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UK / History / His 104 / How did the greek system compare and contrast to a monarchy?

How did the greek system compare and contrast to a monarchy?

How did the greek system compare and contrast to a monarchy?

Description

School: University of Kentucky
Department: History
Course: European History Thru Mid 17 Cen
Professor: B. holle
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: history
Cost: 50
Name: His 104 Midterm Study Guide
Description: ch1-4 (Mesopotamia, Rome, Greece)
Uploaded: 02/24/2018
21 Pages 46 Views 3 Unlocks
Reviews


● Major influences on early europe were egypt and mesopotamia ● Egypt and mesopotamia were part of the fertile crescent


How did the greek system compare and contrast to a monarchy?



● Mesopotamia had early organized and literate societies

● 3000 BC = earliest civilization marked in textbooks

○ Had traces of states, monumental architecture, organized religion, and writing

○ Before writing were material objects

● Nile flooded in egypt made the nile delta fertile

○ Caused material remains to be buried under mud

● Objects in egypt were away from river

○ Dry tombs, country made up of villages

○ Most people lived very close to the Nile:

■ Hard to detect today

● Mesopotamia = land of cities, has been excavated immensely ● New temples were built on top of old temples


Who won the battle between athens and sparta?



We also discuss several other topics like How do you write a net ionic equation?

○ City life is new and stable

● Writing in egypt glorified kings as well as decorative

○ Survived because they were on stone, metal, and later on papyrus ● Writing in mesopotamia

○ Some about kings but mostly bureaucratic writing

○ Wrote on clay tablets and had clay pottery

○ Mostly lists of things (rarely about kings as in egypt)

● More about early mesopotamian life

○ People paid not in money but in rations

○ Temples employed thousands of people to catch and smoke fish ○ Kept records for organization

○ They strongly influenced their neighbouring countries


What religion were the ancient egyptian?



● Mesopotamia had a temple fire that burnt for days due to lots of olive oil stored in their storerooms

● Clay tablets with lists

○ Showed that they controlled lots of sheep (wool supply), have lists of herders and even names for specific animals

● Clay tablets weren’t intended to be around for a long time but the fire preserved them We also discuss several other topics like What was reconstruction 1865?

○ Also contained army inventory

● Egypt was not (as) organized (as Mesopotamia)

● Bigger cities tended to be more organized

● About 700 years after writing in mesopotamia began, stories began being written down

● Ancient scholars could read stories that were written earlier

● Written = fixed and interpreted whereas oral stories change

● Writing didn’t need to be sophisticated before stories were written ● Early Mesopotamian writing

○ 250 signs

○ Some signs had more than one meaning

● Early mesopotamia had no linguistic unity

○ There wasn’t one common language written

○ Scribes switched between languages in the same document

○ Scribes had to be fast and multilingual

■ Tended to work in palaces and temples

● Egyptian writing required drawing skills

○ Lasts 200-300 years AD whereas Mesopotamian writing lasted 150 ○ Limited to temples as an alphabetic script and began to develop in Lebanon and Syrian cities Don't forget about the age old question of How do myth, legend and folktale differ?

○ Less signs made it easier to read and write (ex: latin, english alphabet) ● Early portable texts

○ Wood, leather, later paper

○ Paper was also cheaper

■ Also easier to move between cultures

● Early greek writing was meant to preserve poetry

● Romans used writing to label their belongings

Early Egyptian and Mesopotamian lives- continued (lecture 2) ∙ Egypt  

 Year 3000 was politically unified and stable  

 Due to geographic location: is isolated because although  Egypt is wide, it was most densely populated along the Nile  Not easy to get into from outside making it safer from  

invasion

 Surrounded by river channels  

 Culturally homogeneous  

 Farming only possible on the sides of the Nile  

 Egyptians had two types of soil: black and red  If you want to learn more check out What are examples of membrane-bound organelles?

∙ Red was desert and black was fertile  

 Transportation was easy via water, also cheaper via water  Primarily composed of villages, cities were rare  

 Had taxation without money  

∙ Taxes in commerce: grain, fish, etc.  

