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CSU - CHEM 111 - Chem 11 Week 6 - Class Notes

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CSU - CHEM 111 - Chem 11 Week 6 - Class Notes

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background image 3.5 Periodic variations in element properties continued    Trends in successive ionization energy    Increases left to right and top to bottom    The huge jump in ionization energy correspond to when it goes from removing valence electrons  to removing core electron  Example problems    Where is the jump in ionization energy for Li?  1.  First let’s write the electron configuration.  1𝑠 2 2𝑠¹  2.  Now let’s identify the valence and core electrons. Valence electrons are in the  outermost energy level which in this case is 2. So, we have 1 valence electron. Core 
electrons are all other electrons, that aren’t in the outermost energy level. So, we have 
2 core electrons.  
3.  The jump is when we go from removing valence electrons to removing core electrons.  The jump for Li would occur at the removal of the 2 nd  electron, because the 1 st  electron  is a valence electron and the 2 nd  electron is a core electron.  Which would have a higher 2 nd  ionization energy Na or Mg?  1.  Let’s write the electron configurations  𝑁𝑎: 1𝑠 2 2𝑠 2 2𝑝 6 3𝑠 1   𝑀𝑔: 1𝑠 2 2𝑠 2 2𝑝 6 3𝑠 2   2.  Na has 1 valence electron in the 3 rd  energy level and Mg has 2 valence electrons.  3.  From this we know that Na will have a jump in ionization with its 2 nd  electron and Mg  will have a jump in ionization with its 3 rd  electron.  4.  So, the answer would be Na.    Electron affinities    Energy change accompanying the addition of a mole of electrons to a mole of gaseous atoms    Mostly negative because energy is released    𝐶𝑙(𝑔) + 𝑒 → 𝐶𝑙 (𝑔)    ∆𝐸 = −349 𝑘𝐽/𝑚𝑜𝑙  Trends in period table 
background image   From left to right it become more negative, increases, (due to the higher Zeff and smaller  orbitals)    From top to bottom it decreases  Discontinuities    Group 2: Requires energy because they have full shells, which are stable    Group 15: Requires energy because they have half full shells, which are stable    Be, Mg, and N are positive    3.6 The Periodic Table    In 1869 Mendeleev and Meyer independently arranged the chemical elements in    Numerical order by mass and    Columns of elements with similar chemical properties (reactivity, flammability, etc.)  Groups    Group 1 (not including H): Alkali metals    Group 2: Alkaline earth metals    Group 17: Halogens   Group 18: Noble gases    d block: Transition metals    p block: Post transition metals    Top row of f block: Lanthanides    Bottom row of f block: Actinides  Metals    Are on the left side (not including H), good conductors of heat, strong solids, shiny  Non-metals    Are on the right side, don’t conduct heat, brittle, not solid  Metalloids    Between metals and non-metals, semi-conductors of heat   
background image 3.7 Molecular and Ionic Compounds    *It is important to be able to determine what is an ionic or molecule compound*  Ionic compounds    Cations and anions held together by electrostatic forces (attraction between unlike charges)  called ionic bonds    Contain ions    Combination of metals (cations), easier to remove electrons, and non-metals (anions), easier to  gain electrons    If a binary compound (2 elements) they contain a metal and a non-metal    They are:      Rigid, brittle, have high melting and boiling points, stable solids, have a crystalline lattice  structure, neutral electronically, the formula represents the ratio of ions (empirical formula)     Formation of ionic bond    As the atoms get closer together the potential energy decreases until it reaches the optimum  distance    When the Eel is the most negative it is stable    The potential energy then increases after the optimum distance because the electrons and  nucleus are repelling each other as they move even closer together and overlap    Molecular compound    Atoms held together by covalent bonds where electrons are shared between atoms    Generally, contain non-metals (except occasionally Al, Be, B)    They are:      Have low melting and boiling points, gases, liquids, or solids, and are represented by  molecular formulas    Common monatomic ions    Group 1: +1 cations    Group 2: +2 cations 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry I
Professor: Ruth Tucker
Term: Summer 2016
Name: Chem 11 Week 6
Description: - Successive ionization energy - Electron affinities - How periodic table was arranged - Group names - Ionic compounds - Molecular compounds - Common monatomic ions - Polyatomic ions - Ionic bonds - Determining ionic formulas - Identifying compounds - Covalent bonding - Bond length - Bond strength - Bond polarity - Electronegativity
Uploaded: 02/25/2018
8 Pages 19 Views 15 Unlocks
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