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JMU / Science / ISCI 101 / What is the mass of a satellite?

What is the mass of a satellite?

What is the mass of a satellite?


School: James Madison University
Department: Science
Course: Physics, Chemistry and the Human Experience
Professor: Lynn lucatorto
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: isci101, ISCI, Physics, Chemistry, and PHYSCHEM
Cost: 50
Name: ISCI 101 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: exam 2 study guide
Uploaded: 02/25/2018
8 Pages 41 Views 2 Unlocks

ISCI 101 Exam 2 Study Guide

What is the mass of a satellite?

Earth and Moon

- The speed of the moon:v = (square root of) GM/r

- Earth  satellites

o The mass of a satellite doesn’t matter

o A higher satellite moves at a lower speed

Mean Orbital Velocity

- Mercury  fastest

- Venus

- Earth

- Mars

- Jupiter

- Saturn

- Uranus

- Neptune  slowest

Man-Made Satellites

- Functions:

o Military and civil uses

 Communications Don't forget about the age old question of What are the factors that influence motivation?

 Earth/Space observation

 Navigation/positioning

 Scientific

- More than 4000 orbiting the Earth right now

How much junk is floating in space?

- Pollution/trash

- After decades of space exploration, there are now more than 500,000  pieces of artificial debris greater than half an inch in size

Motion is Relative

- In different reference frames, the motion is different

- A car is moving at 70mph on 81N. B car is following A car at 65mph. C  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the formula for integrating factor?

car is moving at 60mph on 81S.

o What is the speed of A car?

 70mph

o What is the speed of A car relative to B car?

 70mph – 65mph = 5mph

o What is the speed of A car relative to C car?

 70mph – 60mph = 10mph

Albert Einstein

- German-born theoretical physicist

- One of the most famous, iconic, influential, and universally admired  

What are the two theories of gravity?

persons in human history

- The embodiment of genius and the pre-eminent scientist of the  

modern age

- Developed Special and General Theory of Relativity We also discuss several other topics like What does bohr's model explain?

- Best known for mass-energy equivalence formula: E = mc2 - Winner of Nobel Prize in physics in 1921

The Views of Universe

- Newtonian Universe – gravitational forces are in a “flat” universe - Einstein’s Universe – motions are in a curved universe Don't forget about the age old question of What determines where replication of dna will begin?

o heavy masses warp the fabric of spacetime

Time is Relative

- time dilation – times moves slower

o time and speed  clocks run the fastest in stationary objects;  

moving clocks slow down

 as the moving speed approaches to the speed of light, time

approaches 0

 speed of light must be constant

o time and gravity  times moves slower as gravity increases Length is Relative

- length and speed  moving objects must appear to be shorter than  

stationary ones in the direction of motion

o as the speed of light is approached, distance approaches 0 Mass, Energy, and Relativity

- mass and speed  mass is lighter for stationary; moving objects  

become more massive

o as an object’s velocity approaches the speed of light, its mass  

approaches infinity

- mass and energy  mass can be converted to energy and vise versa o rest energy = rest mass (speed of light2) We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of antigen-binding?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the state of security?

Predictions of General Relativity

- black holes – places in space where gravity pulls so much that nothing  

including light can get out

o a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a  

black hole

o very massive

o a black hole destroys everything in its path

o largest one is in the middle of the Milky Way

- the bending of light rays – light can be bent as it travels along the  

curved space near strong gravitational centers such as the sun o bending of starlight was observed by Arthur Eddington in 1919 o Newtonian idea: no or some deflection due to acceleration by  

gravity well

- Gravitational waves – when an object moves, it generates ripples in  spacetime propagating outwards at the speed of light in a wave-like  


o Direct detections of gravitational waves by LIGO (Laser  

Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) 2015-2016  The founders won a Nobel Prize in 2017

- Einstein  Gravity

o Gravity – warps and curves in the fabrication of space and time  Waves move just as fast as light

Global Positioning System

- 24 satellites circle the earth twice a day

- 12,000 miles or 20,000 km above the ground

- 4 of them will be above the horizon at any time

Chapter 4 – Energy

Forms of Energy

- Potential energy

o Gravitational

o Chemical

o Elastic

- Kinetic energy

- Electrical energy = electricity

- Thermal energy (not heat)

- Sound energy

- Radiant energy

- Solar energy

- Biomass and Biofuels energy

Kinetic Energy

- The energy a moving object possesses

o Ek = ½ mv2 

Potential Energy

- Energy that is waiting to be released

o Gravitational potential energy – the energy that is possessed by  

an object due to its position relative to the earth

o Ep = mgh


SpaceX and Falcon Heavy

- SpaceX – space exploration

o Founded in 2002 by Elon Musk (also founded PayPal)

o Mission: reduce the cost of space travel

- Falcon Heavy

o Most powerful operational rocket

o Cost reducing features:

