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The Central Nervous System I. Overview: • Schwann cells are the peripheral nervous system version of oligodendrocytes. • The microglia is the immune cell of the central nervous system (CNS) • Ependymal cell: in the family of epithelial cells and is involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid. • Astrocyte: has multiple functions including; “keeping the environment green”, controlling the constituents of the CNS, they absorb excess neurotransmitters, it regulates the ions in the ECF, and is involved in the formation of the blood-brain barrier i.e. brain capillaries. • Cranial nerves originate from the brainstem and regulate facial expressions. • There are 12+ pairs of cranial nerves. The cranial nerve 10, is the Vega nerve “wonderer”. II. Spinal Cord and Brain: • The spinal cord is divided into these regions: 1. Cervical nerves-8 2. Thoracic nerves-10 3. Lumbar nerves- 5 4. Sacral nerves-5 5. Coccygeal nerve-1 - Each of these is found on both sides of the spinal cord. • Meninges: Three layers of membranes. Associated with meningitis, which is the inflammation of the meninges. • Duramater: the outer most layer of the meninges and is the strongest of the 3. The other two are the arachnoid and the piamater. • Gray matter is located on the outside and white mater is on the inside. • Cell bodies of the somatic motor are in the ventral horn • Cell bodies of the autonomic motor neuron is located in the gray matter on the lateral horn in the lumbar system. • Sensory neurons terminate on the dorsal horn. • Reflex pathway: stimulus to interneuron to command of muscles to response. • General names of the axon depend on the direction that they take. • When the axon crosses over at the integrating center, it is called commissure, and the biggest one in the body is the corpus collossum.
• A spinal reflex initiates a response without input form the brain. • Ascending Tracts are important for information on temperature, pain, joint position, touch, and muscle tendon position. They are from the pressure receptor skin to the somatosensory area of the brain for us to perceive something. Somatosensory area is in the middle of our brain. • Dorsal Columns: 1. Fasciculus gracilis: middle part, gracilis means thighs so this is the information that is coming from below the waist. 2. Fasciculus cuneatus: information that is coming from everything above the waist. - Carries 3 major sensations: fine touch gut texture, vibration, and proprioception (3D sense of direction for when we are standing). • Dorsal spinocerebellar or ventral spinocerebellar: Coming form the spinal cord and going to the cerebellum. • Lateral spinothalamic or ventral spinothalamic: Start from the spinal cord and goes to the thalamus. The thalamus prioritizes and screens things before they go into the brain. - Carries 2 sensations: pain and temperature. • Corticospinal: Coming from the cortex and going to the spinal cord. • Rubrospinal: Coming from the red nucleus of the brain • Vestibulospinal: Coming form the part of the brain that is associated with hearing. • Muscle receptor does not go to the conscious brain so we do not perceive that information. The information goes to the cerebellum and terminates in the midbrain. • Descending tracts: primary motor cortex and voluntary part of the brain. This is the pre-frontal part. • Forebrain: The majority of the brain. 1. Cerebrum: bulk of the section 2. Diencephalon: smaller chunk of this section. - Cerebellum: helps us with balance and coordination. Helps us with procedural memory. - Brainstem: Controls digestion, cardio function, and respiration. This is where the autonomic nervous system is located. 1. Mid brain 2. Pons 3. Medulla • On the surface of the brain: 1. Frontal lobe: facts and problem solving 2. Parietal lob: contains the somatosensory
3. Occipital lobe: sight 4. Temporal lobe: Sound and smell • Corpus Callosum connects the two sides of the brain together and is where crossing over happens. • Ventricles: are in cavities, they terminate in the spinal cord to create the central canal of the spinal cord. They also contain cerebrospinal fluid. Apindimer helps make the spinal fluid. • Parkinson’s disease is caused by dopamine deficiencies. • Cluster of nuclei form the basal nuclei. • Central sulcus: means de-pressure and it separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe. • Lateral fissure: separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe. • Broca’s area: found in the frontal lobe and is what helps us to be able to speak. Sends information to the primary motor cortex so that we are able to move our lips/tongue and speak. • Wernicke’s area: found in the parietal lobe and is associated with understanding speech, it helps us decode things people say or what we read. It also constructs a meaningful response. • Primary visual cortex: Where the sensations are initially being received at (sight) in the back of the occipital lobe. • The frontal lobe does not receive sensations. • Primary cortexes are always the part of that section that is receiving the sensations. • There is a lot of receptor density for our lips than there are for hip or leg. III. Cerebral Cortex: • Information goes to the primary sections first. • In the occipital lobe - Ventral Stream: deals with shape and color - Dorsal Stream: deals with motion - Visions are connected to the emotional center (limbic). IV. The Brain continued: • Phineas Gage: a steel rod went straight through his prefrontal cortex, including his morality center. As a result, his personality, morality, abstract thinking, long-term planning, and facts were disrupted. The prefrontal brain is essentially what defines you as a person. • The parietal lobe is mainly involved in reading, writing, and arithmetic. • Diencephalon: has the thalamus and the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland • The thalamus and hypothalamus are part of the limbic system
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Join more than 18,000+ college students at Appalachian State University who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Appalachian State University
Course: Human System Physiology
Professor: Chishimba Mowa
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: humansystems, Biology, and Studyguide
Name: Human Systems Study guide Test 2
Description: This study guide covers all the information that will be on test 2 on 03/01