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BGSU - GEOG 1250 - Topic 6 - Weather and Climate Notes - Class Notes

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BGSU - GEOG 1250 - Topic 6 - Weather and Climate Notes - Class Notes

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background image Topic 6
Satellite, Radar Imagery, and Other Observations
Direct vs Indirect Observation Methods Direct Methods – instruments that have to be on sight and directly exposed to the  environmental conditions o Thermometer, Barometer, Wind Vane Indirect Methods – instruments that  DO NOT have to be on sight or in contact to take  measurements – remote sensors o Weather Satellite, Weather Radar Weather Balloons Direct Method Launched twice a day 1,000 feet until it bursts Radiosondes  Atmospheric Measurements  Launch Frequency  Thermodynamic Diagram Diagram that shows weather balloons data Indirect Observation Methods Remote Sensors Active Sensors – instruments that will be actively emitting radiation beams of longwave  radiation in order to capture the atmosphere Passive Sensors – instruments that are weather satellites (weather satellites will not emit  the radiation themselves); reflective light; also exposed to inferred wave radiation Radar RAdio Detection And Ranging Radar Reflectivity – how much energy is being returned; warmer colors = more  energy/higher precipitation intensity; cooler colors = less energy/lower precipitation  intensity ­ REFLECTIVE Indirect Method Strike larger ­> more energy scattering thus more energy reflecting back to disk
background image Cone of Silence  Radar looks up at an angle; DO NOT look directly upwards Cone of Silence = area directly above the radar dish where radar cannot reach due to the  angle Doppler Radar Doppler Radar – sensing in bound air that tells us a greater or lower pitch frequency  (higher pitch = louder/closer, lower pitch = softer/further away); green = inbound; red =  outbound ­ VELOCITY “Doppler Effect” – closer an object or wind, louder object is in relative to your location;  further away an object or wind, softer object is in relative to your location; wind direction
and wind velocity
Dual Polarization Radar 2 radiation beams which are emitted at the same time Very recent technology – 5 years ago Radar and Tornado Forecasting “Hook Echo” – wrapping around  Hook Shaped Echo = where tornado can occur Doppler Velocity “Couplets”   Lofted Debris Reflection Patterns  Debris Ball – in the hook echo and reflective mode – very large items (such as roofing,  metal, etc.); not always precipitation Satellite Observations GEO Satellites  o GEO = Geostationary o In sync with the Earth’s rotation o Lower and mid latitude  LEO Satellites  o LEO = Low Earth Orbit o Orbit from pole to pole o Covers high latitudes Radiometers – instruments on the satellites that actually capture the images GEO’s Imagery Hook Echo

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School: Bowling Green State University
Department: Geography
Course: Weather and Climate
Professor: Marius Paulikas
Term: Summer 2015
Name: Topic 6 - Weather and Climate Notes
Description: Topic 6 - Weather and Climate Notes - Week 7
Uploaded: 02/25/2018
3 Pages 39 Views 31 Unlocks
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