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JMU / Science / ISCI 101 / What is the mass of a satellite?

What is the mass of a satellite?

What is the mass of a satellite?


School: James Madison University
Department: Science
Course: Physics, Chemistry & the Human Experience
Professor: Lynn lucatorto
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: isci101, ISCI, Physics, Chemistry, and PHYSCHEM
Cost: 50
Name: ISCI 101 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: exam 2 study guide
Uploaded: 02/25/2018
8 Pages 127 Views 2 Unlocks

ISCI 101 Exam 2 Study Guide

What is the mass of a satellite?

Earth and Moon

- The speed of the moon:v = (square root of) GM/r

- Earth  satellites

o The mass of a satellite doesn’t matter

o A higher satellite moves at a lower speed

Mean Orbital Velocity

- Mercury  fastest

- Venus

- Earth

- Mars

- Jupiter

- Saturn

- Uranus

- Neptune  slowest

Man-Made Satellites

- Functions:

o Military and civil uses

 Communications

 Earth/Space observation

 Navigation/positioning

 Scientific

- More than 4000 orbiting the Earth right now

How much junk is floating in space?

- Pollution/trash

- After decades of space exploration, there are now more than 500,000  pieces of artificial debris greater than half an inch in size

Motion is Relative

- In different reference frames, the motion is different

- A car is moving at 70mph on 81N. B car is following A car at 65mph. C  

car is moving at 60mph on 81S.

o What is the speed of A car?

 70mph

o What is the speed of A car relative to B car?

 70mph – 65mph = 5mph

o What is the speed of A car relative to C car?

 70mph – 60mph = 10mph

Albert Einstein

- German-born theoretical physicist If you want to learn more check out What body system keeps your body in equilibrium or homeostasis?

- One of the most famous, iconic, influential, and universally admired  

What are the two theories of gravity?

Don't forget about the age old question of What does it mean for an equation to be autonomous?

persons in human history

- The embodiment of genius and the pre-eminent scientist of the  

modern age

- Developed Special and General Theory of Relativity

- Best known for mass-energy equivalence formula: E = mc2 - Winner of Nobel Prize in physics in 1921

The Views of Universe

- Newtonian Universe – gravitational forces are in a “flat” universe - Einstein’s Universe – motions are in a curved universe

o heavy masses warp the fabric of spacetime

Time is Relative

- time dilation – times moves slower

o time and speed  clocks run the fastest in stationary objects;  

moving clocks slow down

 as the moving speed approaches to the speed of light, time

approaches 0

 speed of light must be constant

o time and gravity  times moves slower as gravity increases Length is Relative Don't forget about the age old question of What do quantum numbers explain?

- length and speed  moving objects must appear to be shorter than  

stationary ones in the direction of motion

o as the speed of light is approached, distance approaches 0 Mass, Energy, and Relativity

- mass and speed  mass is lighter for stationary; moving objects  

become more massive

o as an object’s velocity approaches the speed of light, its mass  

approaches infinity

- mass and energy  mass can be converted to energy and vise versa o rest energy = rest mass (speed of light2)

Predictions of General Relativity

- black holes – places in space where gravity pulls so much that nothing  

including light can get out

o a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a  Don't forget about the age old question of What determines where replication of dna will begin?

black hole

o very massive

o a black hole destroys everything in its path

o largest one is in the middle of the Milky Way

- the bending of light rays – light can be bent as it travels along the  

curved space near strong gravitational centers such as the sun o bending of starlight was observed by Arthur Eddington in 1919 o Newtonian idea: no or some deflection due to acceleration by  

gravity well

- Gravitational waves – when an object moves, it generates ripples in  spacetime propagating outwards at the speed of light in a wave-like  


o Direct detections of gravitational waves by LIGO (Laser  

Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) 2015-2016  The founders won a Nobel Prize in 2017

- Einstein  Gravity

o Gravity – warps and curves in the fabrication of space and time  Waves move just as fast as light

Global Positioning System

- 24 satellites circle the earth twice a day

- 12,000 miles or 20,000 km above the ground

- 4 of them will be above the horizon at any time

Chapter 4 – Energy

Forms of Energy

- Potential energy

o Gravitational

o Chemical

o Elastic

- Kinetic energy If you want to learn more check out What is the function of chaperone proteins?

