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FSU - PPE 3003 - Study Guide Exam 2 - Study Guide

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Schools > Florida State University > OTHER > PPE 3003 > FSU - PPE 3003 - Study Guide Exam 2 - Study Guide

FSU - PPE 3003 - Study Guide Exam 2 - Study Guide

School: Florida State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Psychology of Personality
Professor: Michael MacKenzie
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Psychology
Name: Study Guide Exam 2
Description: The study guide that was given to the class is now filled out.
Uploaded: 02/25/2018
This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 11 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Overall, know material on the slides in lectures 6,7,8 (and some from 5) Lecture 6/Chapter 8, Human Nature and evolutionary theories o        What is kin selection Natural selection is about passing on genes The odds of having the same genes are higher in those more related to
us. 
Kin selection only makes sense if you take the perspective of the gene 
(not the organism)
We should be motivated to help those who are most related to us (kin) We don’t think about this consciously We don’t have to think this way so long as we fee/behave this 
way
Hamilton’s rule: r b>c R = relatedness B = benefit to helped (relative) C = cost to helper (me) o        Know what proximal and ultimate questions are, how are they different (see  lecture 5) Proximate Questions:  Examine actual states of an organism or its surrounding 
environment. 
How? Which? What? Who? Think proximity:  Close, immediate causes
What is going on right now?
How is this happening?
Ultimate Questions:  Examine the evolutionary pressures that formed the trait  Why? Why is it advantageous? Not necessarily conscious.  Think, “well ultimately” … Long range causes How did this help our ancestors survive? Why would humans be this way? What was adaptive about this? o        Know the evolutionary (ultimate) explanations for human universals (e.g.,  love, need to belong, status, kin selection) Love Researchers believe this is why humans fall in love To form a pair bond for a long time Enough time to raise a baby Pair bonds are found around the world. 
background image Need to Belong Because all humans evolved in groups, we all: o Want to be included, when we are, we feel happy, do not  enjoy being left out, when we are, we feel sad, hurt, etc.  These emotions motivate us to act in ways that keep us included 
in the group
o Act friendly, give compliments, help out, tell jokes, give  gifts, host parties, conform to social norms.  Status-Striving People who are motivated to be high status are more likely to get
there than ones who aren’t
Those high status are more likely to survive and reproduce  Over time, more and more people in the population would be 
status-striving
Status-striving would benefit most everyone and is pretty 
universal. 
Kin Selection: Human Universal Every human would have benefited by helping those most 
related to him/her
o This would increase the odds that his/her genes get passed on Across cultures, humans show favoritism toward their kin (family) o        Know the 3 theories of individual differences listed on slides, be able to  identify what theory an example belongs to 1). Dependent on Traits within the individual Some researchers propose that personality might emerge based 
on other traits the individual has
Aggressiveness is a better strategy if you are also strong o Data support this; Men who are heavier are more aggressive Men who are stronger are more anger prone.  Men who are more symmetrical are more open to casual sex o Men who are more masculine appearing are more open to  casual sex Women who are more attractive are more open to casual sex o Also, women who have the hourglass body shape.  2). Dependent upon Traits in the Population Some personalities may be more (or less) advantageous 
depending on who you are interacting with
Ex. Psychopathy o Unreliable, egocentric, impulsive, lack shame and guilt
o They exploit and manipulate other individuals
3). Trade-offs A compromise between two desirable (but incompatible) options Perhaps there are pros and cons to each personality trait Because there isn’t some level that is “optimal” o There is a lot of variation among people
background image o Ex. Being low in conscientiousness can be good, but so can being high.  o        Know the pros and cons (trade-offs) of all Big-5 traits Neuroticism Experience more negative emotions: Anxiety, fear, jealousy, loneliness o Pros: Worry: avoid dangers, prepare Jealousy: Might help avoid being cheated 
on/abandoned
Loneliness: Might motivate you to put effort into 
social relationships
o Cons: Worry might prevent you from taking important risks 
(ex: career, being courageous on the battlefield, 
pursuing a high-quality mate)
Could damage social relationships Support: more likely to get divorced Extraversion Talkative, assertive, social, enthusiastic, action-oriented o Pros:  Make more social connections: friends, mates o Cons: Less self-reflective (could annoy people) Engage in more risky behaviors Ex. Contract STD’s, get in more car accidents Conscientious Punctual, reliable, hard work, diligent, follow through o Pros: Good social partner (people trust you) Accomplish long-range goals Are more healthy Accomplish career success o Cons: Can get lost in detail Set too high of standards for self. (perfectionism) Taken advantage of? Agreeableness Prefer harmony, trusting, cooperative, sympathetic o Pros: Well-liked by social partners  People cooperate with them o Cons: Can be taken advantage of Might avoid assertiveness (which involves some 
conflict)
Sometimes acting selfishly helps you get ahead.  Openness

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School: Florida State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Psychology of Personality
Professor: Michael MacKenzie
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Psychology
Name: Study Guide Exam 2
Description: The study guide that was given to the class is now filled out.
Uploaded: 02/25/2018
11 Pages 42 Views 33 Unlocks
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