∙ Taxes in labor: physically working off your debt (i.e.  

building the pyramids)  

∙ Taxes were used to pay government officials

 Palaces didn’t survive because they were made of reeds,  which disintegrated  

∙ Houses later built out of mud bricks, and having a  

climate with no rain made them last longer than  

those built of reeds

 Lots of religious artifacts survived because they were made out of baked clay  

 Pyramids: brick and stone

 Egypt was a highly organized society

 Tombs got smaller with time because they were not only  time consuming but also very expensive  

∙ Mesopotamia:  

o Almost always politically divided with city states that wanted to  be independent  

o Open on all sides geographically  

o 20 independent communities (city-states)  

o river systems not as convenient as Egypt

 cities were not next to them

 so they used elaborate irrigation systems

 they didn’t want to move away from their irrigation  

systems so they built vertically on top of old architecture  If you want to learn more check out Which check tests if the stimulus produces desired result?

∙ created a high elevation

o Nile in Egypt was predictable whereas the Tigris river came at  the worst times and was unpredictable  

o Constant political strife  

o Had agriculture  

 Raised sheep

o Had a free market  

 Proves the existence of a middle class  

o Luxuries are more widely dispersed  

 Egypt made It such that luxuries were only available to the  wealthy and royalty  

o Flat, treeless plain  

 Had to get stone from outside

o In the bronze age, they made weapons out of bronze   Whereas Egyptians found copper in the Sinai peninsula  Switched to cheap iron because it was more common o Got tin from what is not Afghanistan  

o Sold textiles

Religion in Early Egypt and Mesopotamia 

∙ Context: in Europe, separation of church and state wasn’t common until the 1700’s  ∙ End of the ancient world spawned new religions: Christianity, Judaism (both  monotheistic meaning only one God) 

o Before this, religion was specific to people and places 

∙ Rome:

o Jupiter, the best and the greatest  Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to the process of cementation and compaction?

o Other people outside of Rome had their own gods, there was no intermixing  ∙ Egypt:

o Gods had a wider sphere of influence 

 Kings also regarded as Gods

 Kings were not considered powerful because they had the will of the  people but rather because they were chosen by the Gods to rule 

∙ Implied that gods were involved in the daily lives of the people

 People used gods and deities to explain the events of their daily lives o Great tombs were built for kings to preserve the body because preserving the  body was synonymous to preserving their spirit

o Gods had a positive association 

 They were lawful whereas everyone else’s gods weren’t

∙ Greek:

o Gods = deathless

o People = mortal

o Greek god Pan was associated with what happened in war (stem of the word  panic)

∙ Mesopotamia: 

o Epic of Gilgamesh from 600’s BC 

o Starts with his best friend dying, so he doesn’t want to die

 Mesopotamians had quite a few stories about achieving immortality  He misses it at the end of the story so he knows he’ll die

∙ Decides to create a name that will outlive him (reputation) 

o Their gods were temperamental and didn’t get along with each other   Reflected in Mesopotamian politics 

∙ Because the city states didn’t get along 

o Gods were immortal

o In places influenced by Mesopotamia:

 Difference between god and people isn’t power, its immortality

∙ In general, gods were used to explain things that were not straight forward o The natural world was also explained by religion (i.e. natural disasters) ∙ Gods had varying levels of power 

o You could domesticate them (i.e. building a bridge over a river to escape the  power of the river god) 

 You could control gods in the short term but in the long term, their power  was said to win against that of man 

∙ Divination = rituals (a.k.a astrology) to predict what was going to happen: interpretations  of God’s messages 

o This is how odd things were explained

 Ex: looking at sheep’s liver 

∙ Tells whether god has accepted the sacrifice or rejected it

o Mesopotamians looked at and interpreted the night sky 

 Ex: comet when Alexander the Great died 

 They plotted the hours in which they saw things

∙ They started measuring time 

∙ Set foundations for modern­day timekeeping

o 50 BC Romans listed what to expect to happen every day

 proof of Mesopotamia’s influence on its neighbours

History 104, Week 3, Lecture 4: Ancient Greece (corresponds textbook chapters 2­3)

∙ Years 800­500 in Greece were the archaic years 

∙ Institutions are developed 

∙ Lots of political fragmentation

o Due to landscape: cities were far from the coast, very broken up with mountains  and valleys 

o Agriculture is possible but this too was fragmented between cities (climate was  semi­arid so populations are centered around fresh water)

o Lots of small city states so they established colonies elsewhere, but always close  to the sea 

