contrapposto
∙ Smooth depiction of the human body
Zeus, Greek culture, Early Classical period, ca. 460450 BCE. Bronze.
Riace Warrior A, found in the sea off Riace Italy, Greek culture, High Classical period, ca. 450 BCE. Bronze.
Battle of Lapiths and Centaurs, from west pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Greek culture, Early Classical period, ca. 460 BCE. Marble.
The Parthenon, by Iktinos and Kallikrates, Athens, Greek culture, High Classical period, 447432 BCE.
∙ Octastyle: characteristic of the Ionic order
∙ Subtractive process
∙ Representational of the passage of time over Athens
o Rule, unity, cohesion of time over Athens
o Dedication to Athena's birth
How time moves around her and around Athens
o Sun god Helios bringing the sun up
Wave pattern on his back
o Celine bringing moon down
Three goddesses, from east pediment of the Parthenon, Athens, Greek culture, High Classical Period, 438432 BCE.
Lapith and Centaur, from south Doric frieze of the Parthenon, Athens, Greek culture, High Classical period, ca. 440432 BCE. Ionic frieze, east section of the cella of the Parthenon, Athens, Greek culture, High Classical period, ca. 440432 BCE.
Nike, from the Temple of Athena Nike, Athens, Greek culture, High Classical period, ca. 410407 BCE. Marble.
The Erechtheion, Athens, Greek culture, High Classical period, 421405 BCE. ∙ Named after Erechtheus (mythological king of Athens)
o Born of premature ejaculation of Hefestus
o Can be represented as snake
∙ Caryatid: Kore in place of a column
o Kore: female statue
Hermes, Roman copy after an original by Praxiteles, Greek culture, Late Classical period, ca. 320310 BCE.
Theater at Sanctuary of Asklepios, Epidauros, Greek culture, Hellenistic period, begun ca. 300 BCE.
∙ Circular/radial layout
∙ Voice carries
West front of the Great Altar at Pergamon, Greek culture, Hellenistic period, 160s BCE.
∙ Mythological scene of Gods battling giants
∙ Archaic period and Metapize of Partheon
∙ Battle frieze
Athena, detail from the Great Altar at Pergamon, Greek culture, Hellenistic period, 160s BCE.
∙ Athena grabbing giants head and ripping his head back
∙ High contrast between light and shade
∙ Masterful display of undulation in the figure
o Light effect
o Playing with light and shadow
∙ Three dimensionality of the forms
∙ As you get engaged with the piece you begin to feel it
o Feel the pain of the giant
o Built upon what Athenian sculpture had done
Horses breaking out of the sea and into our space
God Aries breaking out into our space
o Figures in relief acting like sculptures in the round
∙ Nyx goddess of the night
∙ Baroque a certain kind of theatricality, emotion, dynamism *not tested* Nike of Samothrace, Greek culture, Hellenistic period, ca. 190 BCE. Marble.
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Praeneste (Palestrina), Roman culture, Republican period, late 2nd century BCE.
∙ Permanent Masonry Facing
∙ Vault above (fancy version of a basic vault form): barrel vault semi circular ∙ Using concrete to create this grand effect
Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Roman culture, Imperial period, 7280 CE.
∙ Plants growing (unique to this building)
∙ Use of sand to cover up the “stage”
o Called arena
o Sand absorbs blood
∙ 5,00 animals killed here
∙ Gladiators fought with dull weapons entertainment
∙ People that died were captives
∙ 55,000 spectators
o Hallways, entrances, and exits
∙ Barrel Vault
∙ Groin Vault
Nile Mosaic, from the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primiginia, Praeneste, first century BCE.
Augustus of Primaporta, Roman culture, Imperial period, ca. 20 CE. Marble. ∙ Athletic looking muscular build
∙ Smooth looking appearance
∙ Looks very Greek
o Incorporations of Greek traditions of Idealism
o Becomes Classicism (looking back to Classical models)
∙ Moving away from the political system of the Republic to power concentrated on the single figure of the Emperor
Portrait of Vespasian, Roman culture, Imperial period, ca. 75 CE. Marble. ∙ Started a new dynasty
∙ While dying “I feel like I’m becoming a god”
∙ Power passed to his son Titus
Portrait of Hadrian, Roman culture, Imperial period, after 117 CE. Marble.
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Roman culture, Imperial period, 161180 CE. Bronze, overlifesize.
∙ Installed in Piazza del Campidoglio
o Now it is a copy (original inside)
Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Roman culture, Imperial period, 139 BCE. Marble.
Imperial Procession from south frieze of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Roman culture, Imperial period, 139 BCE. Marble.
Titus in Triumph, Arch of Titus, Rome, Roman culture, Imperial period, ca. 81 CE. ∙ Titus in his chariot
∙ Nike placing crown on emperor’s head
∙ Embodiment of senate
∙ Fasces symbol of the power of the emperor
o Fascism comes from this
Procession of spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, Arch of Titus, Rome, Roman culture, Imperial period, ca. 81 CE.
Scenes of Dionysiac Mystery Cult, from the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Roman culture, Republican period, ca 6050 BCE. Second style wall painting.
Garden scene, from the Villa of Livia at Primaporta, Roman Culture, Imperial period, ca. 20 BCE. Second style painting.
Still Life, from Herculaneum, Roman culture, Imperial period, ca. 50 CE.
Basilica of Maxentius (renamed Basilica of Constantine), Rome, Roman culture, Imperial period, ca. 307 CE.