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KanePriya PatelPSY 3331Chapter 5: The Self1 | The Origins and Nature of the Self-ConceptIntroductionOther species have a rudimentary sense of selfo Mirror and red dye test o Great apes (chimpanzees and orangutans) regularly pass the test o Individual animals have passed the test (two dolphins, one Asian elephant, and two magpies)Used red-dye test on toddlerso Self-recognition develops at 18-24 months of age in humansSelf-concept – the overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributeso A child’s self-concept is usually concrete (observable characteristics) o As we mature, we place more emphasis on psychological statesMorality is viewed as central to the self concept, more so than cognitive processes or desiresCultural Influences on the Self-ConceptIndependent view of the self – a way of defining oneself in terms of one’s own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions and not in terms of those of other peopleo Independence and uniqueness are encouraged o Held in many Western culturesInterdependent view of the self – a way of defining oneself in terms of one’s relationships to other people, recognizing that one’s behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of otherso Connectedness and interdependence between people are valued o Held in many Asian and non-Western cultures o “I am” test; more referred to social groups than Western culturesFunctions of the SelfSelf-knowledge – the way we understand who we are and formulate and organize this informationSelf-control – the way we make plans and execute decisionsImpression management – the way we present ourselves to other people and get them to see us the way we want to be seenSelf-esteem – the way in which we try to maintain positive views of ourselves2 | Knowing Ourselves through IntrospectionIntrospection – the process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives
KanePriya PatelPSY 3331Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness TheorySelf-awareness theory – the idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and valueso When we become self-conscious, we see ourselves as an outside observer wouldSelf-awareness makes us conscious of our internal standards and directs our subsequent behavioro It’s aversive when it reminds us of our shortcomings but can lead us to follow our moral standardsJudging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More Than We Can KnowPeople’s explanations of their feelings and behavior often go beyond what they can reasonably knowCausal theories – theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviorso Often we learn such theories from our cultureExample: “Absence makes the heart grow fonder”o Our theories and schemas are not always correct and can lead to incorrect judgmentsThe Consequences of Introspecting about ReasonsReasons-generated attitude change – attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one’s attitudeso People assume that their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalizeo Example: pros-and-cons lists3 | Knowing Ourselves by Observing Our Own BehaviorSelf-perception theory – the theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurso Infer our inner feelings from our behavior only when we are not sure how we feelo Judge whether our behavior really reflects how we feel or whether it was the situation that made them act that wayo Similar to attribution theory (chapter 4)Intrinsic versus Extrinsic MotivationIntrinsic motivation – the desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting
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School: University of Texas at Dallas
Course: Social Psychology PSY 3331
Term: Fall 2013
Tags: social, Psychology, SocialPsych, and SocialPsychology
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