∙ Plato described the Greeks as settled around the Mediterranean like frogs around a pond ∙ Early 5th century

o They were able to prevent Persians from expanding into the Greek world  o Year 480: Put up victory monument (now in modern day Istanbul)

 Tells that these cities added soldiers to battle (adult males), and how many they added 

 Athens sent 9000 soldiers 

 Some small communities were only able to send 80 = shows the vast size  difference between city states 

 The largest cities had 70,000 soldiers at most 

∙ Aristotle said cities shouldn’t have more than 5000 adult males (soldiers) because if they  did, you couldn’t know citizens by reputation 

o For context, know the story of Hyperbolus and how people made fun of his  reputation for a long time to follow

∙ Archaic period:

o Government designed for individual city states 

o Polis was Greek for city state = means fortified center, but later came to mean  self­governing community 

o Polis 

 Politics

 Policy

 Police 

 Notice all of the above are about behavior 

o The Italian version of this was Civitas 

 Civilization

 Civility

 Citizen 

o Urbs = urban

∙ English uses a lot of vocabulary from this time period but the words don’t necessarily  mean the same thing 

∙ Politics continued:

o Focused around communities 

o The people were only free if their city was free (we can see this reflected in the  Theban plays) 

 This later lead into elections, but only for the free city states 

o Tyrant = someone who rules for more than their elected term; basically, an early  form of dictator

o Government types: 

 The one (monarchy) 

 The few 

 The many (based on citizens, a democracy) 

o Early city states focused on defending themselves and appeasing the Gods   If you were of the demos (adult males between the ages of 18 and 60), you would have been in battle at least 20 times in your life 

 Cities that border your lands are your enemies: each town was built on a  fortified center with its agricultural lands around it

∙ They were mostly quite small so they couldn’t support a 

bureaucracy (even Athens wasn’t big enough) 

 Leaders in these cities couldn’t compel obedience 

∙ They could only do things if the people were willing 

∙ This meant they had to know how to persuade large groups of 

people

o They needed to at least be able to persuade their armies 

(their man power)

∙ Kings were not grand figures like in Mesopotamia or Egypt 

∙ Their ability to govern depended on their power of persuasion, 

their ability to speak well 

∙ Public speaking = rhetoric 

o 3 Main Rhetoric Styles

 Grand­ if the facts are against you

 Intermediate­ if there are an equal number of facts against you and with  you

 Plain­ for ordinary persuasion 

 Example: The Romans, Cicero (a man) used all these techniques to win  people in his favor even when he was completely in the wrong)

 The power of your rhetoric depended on how loud and clearly you spoke  because you needed to reach the entire audience, especially the people in  the far back

 Amphitheaters designed in this time were very acoustically sounds  Demagogue = successful speaker 

∙ All cities eventually adopted elections 

o Sparta used them for 200 years 

o One system even used black and white pebbles to anonymously vote  Government officials were elected for one year

 Cities didn’t allow people to run again for ten years 

o Small cities didn’t have a lot of tax money which meant that government officials  were unpaid while in office 

 This meant only rich people could afford to do it

o Athens elected 700 officers a year with 7000 people rich enough to serve o The ideal citizen could rule and was ruled

 Means they spent some time in office but mostly they were being ruled  o Polis = citizen states always elected with the majority of the population making  them self­governing cities 

o Oligarchy = rule of few 

∙ All Greek cities were using election systems by the year 500 

∙ Idiotes = Greek for bad citizen (someone who didn’t want to be elected and didn’t go to  war for their city)

History 104, Week 3, Lecture 5: More on Polis 

∙ Was very small = no bureaucratic/royal establishments 

∙ Power of persuasion determined your power as a leader 

∙ With speech came disagreements among opposing parties 

∙ In a monarchy king can rule indefinitely and disagreements are private (the people do not see them), whereas in a polis, everything is out in the open

∙ Greek cities:

o Elections caused disagreements because it forced people to pick sides  o Winning/losing had an expiration date (in contrast to a monarchy), since they  were only elected or “lost” for one year 

 Made winning not as rewarding (not as worth it) and losing wasn’t a big  deal

 It limited how far people could go in office because the stakes were 

lessened 

∙ To Think About: How did the Greek system compare and contrast to a monarchy? What  are the pros and cons of each? 

