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evr 2001 uf

evr 2001 uf

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: Environmental
Course: Introduction to Environmental Science
Professor: Danny coenen
Term: Spring 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: EVR2001: Midterm Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers material that will be on the midterm.
Uploaded: 02/26/2018
5 Pages 13 Views 6 Unlocks
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EVR2001 Study Guide


Movement of continental plates driven by internal heat flux of planet, is what?



Key Terms:

Scientific Method- trying to find an explanation, design an experiment/observational  Scientific theory- closest/ best explanation for a current phenomenon  

Major environmental Issues:

• Biodiversity Loss

• Habitat Conversion and Degradation  

• Loss of Ecosystem Services  

• Soil Degradation  

• Pollution

• Solid Waste Accumulation  

• Eutrophication

• Freshwater Depletion

• Ocean Acidification

• Anthropogenic Climate change  

• Poverty, Starvation, Inequality  

Law of Thermodynamics:

• First law: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, just converted from one form to  another  

• Second Law: With each conversion, energy loses some ability to do useful work. • Entropy: measure of the lost ability of energy to do useful work  


What are the three characteristics of ecosystems?



Energy From the Sun:

• sun converts hydrogen to helium, 99.97% of Earth’s energy budget  

• Arrives in electromagnetic radiation (AKA light)

The Earth System: Energy cycles through Earth’s systems  

• Lithosphere- Rocks

• Hydrosphere- Oceans, water

• Biosphere- Plants, land

• Atmosphere- Air  

Plate Tectonics- movement of continental plates driven by internal heat flux of planet Divergent Plate Boundary:

- Two plates moving away from each other

- mid ocean ridges, volcanoes  

Convergent Plate Boundary:  

- Two plates moving toward each other  

- Subduction zone: ocean plate buried under continent

Transform Fault:

- Two plates rub past each other

Hotspot:

- hot area on Earth’s mantle that crust moves past

Population- members of same species living in the same area  


What are the major environmental issues?



Don't forget about the age old question of What are characteristics of green plants?

• Community- interacting of different species in the same area  

• Ecosystem- minimum level of ecological organization that has all properties to sustain life • Biomes- large areas dominated by similar ecosystems  

• Biosphere- sum of all ecosystems, contains all life on Earth  

Biomes- broadest classification of terrestrial ecosystems  

Ecotones- transition areas between ecosystems

- Sharp boundaries- closed communities, clear distinct areas between species - Indistinct/gradual boundaries- open communities, no clear breakup of species

EVR2001 Study Guide

Three characteristics of ecosystems:

• Structure, Processes (function), Change

Food Chains vs. Webs- Food web shows all the potential food instead of linear chain Energy Flows- Flow of biomass from the bottom

Ecological Niche-  

- Eltonian: Organism’s functional role  

- Hutchinsonian: the set of environmental conditions and interactions required to support a  population  

• Generalists- have a broad niche (brown rat)

• Specialists- narrow niche (giant panda)  

• Competition:

- Intraspecific- competition among members of the same species  

- Interspecific- competition between members of different species  

• Competitive Exclusion- no two species can occupy the same niche at the same time • Predation- organism that directly feeds on another If you want to learn more check out emily frerichs

• Herbivory- predation of plants by animals

Symbiosis- Prolonged, close interaction between species  

• Mutualism Don't forget about the age old question of grace fussell

- both organisms benefit  

• Commensalism

- One organism benefits directly, the other is neither harmed or benefited  • Parasitism  

- one organism is benefited, the other is harmed

• Keystone Species

- Disproportional influence on their environment relative to population numbers or biomass Disturbance- any force that disrupts established patterns of species diversity and abundance,  community structure, or community properties, storms, fires, logging  

Ecological Succession- replacement of species in a community by establishment of new species  paralleled by replacement of old ones  

• Primary Succession:

- a community that develops on previously unoccupied area  

• Secondary Succession:

- an existing community is disrupted and new one develops at the site  

• Climax Community: develops last and lasts longest  

Cultural Services:

• some evidence that lack of time spent outside causes likelihood of physical and mental  health

• Nature Deficit Disorder

• Ecotourism- booming industry catering to suburban middle income families who want to  experience the wilderness  

• sacred groves conserved for spiritual values  

Nature- culture Linkages:

• Cave Paintings:

- tell us what was important to prehistoric peopleDon't forget about the age old question of dyadic primacy

