∙ The cardiac veins all drain into the coronary sinus, a large vein that lies in the posterior coronary sulcus
∙ The right coronary artery branches into the right marginal artery, which supplies the right border of the heart, and the posterior interventricular artery, which supplies the posterior surface of both ventricles
∙ Cardiac muscle tissue= under voluntary control, contains intercalated discs between branching muscle fibers, and has incredible stamina and resistance to fatigue
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Right coronary artery left coronary artery
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Anterior interventricular Right marginal artery posterior interventricular
∙ The atria contract first then the ventricles
∙ The heartbeat is controlled by the sinoatrial node which is located on in the posterior wall of the right atrium Don't forget about the age old question of What is metamemory?
∙ Leading cause of death in the united states is heart disease
∙ Complete blockage of an artery or vessel causes for a complete coronary bypass
Ischemia= buildup of plaque that causes a heart attack
∙ In an artery the lumen is relatively smaller than that of a corresponding vein
A= tunica interna
B= tunica media
C= tunica externa Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four beliefs of qadar?
∙ Systemic veins hold the majority of the blood at rest
∙ Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
∙ The ductus arteriosus is a fetal structure that shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta -> the blood bypasses the lungs because the lungs are not yet fully developed yet
∙ After birth the umbilical artery becomes the medial umbilical ligament (umbilical cord becomes closed off)
∙ After birth, if blood is allowed to flow from the left atrium to the right atrium, the foramen ovale did not close (this is located between the right and left atrium and allows blood to bypass the lungs and once you take your first breath this flap closes. if it does not then they can go in and shut it)
∙ Right side of the heart is low pressure and the left side is high pressure
∙ Fetal structure = umbilical vein
Postnatal structure= ligamentum teres
Anastomosis= site where two or more arteries or veins converge to supply the same body region
- Allows for blood to come from another portion of the body to help come in and aid in damaged tissueWe also discuss several other topics like What is a graph that describes the maximum amount of one good produced for every possible level of production of the other good?
Varicose veins= valves in the vessels are damaged or are not working properly and blood begins to pool near surface -> if it not circulating it can coagulate and form blood clots
Thrombosis= deep blood clot
Pulmonary embolism= blood clot that has traveled to the heart and is lodged inside the lungs
∙ The AV bundle receives the muscle impulses from the AV node and extends into the interventricular septum before dividing into left and right bundles We also discuss several other topics like Who is jamal al-afghani?
∙ The AV node is located in the floor of the right atrium between the right AV valve and the opening for the coronary sinus
∙ Purkinje cells being within the apex of the heart and extend through the walls of the ventricles
∙ Purkinje fibers = conduction fibers
∙ Sympathetic innervation increases the heart rate
- This can occur during exercise or the fight or flight response
∙ Parasympathetic innervation decreases the heart rate
∙ The right coronary artery typically branches into the right marginal artery, which supplies the right border of the heart, and the posterior interventricular artery, which supplies the posterior surface of the left and right ventricles
∙ SA node= pacemaker of the heart
SA node -> internodal pathways -> atrioventricular node -> atrioventricular bundle -> L/R bundle branches -> Purkinje fibers
∙ The innervation by the autonomic centers in the brainstem does not initiate a heartbeat but it can increase or decrease the rate of the heartbeat
∙ There are more mitochondria in cardiac muscle and a less extensive distribution and association of t-tubules with SER compared to skeletal muscle
Lumen= the space within a vessel through which blood flows through
Continuous capillaries= use simple diffusion or pinocytosis to pass materials through the vessel walls
Venules= smallest veins
Sinusoids= capillary that has a large gap in its walls and has a discontinuous or absent basement membrane; found bone marrow, the spleen, and the liver; allows for the transport of larger particles such as proteins or cells
Fenestrated capillaries= have pores that permit small molecules to move out of the vessels