∙ Monarchy 

o Lack of accountability

∙ Polis = you have to account for your political beliefs and defend them to the people  o “policy” comes from this = reflects how they were open to debate things, it was  encouraged

o politeia = roughly a constitution agreed upon by the people

 lead to schools of thought (different ways of thinking, belief systems)  ∙ Philosophy = love of wisdom

o Believed you could always compromise 

o Discussion based resolution 

∙ Greek hoped that debate would help them come to agreements 

∙ At the end of the 5th century, there was an ideological layer added

o Peloponnesian war between Sparta and Athens 

o It was clearly a power play to rule but was also based on each side representing a  certain form of government and believing that their own form was the answer to  all their problems 

 Athens had a democracy 

 Sparta was an oligarchy 

 The difference between then was who could vote 

∙ In Sparta, only property owners (mid­ upper class) could vote. You

needed property since you wouldn’t be earning money for the year 

you spent in office. 

∙ In Athens, any adult male could vote, and this was because people  in office were paid so having pre­existing money and land to your 

name wasn’t essential

∙ Ideas about government lead to schools of philosophy 

∙ Peloponnesian war questioned unity between polities 

o War was both internal and external (between each other and within themselves  there was also conflict that needed to be resolved) 

o The consequence of allowing debate was that it lead to different factions of  thought 

∙ The beginnings of philosophy were rooted in ideas about the best way to govern ∙ Sparta: 

o Referred to themselves as “equals”, they all lived life the same way  o Life was much stricter than in Athens 

o Adult males all dressed the same 

o They (the men) were raised in barracks from the ages of 6­60

o Married at 20 and could only visit their wives during the day

o The barracks they lived in also served as the units they fought in when there were  battles 

o Ate the same meal every day except for religious holidays 

o An outside philosopher from a more luxurious city tasted their barrack food and  was supposed to have said that now he knew why the Spartans weren’t afraid to  die [he implied how bad their food was] 

o Military state, politically stable due to the high level of enforced order  ∙ Sparta vs. Athens 

o Argued about how regimented society should be 

∙ Plato wanted a stable government; neither an oligarchy or a democracy  o This is because an oligarchy governs in their own interest: they are the few rich,  and they are greedy 

 They want property for themselves and their children because once their  wealth is divided among their children, the children end up poorer than  their parents 

 the government would only truly work if the oligarchs didn’t have  property to give away or family to give it to

o Plato was trying to merge Athens and Sparta’s governments in order to create a  politically stable polis by removing greed

History lecture notes, week 4 

∙ Polis = social and political organization

∙ Issues of voting 

o Amount of farmland one had = fixed unless you stole 

o the more land the few people held, the less there was for everyone else  ∙ In Plato’s ideal community, he wanted every adult male to hold the same amount of  property, the minimum­ raised the question of what was the best type of community was  ∙ Late 5th century= polis goes into crisis 

o By mid 4th century, the old way of life is no longer sustainable, only local  government survives= this is because it is too small 

∙ Chapter 3 covers: hegemony (different people trying to rule the Greek world)  o Dominated cities separate but still obedient to those that overtook them  ∙ In Athens and Sparta: 

o They both want to be the dominant power, but none big enough to dominate the  greek world 

∙ Greek = polis, city­state of Rome encompassed all of Italy because the romans were open with citizenship = all greek cities remained small to be able to encompass other cities  ∙ Battle against Persian empire = Greeks were proud that they weren’t dominated  ∙ Persian empire = huge, all the way up to the northwest of India, couldn’t get the Greeks  but caused a lot of problems for them  

o Gave money to Sparta to beat Athens but then when the Spartans were going to  win, gave their money to Athens

∙ Thebans vs. Athens and Sparta 

∙ It was not clear who won and who lost, whoever could resolve it could rule(?)  ∙ Part of the problem of a polis = it’s very self­contained 

∙ People wanted to know how to make the best polis  

∙ Towards the 4th century, people started to wonder if they could all get along; Greeks  getting along with each other to beat the Persians 

