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UNLV / Kinesiology / KIN 493 / How is physical activity and exercise related to stress?

# How is physical activity and exercise related to stress? Description

##### Description: This study guide covers chapters 1-4 of exercise physiology. Subjects include common measurements in exercise physiology, bioenergetics, control of internal environment and exercise metabolism.
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KIN 491 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE

## How is physical activity and exercise related to stress?

 Chapter 1: Common Measurements in Exercise Physiology  Work equation:

 Work = force x distance

 Lifting a 5 kg weight up a distance of 2 m

__ kg x __meters = ___ kg·m

 70kg person stepping up a 50 cm step

___kg x ___ cm step = ___ kg·m

 Kg = measure of mass, not force

 Kp = force acting on a mass of 1 kg at normal gravity

 Power equation:

 Power = work / unit time

 Lifting a 5 kg weight up a distance of 2 m, 30x / min

Power = ___ kg x ___ m x ___/min = ____ kg·m/min

 Cycle:

 SI unit for power: (Watts)

## What is the control center in homeostasis?

 1 watt = 1 joule/sec = 6.12 kg·m/min

 Calculation of work is not possible when treadmill is horizontal!   Vertical travel = % grade (as a fraction) x Distance

 1 kcal = 427 kg·m/min

 Calculations:

 First calculate percent of nitrogen.

 :Volume of nitrogen inspired must be EQUAL to volume of nitrogen expired  VN2inspired = VN2expired If you want to learn more check out What are the two theories of gravity?

 VO2 (L/min) = VI × fracO2I – VE × fracO2E

 VO2 units and METS

 UNITS

## What is meant by the gain of a control system?

∙ Absolute

∙ Relative

 MET or Metabolic equivalent

∙ 1 MET = 3.5 mL/kg/min

 Chapter 2: Control of Internal Environment

 Homeostasis= maintenance of a constant or unchanging “normal” internal  environment during unstressed conditions

 Physical activity and exercise are stressors; disrupt homeostasis   Steady state: constant internal environment, but this not at rest and not

normal (marathon runner)

 What does homeostasis regulate?   Body temperature If you want to learn more check out What body system keeps your body in equilibrium or homeostasis?

 pH

 Blood pressure

 Body fluids

 Osmotic pressure

 Oxygen

 Glucose

 Carbon dioxide We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by homogeneous equation?

 Components of biological control system:

 Receptor = Capable of detecting changes

 Integrating center= Assesses input and initiates response  Effector= Corrects changes to internal environment

 Positive vs Negative Feedback

 Positive is not a way to maintain homeostasis (ex. giving birth)   Gain of a control system:

 Gain= sensitivity to small changes

 Large gain= more capable of correcting disturbances

 Thermoregulation, pulmonary ventilation, cardiovascular pathways have  “large” gains. We also discuss several other topics like What did millikan's oil drop experiment reveal?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the complete set of genetic information?

 Exercise is a steady state (submaximal exercise in a cool environment)   Maximal exercise (hot environment) = no steady state→ fatigue    STUDY QUESTIONS:

 Define the terms homeostasis and steady state. Know how they are  different.

 Define and/or discuss a biological control system. Be able to give an  example. Briefly, explain the role of the sensor, the integrating center, and the effector organ in a biological control system.

 Draw a simple diagram that demonstrates the relationship between the  components of a biological control system.

 Explain the terms negative feedback and positive feedback. Give a  biological example of negative feedback.

 What is meant by the gain of a control system?

 Chapter 3: Bioenergetics

 Energy: Capacity or ability to perform WORK

 Work: Application of force through a distance

 Metabolism: total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body  Anabolic reactions: Synthesis or making of molecules

 Catabolic reactions: Breakdown of molecules

 Bioenergetics: Conversion of chemical energy in food (fats, proteins,  carbohydrates) into biological energy for cellular work (muscle  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of antigen-binding?

 Photosynthesis vs Cellular Respiration:

∙ Cellular respiration= reverse of photosynthesis

♦ The total energy released is not all used for work. Only 15-25% will  be used for mechanical work, the rest in heat.

♦ Whether you burn glucose or break it down through cellular

oxidation, the same total energy is released.

 Oxidation= losing electrons

 Reduction= gaining electrons

∙ When NAD reacts with 2 H, it binds to one of them and accepts the  electron from the other to form NADH.