 Reusing empty boosters

 Streamline company production methods

 Merlin Engine (takes 27 to launch)

- What’s next?

o Crew Dragon – space craft to fly humans into orbit

o Big Falcon Rocket (BFR)

o Ultimate goal: getting humans to Mars

Wireless Charging

- Uses electromagnetic field

- Invented by Nikola Tesla

o In the late 1800s, Tesla discovered AC (alternating current) - 2 types:

o Conductive (direct electrical contact)

o Inductive (electromagnetic field)

- Examples:

o Starbucks charging tables

o Charging pads in cars

- Commercial use: convenience

- Medical use: reduce contamination and hazard

- Advantages:

o Convenience

o Reduce cost of charging cords

- Disadvantages:  

o Distance  has to be connected

Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change

- Greenhouse effect – general warming of the earth’s surface o Sun heats earth  reflects heat back into space

o Idea introduced in 1896

o Some gases are manmade and some are natural

o 2016 is the warmest year on record

o The increase in temperature has caused more natural  

phenomena (hurricanes)

o If nothing is done, the greenhouse effect will continue to get  


 Precipitation patterns will change

 Average temperature could rise up to 9 degrees within the  next few years

Potential Energy

- Joules (J)

- Energy waiting to be released

- Gravitational potential energy – energy passed on by an object due to  

its position on the surface of the earth

o Ep = mgh

- Chemical potential energy – energy that can be released during a  

chemical reaction (TNT)

- Elastic potential energy – energy that is stored in elastic materials as a  result from stretching or compressing (shape can change)

Electrical Energy

- Energy that makes small particles (electrons through a wire) Thermal Energy and Heat

- Thermal energy – energy an object possesses due to the amount of  

atoms or molecules within the object

o Atoms/molecules within object are always vibrating or moving  Hot  moving faster

 Cold  moving slower

 Hot objects have higher average thermal energy 

- Heat – amount of energy that flows from a hot object to a cold object  

due to the temperature difference

o IR radiation is called heat energy 

Wind Energy

- Energy possessed by wind

- Renewable 

- Wind waves – energy possessed by the surface of water  waves  

produced by wind blowing  

- Wind power in USA: Jen 2017 generating capacity > 80,000mw o Texas has the most wind power

Tidal Energy

- Carried by ocean tides energy

o The rising and falling of sea level caused by the gravitational  

pulls among the Moon, Sun, Earth, and earth’s rotation

o High tides – sea levels to highest point

o Low tides – sea levels fall to lowest point

- Potential tidal energy:

o Renewable  

Ocean Tides

- Lunar tides and the earth rotation

o Frequency: there are 2 high tides and 2 low tides in about one  


- Ocean tides and the position of sun and moon

o Spring tides – when the sun, moon, and earth are aligned on a  line (New Moons or Full Moons), the high and low tides are called  

spring tides

o Neap tides – when the pulls of the moon and sun are  

perpendicular to one another (1st or 3rd quarters), the high and  low tides are called neap tides

Sound Energy

- The energy possessed by a sound wave 

- Determined by the volume and pitch of a sound 

- Sound can pass through solids, liquids, or gases but CANNOT pass  

through a vacuum

- Traveling sounds in air is affected by:

o Wind direction, temperature (higher = faster), pressure (higher =

faster), and composition of air

- The speed of sound in air is about 340m/s (765mph) regardless of  

source, pitch, and volume

o Almost constant

Infrasound and Ultrasound

- Audible frequencies = 20-20,000Hz

o If sound in out of this range, it’s either infrasound or ultrasound - Infrasound (infrasonic) – sound waves with frequencies below 20Hz o Natural events: earthquakes, volcanoes, avalanches, etc. o Animal communication: whales, elephants

- Ultrasound (Ultrasonic) – sound waves with frequencies above  


o Animal communication: bat sonar, dolphins, echolocation o Medical applications: medical ultrasound, therapy, cleaning o High energy 

Radiant Energy

- The energy carried by electromagnetic waves 

o Electromagnetic waves: light, radios, microwaves, IR, UV, etc.) o Solar energy

- Travel through oscillating electric and magnetic fields

- Can travel through solids, liquids, gases, and space (vacuum) Mass as Energy

- Mass can be converted to energy

o Einstein’s theory of relativity: E = mc2 

- Nuclear Energy

o Nuclear fission – the splitting of a heavy nuclei into smaller ones  Resources: Uranium

 “chain reaction”

 Nuclear bomb – carbon is gone and nothing can control the

chain reaction

o Nuclear fusion – two or more nuclei combine to form one or more

different nuclei

 Resources: heavy water (deuterium) and super-heavy  

water (tritium)

 Produces energy

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