- Electrical energy = electricity

- Thermal energy (not heat)

- Sound energy

- Radiant energy

- Solar energy

- Biomass and Biofuels energy

Kinetic Energy

- The energy a moving object possesses We also discuss several other topics like What is the state of security?

o Ek = ½ mv2 

Potential Energy

- Energy that is waiting to be released

o Gravitational potential energy – the energy that is possessed by  

an object due to its position relative to the earth

o Ep = mgh


SpaceX and Falcon Heavy

- SpaceX – space exploration

o Founded in 2002 by Elon Musk (also founded PayPal)

o Mission: reduce the cost of space travel

- Falcon Heavy

o Most powerful operational rocket

o Cost reducing features:

 Reusing empty boosters

 Streamline company production methods

 Merlin Engine (takes 27 to launch)

- What’s next?

o Crew Dragon – space craft to fly humans into orbit

o Big Falcon Rocket (BFR)

o Ultimate goal: getting humans to Mars

Wireless Charging

- Uses electromagnetic field

- Invented by Nikola Tesla

o In the late 1800s, Tesla discovered AC (alternating current) - 2 types:

o Conductive (direct electrical contact)

o Inductive (electromagnetic field)

- Examples:

o Starbucks charging tables

o Charging pads in cars

- Commercial use: convenience

- Medical use: reduce contamination and hazard

- Advantages:

o Convenience

o Reduce cost of charging cords

- Disadvantages:  

o Distance  has to be connected

Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change

- Greenhouse effect – general warming of the earth’s surface o Sun heats earth  reflects heat back into space

o Idea introduced in 1896

o Some gases are manmade and some are natural

o 2016 is the warmest year on record

o The increase in temperature has caused more natural  

phenomena (hurricanes)

o If nothing is done, the greenhouse effect will continue to get  


 Precipitation patterns will change

 Average temperature could rise up to 9 degrees within the  next few years

Potential Energy

- Joules (J)

- Energy waiting to be released

- Gravitational potential energy – energy passed on by an object due to  

its position on the surface of the earth

o Ep = mgh

- Chemical potential energy – energy that can be released during a  

chemical reaction (TNT)

- Elastic potential energy – energy that is stored in elastic materials as a  result from stretching or compressing (shape can change)

Electrical Energy

- Energy that makes small particles (electrons through a wire) Thermal Energy and Heat

- Thermal energy – energy an object possesses due to the amount of  

atoms or molecules within the object

o Atoms/molecules within object are always vibrating or moving  Hot  moving faster

 Cold  moving slower

 Hot objects have higher average thermal energy 

- Heat – amount of energy that flows from a hot object to a cold object  

due to the temperature difference

o IR radiation is called heat energy 

Wind Energy

- Energy possessed by wind

- Renewable 

- Wind waves – energy possessed by the surface of water  waves  

produced by wind blowing  

- Wind power in USA: Jen 2017 generating capacity > 80,000mw o Texas has the most wind power

Tidal Energy

- Carried by ocean tides energy

o The rising and falling of sea level caused by the gravitational  

pulls among the Moon, Sun, Earth, and earth’s rotation

o High tides – sea levels to highest point

o Low tides – sea levels fall to lowest point

- Potential tidal energy:

o Renewable  

Ocean Tides

- Lunar tides and the earth rotation

o Frequency: there are 2 high tides and 2 low tides in about one  


- Ocean tides and the position of sun and moon

o Spring tides – when the sun, moon, and earth are aligned on a  line (New Moons or Full Moons), the high and low tides are called  

spring tides

o Neap tides – when the pulls of the moon and sun are  

perpendicular to one another (1st or 3rd quarters), the high and  low tides are called neap tides

Sound Energy

- The energy possessed by a sound wave 

- Determined by the volume and pitch of a sound 

- Sound can pass through solids, liquids, or gases but CANNOT pass  

through a vacuum

- Traveling sounds in air is affected by:

o Wind direction, temperature (higher = faster), pressure (higher =

faster), and composition of air

- The speed of sound in air is about 340m/s (765mph) regardless of  

source, pitch, and volume

o Almost constant

Infrasound and Ultrasound

- Audible frequencies = 20-20,000Hz

o If sound in out of this range, it’s either infrasound or ultrasound - Infrasound (infrasonic) – sound waves with frequencies below 20Hz o Natural events: earthquakes, volcanoes, avalanches, etc. o Animal communication: whales, elephants

- Ultrasound (Ultrasonic) – sound waves with frequencies above  


o Animal communication: bat sonar, dolphins, echolocation o Medical applications: medical ultrasound, therapy, cleaning o High energy 

Radiant Energy

- The energy carried by electromagnetic waves 

o Electromagnetic waves: light, radios, microwaves, IR, UV, etc.) o Solar energy

- Travel through oscillating electric and magnetic fields

- Can travel through solids, liquids, gases, and space (vacuum) Mass as Energy

- Mass can be converted to energy

o Einstein’s theory of relativity: E = mc2 

- Nuclear Energy

o Nuclear fission – the splitting of a heavy nuclei into smaller ones  Resources: Uranium

 “chain reaction”

 Nuclear bomb – carbon is gone and nothing can control the

chain reaction

o Nuclear fusion – two or more nuclei combine to form one or more

different nuclei

 Resources: heavy water (deuterium) and super-heavy  

water (tritium)

 Produces energy

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