∙ Greek cities aiming for leadership claimed they were doing this, but it became clear that  no Greek city would be able to achieve this kind of unity 

∙ As southern Greek cities were fighting with each other, other Greek cities got stronger, ∙ King Phillip II 

o Had army big enough to rule greek world and power to lead 

o Claimed to get back at the Persians for all the trouble they caused 

∙ Macedon was big enough to dominate the greek world 

∙ The largest of the greek cities had 20,000 soldiers maximum = still quite small  ∙ Macedonians had 100,000 soldiers = less than Persians and more than other greek  ∙ Monarchy is not part of a polis, they started turning to kings because they didn’t want to  be in constant war with other city states 

∙ Greek philosophers wanted kings because kings bring about harmony = no elections,  more stable politics, they wanted a monarchy = brings about an overall stronger state  ∙ Rome = kept city­state constitution 

∙ Unification of greek world = king Phillip II’s son, alexander III (alexander the great) 

History lecture notes, week 4 

o Alex was famous for his wars against Persia in the east

o He destroyed the Persian empire over the next thirteen years, far as northwest  India, fought in Afghanistan (13 years of war)

o This made him very famous for about 2000 years (and onwards)

o People tried to explain his conquests because he ruled such a small city­state but  still achieved so much 

o Writing in greek and roman world was about this  

o Alexander said he had a dream where his father was actually Zeus which he  thought was why he was able to do what he did “no shortage of ego here”  ∙ Athens 

o Had a decree that said that Alexander said he wished to be considered a God = he  wanted to so he was able to 

o Athenians wanted to distance themselves from this claim 

o One of alexander’s successors, Demetrius thought he was also a god, took up  residence in temple, and people recognized his divinity = other gods are far away  but he was close 

o Another question= what drives alexander the great (he did more than his father) =  speculation on his motives, criticized him for being excessively ambitious  (hubris), he did so because he was never satisfied (evident in stories about him) 

o Thought he was unfortunate because there was no place left for him to conquer  when he was 33 = people thought he was excessive 

o He died when he was 33 = left behind no heirs = 40 years where his generals try  and take control = period before his death was classical and after it was 

Hellenistic 

o Generals made smaller kingdoms for themselves = Hellenistic monarchies  ∙ People claimed to be like Alexander = appear in public wearing alexander the great’s  haircut 

∙ Hellenistic kings = restless = they tried to show they were worthy by waging war =  produced leaders who were militaristic and aggressive 

∙ The last of his generals was Antigonus the One­eyed 

o Died leading a cavalry charge but was 88 years old fighting since he was 16 

Shifts in Greek Culture from a declining Polis 

∙ After the conquests of Alexander the Great, monarchies take over the old system ∙ Polis didn't disappear, continued in some kingdoms as a local government

∙ Kings justified themselves by linking themselves to Gods; they clearly had a good  relationship, it is what gave them such power

∙ In the Greek world, the monarchies are trying to replace the polis

History lecture notes, week 4 

∙ We hear most about the Macedonian rulers of Egypt and Syria

∙ People who supported the monarchies created vast literature justifying their kingship

∙ Cornucopia = a sign of wealth, with fruits pouring out, Gods benefit their worshippers and  kings in turn give benefits to their supporters

∙ The big Hellenistic kings wage war and give lots of presents = expensive, spent their money  very quickly; they collect taxes, caused people to complain; cheap kings didn't gain followers because people think you're cheap and/or broke and/or not grateful for your followers. Giving gifts was vital to their success.

∙ Luxuria = to describe what kings did, vast ostentatious wealth; leads to word Luxury ∙ If you supported kings, their wealth was justified, if not, it seemed excessive to you

∙ Festival honoring the Gods, with invitations as far out as India, took 5 years to prepare to  show how wealthy and favored the Kings were by the Gods. Ended with a banquet for 10,000 guests. 80,000 soldiers to show power of army, servants carrying more suits of armor. In the  middle of the first day, a group of young girls are singing songs of how great the king is with  baskets of fruit, behind which is group of young boys, singing hymns about the king carrying  baskets of king's money.

∙ King invited Dionysus the God, god of parties. Were supposed to watch the king dressed as  Dionysus dancing across the tables.

