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UF / INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS / INR 2001 / What is the state of security?

What is the state of security?

What is the state of security?

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Course: Introduction to International Relations
Professor: Richard nolan
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: INR 2001 -- Study Guide Exam 2
Description: Study guide for exam 2 on 3/2
Uploaded: 02/26/2018
6 Pages 131 Views 2 Unlocks
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International Relations: Exam 2 Study Guide 


What is the state of security?



The State and Security 

General Concepts

o State

o Nation

o Nation­state

o Sovereignty

 Internal

 External 

o Anarchy

Security: High Politics

o Global anarchy leaves the states vulnerable and uncertain. 

o The need to ensure one's sovereignty causes defensive armament that ultimately creates a  potential for war within the system.

Security Dilemma

o Each state being prudent takes measures to defend itself. ( o Other states, alarmed of said actions, will arm themselves. o In trying to ensure security states become less secure. o Vicious cycle of armament.


What is power as a variable?



o Lack of trust.

o Often results in violence.

Power Variables and Power Relations 

Power as a Variable

o Power is identified with military capability If you want to learn more check out What is the known achievement of president andrew jackson?

o Power is what people think it is We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of choosing my plate guidelines?

o Reputation for power 

Power as a Relationship

Reciprocal relationship 

∙ A influences B, but B also influences A

∙ However, A’s influence might be bigger than B’s influence

∙ Interdependence, mutual dependency, reciprocal

Four factors in power relationships 

1. Conflict of interest between A and B

2. B complies to A’s demands 


What is a reciprocal relationship?



∙ Non­compliance from B must be more painful than compliance.

∙  If B says no to A’s demands then A has two options:

a) Give up its demands

b) Punish B (Economic, Militarily, etc.)

3. Compliance is less costly for B;  B believes A’s threat is credible

4. When differences are extreme and the stakes for both are high, force is more likely

Components of Power

Tangible components 

o Military

o Economic output/Technology If you want to learn more check out What do valence electrons have to do with first ionization energy?

o Population

o Geography

o Natural resources

Intangible components 

o Motivation

o Strategy

o Tactics

o Leadership

      Arms Control

SALT I - 1972  

Limitation on nuclear warheads.

Theories of War & Civil War

Levels of analysis

Individual 

o Human nature

o Political leadership Don't forget about the age old question of What is denoted when we say that the social security tax is regressive?

o Impulsivity

o Autocratic vs. democratic systems

o Misperception

o Distortion of reality

o Absence of accurate information

o World view, belief systems Don't forget about the age old question of What holds the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa?
Don't forget about the age old question of What happens when any influence on selling plans changes other than the price of the good?

o Schematic thinking; preconceived ideas 

o Loss of control

o Utility of War

State 

o Economic Structures

o Marxist interpretation

o Military Industrial Complex

o from war and thus encourage it

o Iron Triangle

o Autocratic nations more likely to go to war

o Democratic peace­ democracies are more peaceful; tend not to fight eachother o Nationalism

Global Anarchy 

o Distribution of power

o Lack of institutions to prevent war

o Power Asymmetry

o Balance of power

o Long cylce theory

o Power Transition

o Change in relative power of states disrupts peace and stability

o Arms Race

Civil War

Types of Civil War 

o Internal Rebellion

o Relative deprivation

o Secession

o Nationalism (anti-colonialism)

o Ethnonational conflict

Reasons for Civil War 

o Autonomy

o Irredentism (ethnicity)

o Control of the State

o Failed State

o Government breakdown

Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Crisis  Management 

Weapons, Deterrence, and Crisis Management  

Terrorism

∙ Has always existed

∙ Premeditated  

∙ The use of violence, or the threat of violence, by non-combatants, usually on  non-combatants

∙ Usually non-state actors

∙ Public exposure, the goal is political  

∙ Tactic of the weak

∙ One man’s terrorist, is another man’s freedom fighter

∙ Choose target with symbolic meaning

∙ Transnational (?)

Nuclear Weapons & Deterrence

∙ B-2 bomber  

∙ Conventional weapons (more precise, less power)

∙ Non-conventional weapons (more power, less precise)

∙ WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction)

∙ Nuclear weapons  

∙ Nuclear winter

∙ The purpose is not to defend an attack, but to defend by preventing  an attack, that is the true purpose of nuclear weapons

∙ The primary purpose of nuclear weapons is to not use them ∙ Deterrence requirements (3)

 Needs to be perpetual

 Credible commitment

∙ Military capability (something to hurt the adversary

with)

∙ Determination to use it (credible commitment)

∙ Evaluation of both by potential attacker

 Deterrence = capabilities x resolve (perceived)

 Retaliation capabilities

Arms control

∙ Weapons

∙ Delivery systems

∙ B-52 bombers

∙ Managing deterrence

∙ Disarmament

∙ SALT 1

∙ Reduce incentive to strike first

∙ Preemptive strikes (short term)

∙ Preventative strike (long term)  

∙ Make sure both sides’ retaliatory capabilities are invulnerable ∙ ICBMs

∙ Bombers

∙ Submarines (SLBM)

∙ Stabilizers

ABM Treaty  

o Leaving cities vulnerable

o Never felt secure enough to strike first

o Failure of deterrence would be mutually ensured destruction

Nuclear Utilization Theory

Strategic Defense Initiative

Proliferation

o Everyone gets nuclear weapons to prevent being attacked

o Fear that the technology will reach nonstate actors

o NPT

Crisis

o Decision makers taken by surprise

o Limited response time

o Vital interest at state

o Ex: Cuban Missile Crisis

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