∙ When FAD reacts with 2 H, it binds to both of them to form FADH2.

 Enzymes= Catalyze reactions

∙ Enzymes lower the energy of activation.

∙ Lock-and-key model →

∙ Optimal enzyme activity:

♦ PH: 7.34-7.40

♦ Body Temp: 36.1-37.2°C

 Substrates:

∙ Carbs (CHO) :

♦ 1 gram CHO= 4 kcal

♦ Mono-saccharides: Glucose, Fructose & Galactose

♦ Di-saccharides: sucrose, maltose (glucose+glucose), lactose  (glucose+galactose)

♦ Oligosaccharides: raffinose- trisaccharide, stachyose

tetrasaccharide, verbascose- pentasaccharide- beans bran peas  whole grains

♦ Poly-saccharides: starch and cellulose (plants), glycogen (animals)-  only made of glucose- complex carbs

♦ Glycolysis: The breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing  energy and pyruvic acid.

♦ Glycogenolysis: The breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose­6­phosphate and  glycogen (n­1).

♦ Glycogenesis: The formation of glycogen from sugar.

♦    Gluconeogenesis: The process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose  molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.

♦   Food form: starch, Storage form: glycogen, Storage site: Liver ∙ Fats:

♦ 1 gram= 9 kcal

♦ Fatty acids: basic fat molecule

♦ Triglycerides

♦ Steroids (not an energy source)

♦ Phospholipids (not an energy source)

♦ Cholesterol: Needed for cell membrane integrity, synthesis of  enzymes, neurotransmitters, Vitamin D

♦ LPL: Lipoprotein Lipase

♦ Food form: Triglycerides, Storage form: Triglycerides, Storage  site: Adipose tissue

∙ Proteins (PRO):

♦ 1 gram= 4 kcal

♦ 20 amino acids; 9 essential (must be ingested)

♦ Not a primary energy source (0-10%)

∙ Carbohydrate Metabolism

♦ Glycolysis: Series of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate. ♦ Kreb’s Cycle: Process through which aerobic cellular metabolism  occurs.

♦ *Refer to Glycolysis and Kreb’s Cycle notes for steps

♦ -2 net ATP and 2 NADH+ generated in total. (glycolysis)  ♦ 32 ATP (krebs cycle)

∙ Fat Metabolism:

♦ Glycerol is not an important muscle fuel during exercise  ♦ Fatty acids → acetyl-CoA (Beta-oxidation)

Metabolic  Process

High-Energy Products

ATP from Oxidative

Phosphorylation ATP Subtotal

Glycolysis 2 ATP — 2 (total if

Pyruvate to

anaerobic)

7 (if

aerobic)    12

Citric acid

cycle 2 GTP —

♦ Anabolic reactions= building= endergonic

♦ Catabolic reactions= breakdown= exergonic

∙ Anaerobic

♦ ATP stores of the cell: 1 – 3 seconds

♦ PCr stored of the cell generate ATP: 3 – 10 seconds ♦ Glycolysis < 4 min

∙ Aerobic

♦ CHO: Pyruvate à Krebs cycle and ETC

♦ FAT: beta ox

∙ Rate limiting enzymes:

♦ Creatine kinase

♦ Phosphofructokinase

♦ Isocitrate dehydrogenase

♦ Cytochrome oxidase

 Chapter 4: Exercise Metabolism

∙ A leveling off in O2 uptake

 Slow component:

14

29

32

Grand total: 32 ATP

∙ The amount of oxygen you need keeps rising even if the work rate is  staying the same. A steady increase at a fixed work rate.

 Can you reduce the slow component with training?

 Yes. Some ways that this can happen is by becoming more efficient at the  same level of exercise, needing a lower heart rate and rate of breathing at the same level of exercising, have a lower level of hormonal response  after training.

 Lactate

 During intense exercise, lactate also convert back to pyruvate in the  muscle itself.

 This reaction generates NADH, which can travel to mitochondria and  generate 2.5ATP.

 In the heart, this process is responsible for 60% of energy (Cori Cycle).  VO2 Max= Ability to deliver and use oxygen.

 Greatly determined by genetics.

 Lactate Threshold= The exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or lactic acid begins to exponentially increase.

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