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WSU - PSYCH 361 - Week 7 Notes - Class Notes

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WSU - PSYCH 361 - Week 7 Notes - Class Notes

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background image Week of 2/19­2/23 Content: Chapter 6­ Cognitive Development based on Piaget, Vygotsky, and other Core Knowledge Perspectives Basic Ideas: Understand basic concepts and major themes of each theory o Know how to apply and contrast each theory o How it relates to different stages of individual and  general development of children Cognition: inner processes leading to “knowing”  Gives insight to the following main issues:  a) typical course= general trends from birth to maturity
b) individual differences= personal development 
c)  mechanisms= genetic and environmental factors that 
combine to yield change Piaget Cognitive Development Theory  Constructive approach: discover all knowledge through 
individual actions in the world 
Characteristics: ­ All people follow similar course of development,  cognitive change is in integrated fashion ­ Stages follow invariant order and universal to children  everywhere
background image ­ Emphasize individual differences through genetic and  environmental factors Terms
 ­schemes: psychological structures function to make sense of 
experience (also referred to as schemas)
­mental representation: early stages of thinking formed by 
internal depictions of information formed from your mind 
manipulating images and concepts 
­adaptation
   : build schemes through direct interaction with  environment
­accommodation
   : create new schemes or adjust to old ones if  current thinking isn’t capturing environmental completely
­Equilibration= movement between the two highlighted terms 
when taking in new logic and schemes 
­little change in schemes uses assimilation and big changes  requires accommodation 
­origination: process occurs internally by rearranging new 
schemes to link other schemes to create strongly interconnected 
cognitive system
Stages:  1) Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) ­use senses (hearing, visual, motor, etc.) to learn basic 
motor functions
Sub stage 1:
background image ­develops from circulatory reactions: constantly 
repeating same action (new experience) to adapt to 
schemes
­first year= manipulation of objects
­second year= becomes experimental and creative
  Sub stage 2:
­Primary circular reaction: repeats chance behaviors 
motivated by basic needs resulting in basic motor 
abilities and cues
Sub Stage 3:
­Secondary circular reaction: (4­8 months) behaviors 
become more skilled at reaching and manipulate by 
own actions (repeat interesting events)
Sub Stage 4: (8­12 months) 
­intentional behavior: engage in goal­directed 
behavior, coordinate schemes to solve simple 
problems
­establish means and ends action sequences 
(foundation of all problem solving)
­object permanence: understand object is still present 
even when not in sight
­test this by A­not­B search error Sub Stage 5: (12­18 months) 
background image ­4   th    degree circular reaction: repeat behavior with  variation, better problem solvers and interpretation of 
behaviors
Sub Stage 6: (18­24 months)
­mental representation: arrive at solutions immediately
versus trial and error 
­Allows for:
­invisible displacement: solve advanced object 
permanence including tracking toys while moved 
out of sight
­deferred imitation: ability to remember and copy
behavior of people, parents, etc. when not present
­make­believe play
Criticism and follow­up research: a) violation of expectation method: ­habituate infants to physical event and test with 
familiar setting
­prolonged attention to novel unexpected event 
notates heightened awareness of reality (new 
event deviates from expected outcome)
b) controversial findings on development of object 
permanence:
­earlier acquisition of knowledge in object 
permanence (gradual learning)
­ 5 to 9 months= can track objects

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School: Washington State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology
Professor: Carrie Cuttler
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Cognitive Psychology
Name: Week 7 Notes
Description: Chapter 6 Book and Lecture notes
Uploaded: 02/26/2018
16 Pages 25 Views 20 Unlocks
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