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UTD - PSY 3331 - Class Notes - Week 6

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UTD - PSY 3331 - Class Notes - Week 6

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background image Kane Priya Patel PSY 3331 Chapter 5: The Self 1 | The Origins and Nature of the Self-Concept Introduction Other species have a rudimentary sense of self o Mirror and red dye test
o Great apes (chimpanzees and orangutans) regularly pass the test
o Individual animals have passed the test (two dolphins, one Asian 
elephant, and two magpies) Used red-dye test on toddlers o Self-recognition develops at 18-24 months of age in humans Self-concept – the overall set of beliefs that people have about their 
personal attributes
o A child’s self-concept is usually concrete (observable characteristics)
o As we mature, we place more emphasis on psychological states
Morality is viewed as central to the self concept, more so than cognitive 
processes or desires
Cultural Influences on the Self-Concept Independent view of the self – a way of defining oneself in terms of one’s 
own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of those of other
people
o Independence and uniqueness are encouraged
o Held in many Western cultures
Interdependent view of the self – a way of defining oneself in terms of 
one’s relationships to other people, recognizing that one’s behavior is often 
determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
o Connectedness and interdependence between people are valued
o Held in many Asian and non-Western cultures
o “I am” test; more referred to social groups than Western cultures
Functions of the Self Self-knowledge – the way we understand who we are and formulate and 
organize this information
Self-control – the way we make plans and execute decisions Impression management – the way we present ourselves to other people 
and get them to see us the way we want to be seen
Self-esteem – the way in which we try to maintain positive views of 
ourselves
2 | Knowing Ourselves through Introspection Introspection – the process whereby people look inward and examine their 
own thoughts, feelings, and motives
background image Kane Priya Patel PSY 3331 Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory Self-awareness theory – the idea that when people focus their attention on
themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal 
standards and values
o When we become self-conscious, we see ourselves as an outside  observer would Self-awareness makes us conscious of our internal standards and directs our 
subsequent behavior
o It’s aversive when it reminds us of our shortcomings but can lead us to  follow our moral standards Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More Than We 
Can Know
People’s explanations of their feelings and behavior often go beyond what 
they can reasonably know
Causal theories – theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and 
behaviors
o Often we learn such theories from our culture Example: “Absence makes the heart grow fonder” o Our theories and schemas are not always correct and can lead to  incorrect judgments The Consequences of Introspecting about Reasons Reasons-generated attitude change – attitude change resulting from 
thinking about the reasons for one’s attitudes
o People assume that their attitudes match the reasons that are  plausible and easy to verbalize Example: pros-and-cons lists 3 | Knowing Ourselves by Observing Our Own 
Behavior
Self-perception theory – the theory that when our attitudes and feelings 
are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior 
and the situation in which it occurs
o Infer our inner feelings from our behavior only when we are not sure  how we feel o Judge whether our behavior really reflects how we feel or whether it  was the situation that made them act that way o Similar to attribution theory (chapter 4) Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation – the desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy 
it or find it interesting

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School: University of Texas at Dallas
Department: Psychology
Course: Social Psychology PSY 3331
Professor: Na
Term: Fall 2013
Tags: social, Psychology, SocialPsych, and SocialPsychology
Name: PSY 3331 Chapter 5
Description: Chapter 5 - The Self
Uploaded: 02/26/2018
6 Pages 33 Views 26 Unlocks
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