∙ Reports of what happened aren't conflicting in any way except for the authors opinion of  what happened; approval or disapproval.

∙ Disapproving side thought kings were not virtuous. No citizen could be as rich as the kings.  They thought they were living austere lives in comparison to the lives the kings were living.

∙ Romans said to them, what use did they have for all their gold. Purpose of this was to show  that Roman generals were not dominated by luxury, not susceptible to bribes, therefore more  virtuous.

∙ Statue of someone with no clothes = God. Hellenistic monarchs were young, handsome,  muscles, and naked. Philosophers were shown as elderly, ugly, badly dressed; clearly not  kings. Important Citizens portrayed as middle class, middle­aged, moderately well dressed.  There is a debate between the kingship and the Polis. One side supports the monarchy and  makes it seem great whereas the other side is clearly doubtful of it.

∙ Oikoumene (ecumenical) = powerful kings of this world presented themselves as rulers of the world. "the inhabited world" is a modern translation of this old world. Oikos (relating to  household/house). Contrasted with the uncivilized world of nomads.

∙ Good citizen = lived virtuous life = stems from accommodating the monarchy

History lecture notes, week 4 

∙ Greeks primarily used geometry, very little to no use of numbers ∙ Pythagorean theorem, Euclidian geometry = core of Greek mathematics ∙

Shifting from Greek to Roman Life (week 4 lecture) 

● Between 800-500 BC= appearance of city states in rome similar to greek ones due to greek influence

● demos= democracy=rule of the masses

● Republican theory looks back on rome and greece

● History of rome: broken into 3 parts, separated by type of rule

○ Monarchy: ends approx. 500 BC

○ Republic: 500-27

○ 27 onward: Empire

● republic=lawful government contrast to greek world

○ In a polis in greece, anything that was voted upon by the people was law ■ “Voice of people is the highest law”

○ For romans all political things were restrained because they were more protective of their property and felt that politics should not be part of one’s private life ● Romans didn’t have a constitution, but they had customs they followed ● Rome in 500 bc:

○ 30,000 people in total

○ Very geographically small, not very different from city states

● Five centuries later, rome is the dominating power, had 1 million people and could not be governed same because its dynamic had changed.

● Rome was very successful in warring

● Augustus (one of the rulers) said he made peace, so he closed the temples, and the temples only really closed during times of peace

○ They had constant warfare but they also had constant victories

● Greeks didn’t let outsiders be citizens

● In the polis, citizenship was determined by one’s family because if you were born to a citizen and could prove it, you were automatically a citizen, everyone knew everyone else ● By the 4th century BC, romans let outsiders be citizens

● Roman citizenship= more flexible, inherited but you could also be given it ○ Made it more abstract, less about family

● citizenship= possessing the rights of being a Roman

○ Citizens had the right to a trial whereas non citizens did not, trial by jury ○ They also didn’t have to pay taxes

○ This way of life only came about after the addition of many citizens

● The roman state was belligerent

● The problem with the polis was that it was too small so the amount of land to be shared between citizens was small

○ This caused problems with land ownership and self-defense and made an increase in the amount of poor people there were: because they couldn’t hold land they couldn’t serve in the army so the polis had less manpower as a result

● Plato had an ideal: he wanted to divide the land into plots, the minimum size so that every man could be a soldier

● Romans made the defeated into citizens and got more land out of their defeats as well (fall of Veii), so there were more people who could support themselves in Rome than in Greece

● Their steady warfare and the fact that they usually won made it such that all the children inherited from their parents what their parents had to offer

○ This caused kids to get less than their parents, however, because it would’ve been divided among siblings (girls got dowry and boys got land)

His 104 week 6- More on the Roman Empire 

● Roman empire exact dates are not solid

● Within 50-60 years of the death of the first roman emperor, the empire ruled from Scotland to Iraq and it remained this way for another 500 years

● They did so using a small bureaucracy

● Augustus ended warmaking, so he and his successors brought peace:

○ By the time Nero came around, there were no Roman soldiers towards the center of the empire

○ The middle had no experience with war and never saw soldiers, was a civilian lifestyle

○ Although it was still a military dictatorship, being in the military was voluntary ○ Their lives were stable because of the lack of war and lower taxes