EVR2001 Study Guide

Taxonomy:

subdivided into kingdoms

• Eukaryotes  

- Multicellular organisms  

• Archaea

• Bacteria  

• goes from most general to specific

- Domain

- Kingdom

- Phylum

- Class

- Order

- Family

- Genus

- Species  

- Subspecies  

- “Do Kings Play Chess On Fridays, Generally Speaking”

Evolution:

• Type of adaptation passed on from parents to offspring  

Phenotypic plasticity:

• Genotype refers to the DNA code of an organism, phenotype is how this code is expressed  into observable characteristics  If you want to learn more check out econ 1 study guides

Acclimation  

- Getting used to environment through exposure

- not passed onto future generations

Evolution-

• The change in heritable characteristics of a pop. from germination through the non random  survival of random mutations

• Four main processes

- Mutation  

- Natural selection

- Geographic isolation and migration

- Genetic Drift  

Mutation:

• when a cell divides, DNA is reproduced and a new cell is copied  

• 22 pairs of numbered chromosomes, 1 pair of sex chromosomes  We also discuss several other topics like unt gender ratio

2/20:

Energy- ability to work

• Kinetic- energy of motion

• Potential- Energy of position

• Mechanical- sum of kinetic and potential energy

• Radiant- energy contained in electromagnetic radiation, ex: Solar radiation  • Chemical- energy stored in molecular bonds. Photosynthesis converts radiant energy into  chemical energy

EVR2001 Study Guide

Energy Quality: how easy it is to capture and use various types of energy sources (How easy to  get something moving or heated up

Energy Density- amount of energy per unit volume  

Energy vs. Power

Energy is an amount vs power is the rate at amount is produced or consumed  

Energy Use by Humanity:

• fossil fuels supply 88% of worlds commercial energy needs

- Coal, petroleum, natural gas

- 81% in the US

• Major contributor to environmental degradation worldwide  

- habitat degradation, fragmentation, deforestation

- Air pollution (from mining, burning FF and biomass)

- Water pollution (active and closed mines, fuel processing, air pollutants) - Greenhouse gas emissions  

• Biggest bang for the buck fuels are most damaging

- high energy density, low technological requirements  

- Relative ease of transportation  

- Cheap

- heavily subsidized by gov’t than alternatives

Coal: ELECTRICITY  

• many things contained within coal, freed when burned

• Produces many pollutants, dirtiest fossil fuel

• Originated as biomass in landscapes during Carboniferous

• Different stages of coal, Peat, Lignite, Bituminous coal, Anthracite coal

• Further down the stages, higher the quality, less pollution

• Mine causes cancer

• Have to pump groundwater away, fills with air, ground level starts to subside  • Mountaintop removal mining

- remove mountain tip layer by layer

- tops are dumped in valleys that destroys vegetation

- Leaching sulfur materials from the bottom of the rocks  

- Water bodies are much more acidic  

• Underground Coal Mining

- underground tunnels where coal is mined  

- Surface footprint is much smaller  

- Ground water must be removed

- more expensive and dangerous for humans  

- Black lung disease  

Power Plants:

• The Steam Turbine:

- coal is pulverized into a powder and brought to combustion chamber, water circulating in  pipes is turned to steam, spins the turbine which produces electricity

Petroleum: TRANSPORTATION

• forms in shallow parts of the ocean, made from phytoplankton &Zooplankton that settle at  bottom of ocean basin and form crude oil

EVR2001 Study Guide

Natural Gas:

• found along coal and oil

• Primarily methane

• Cleanest fossil fuel, half as much CO2 as coal

Hydraulic Fracturing: FRACKING  

• Inject underground mix of water, sand, and other chemicals under lots of pressure

2/22

Internal Combustion engines and gas turbines:

• natural gas or syngas turbines, vehicle combustion engines

Fossil Fuels compared:  

• Carbon dioxide- climate change  

• Carbon monoxide- lowers blood oxygen

• Nitrogen oxides- acid rain and more

• Sulfur oxides- acid rain and more

• Particulates- Hurts lungs

• Mercury- Mental decline

Nuclear Fuels:

• heavily processed uranium ore  

• Mined in surface and underground mines

Nuclear Reactors:

• Same design as coal fired power plant, but uses nuclear fission

• challenge is to get from one neutron three neutrons out, to one neutron in one neutron out  Coal vs. Nuclear:

• Energy density

• mining

• Fuel processing  

• Air pollution

• Nuclear accidents

• Nuclear waste

• Nuclear proliferation

• cost  

How to store nuclear waste:

• 1,000 tons of uranium fuel typically generate 100,000 tons of tailings and 3.5 million liters of  liquid waste

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