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Texas State - BIO 2440 - Class Notes - Week 6

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Texas State - BIO 2440 - Class Notes - Week 6

School: Texas State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Principles of Microbiology
Professor: Abel
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Micro 2440 Week 6 Notes
Description: Chapter 13: Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
Uploaded: 02/26/2018
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background image Microbiology 2440 – Chapter 13 Notes: Viruses, Viroids, and Prions General Characteristics of Viruses Incidence of cancer increases as you get older. Protein coat surrounds DNA and RNA. Not considered to be living organisms; they are only “alive” when they multiply in the 
host cells they infect.
They are obligatory intracellular parasites. Resistant to antibiotics. Interferon is one of the major signaling pathways to treat viral infections. Host Range o You cannot get the flu from the shot; you can get a few secondary symptoms. o Viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages or phages.  o The virus needs to chemically interact with specific receptor sites on the surface 
of the cell as first step to be able to infect it/ become infectious.
o Phage Therapy: Uses bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections. Viral Structure Viron: Complete, fully developed, virus. Nucleic Acid: Virus can have either DNA or RNA but not both. Capsid: Protein coat that protects the nucleic acid of a virus. Envelope: Holds everything together. Spikes: Used as protein binding sites. General Morphology o Helical Viruses: Resemble long rods that may be rigid or flexible. o Polyhedral Viruses: Multiple­sided viruses. o Enveloped Viruses: Roughly spherical. o Complex Viruses: Have complicated structures. Ex­ Has a capsid, sheath, 
baseplate, pin, and tail fiber.
Taxonomy of Viruses Viral species: Group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological 
niche.
Genus name end in ­virus. Family names end in ­virdae. Order names end in ­ales. Isolation, Cultivation, and Identification of Viruses Easier to grow viruses on bacterial cultures. Grow viruses in their own host cell. For examples you would grow E. coli and then infect 
it with T4 viruses.
Can be grown in liquid media or solid media. Hela cells­ Used since 50s. Cancer cell line across the planet. Used to test how cancer 
cells act. It is a very valuable cells line and lots of advancements in cancer are due to 
this cell line. Ex of immortalized cells.
Viral Identification o Used to identify the viruses.
background image o Cytopathic effects:  Looks at morphology. Can’t use metabolic tests on viruses 
since they don’t metabolize.
o Serological tests: Western blotting takes antibody and probes for attachment to a
marker.
Viral Multiplication Virus needs to invade host cell and take over the metabolic machinery. Bacteriophages o Lytic Cycle: Lysys and death of host cell. Attachment, Penetration, Biosynthesis, Maturation, Release. o Lysogenic Cycle: Host cell remains alive, virus kind of “buds” off. Attachment, Penetration, Phage DNA becomes a prophage, Many cell 
divisions occur.
Multiplication of Animal Viruses o Has the extra step of “uncoating” between penetration and biosynthesis. Attachment, Penetration, Uncoating, Biosynthesis, Maturation, Release. The Biosynthesis of DNA Viruses o Can have DNA or RNA, not both. o There is a slight difference on how DNA and RNA viruses replicated. o Lysogenic: Budding off. o Lytic: Cell blow up. o Cytopathic effects of a viral infection cause changes in a cell. o Root ganglia: Where the herpes virus “hangs out.” o Hepadnaviridae: Use reverse transcriptase!!! o Polymerase: Main function as an enzyme is to add nucleotides together. DNA 
polymerase makes copies of DNA.
o The difference between DNA and RNA is thymine vs. uracil and deoxyribose. Viruses and Cancer A cell that is cancerous= transformed cell. Sarcoma: Cancer of connective tissue. Cancers can result from viral infection. The Transformation of Normal Cells into Tumor Cells o Oncogenes: mutations in those genes that result in a higher chance of cancer. o Transformed cells express on their surface a tumor­specific transplant antigen 
(TSTA) and a T antigen in the nucleus.
o Surface proteins signal for the cell’s being OK and that they are producing the 
correct protein.
Latent Viral Infections: Virus inhibits host cells but cause is inactive until something stimulates it. E.g.: AIDS. Persistent Viral Infections: Occurs gradually over a long period. Viruses are continuously 
released.
Prions
Structure= Function There is no mutation, they’re infectious misfolded proteins that can cause other proteins 
to become misfolded. Thy can be ingested or transferred through transplant and surgical
instrument.

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School: Texas State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Principles of Microbiology
Professor: Abel
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Micro 2440 Week 6 Notes
Description: Chapter 13: Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
Uploaded: 02/26/2018
3 Pages 32 Views 25 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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