○ Army varies between 300-400,000 men over the course of several years ○ Type of civilization fluctuated between a monarchy and an empire

○ Augustus and his successors wanted to restore lawful government, and people believed they had already done so

○ To win office meant being in senate = looked like a Republic

● Emperors rarely took positions about elections

● How elections were conducted

○ One side wins, other sides lost

○ Campaigns were very unfriendly because the Romans often made bad accusations about opponents and incited violence against them as well

○ There was only one polling place

○ Running for election meant you had to spend a lot of money making it a very expensive process

○ Extremely competitive nature

● When Caesar ran he held a BBQ for a quarter of a million people so that they’d vote for him = shows how much wealth must’ve been spent

● After a period of time of this system, Augustus made it impossible for people running to spend money

○ Meant that the number of voters dropped dramatically

○ People didn’t even notice elections were happening because they had become so boring

● There was fighting for the command of armies

● Whoever was emperor was in command of all the armies and picked who commanded armies out of those that were elected

● The emperor acted as a referee to the elections

○ He limited the elections and did so by threatening violence against those running

● Emperor allowed the rich to remain as such but limited how they spent their wealth ● Taxation:

○ Ancient states didn’t thoroughly collect taxes

○ Limited how much money they could be asked for as taxes

○ Collected taxes on several regular regions

○ Used tax-farming

○ Farmers who were unable to pay their taxes would often abandon their farms, become bandits, and there would be riots

● Invention of writing= ability to have inventories (of food as well as weapons) ● Creation of tools through smelting made out of bronze

● Paleolithic age: from 1 million years ago to 10,000 BCE

○ Means “old stone” in Greek

○ Hunting and gathering (and fishing)

○ This is the period of what we think of as “cave people”

○ They didn’t farm or grow their own food

● Neolithic Age

○ Means “new stone” in Greek

○ Shift from hunter-gatherer society to that of farming

○ Because this period of time marked being able to settle down in certain areas, the populations grew much faster than it did during the Paleolithic age

● Bronze Age

○ This period marks the rise of Mesopotamia

○ Society had developed more in this time making commerce and economy possible ○ Production of luxury goods and textiles

○ This period also has the makings of a civilization

○ From 3100 to 1200 BCE

○ Mesopotamia is now modern Iraq

● Mesopotamia

○ 3000 BC: city of Sumeria was the largest in the world

○ Sumerians- semitic languages (similar to Hebrew and Arabic)

■ Not like any modern languages

■ Didn’t survive much after the end of Sumeria- only remained because of the education system used by educated scholars and higher-ups (religious purposes)

○ Government

■ Monarchy

■ Made sacrifices (human sacrifices) to the Gods

■ In Assyria, their King also was their head priest

■ Farmers could rent land and while they made profit, had to give some money back as payment to the government

■ Economy consisted largely of textiles and metal (copper specifically was not easily obtainable in mesopotamia)

○ Writing System

■ Their organized government was possible due to their writing system called “cuneiform”

■ Had some thousand characters making it very complicated

■ Math began (early bits) in Sumeria through the utilization of their writing system as well

■ This lead to the later Mesopotamians having advanced mathematics as well as studies in astronomy and a calendar

○ Religion

■ Polytheistic religion

■ Gods were very much like humans in that they had emotions and could be temperamental

■ They were fine with other people who had different religions

■ Practiced the art of Divination

■ Used religion to explain what happened in daily life such as natural disasters

○ Society

■ We know how society was because many texts have remained (primary sources)

○ Slavery

■ Two types:

● Chattel- treated as property, no human freedoms

● Debt- slaves because they owed someone else something so they

worked as slaves to pay off their debt (more common between the

two types)

● Egypt

○ Two main areas of egypt were Upper Egypt(southern) and Lower Egypt(northern, this is the Nile Delta)

○ Nile was used as transport because it geographically connected so much land ○ Alexander the Great conquered in 332 BCE

○ #30 BCE is when the Romans beat the egyptians

● The Old Kingdom

○ This is the time period from 2700-2200 BCE

○ The pyramids were built by whichever pharaoh ruled at the time to later serve as their tomb. They all wanted theirs to be the biggest and most grand to show the future people how powerful they were.

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