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OLEMISS / History / HST 130 / What are the examples of bias/prejudice in primary sources?

What are the examples of bias/prejudice in primary sources?

What are the examples of bias/prejudice in primary sources?


School: University of Mississippi
Department: History
Course: intro to US history 1877
Professor: Wendy smith
Term: Fall 2017
Cost: 50
Name: History Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide contains everything that we have gone over in class thusfar.
Uploaded: 02/26/2018
18 Pages 101 Views 5 Unlocks

History 130

What are the examples of bias/prejudice in primary sources?

1/18/18 - 2/1/18

Primary Sources include:

● First hand account (event)

● First hand understanding (idea)

● Correspondence (such as letters)

● Government documents

● Interviews in publications

● Records of proceedings (such as meetings)

● Speeches

● art/artifacts

● Written music

● Photographs

● Court records and witness testimony

● Sermons

● Marriage records

● census

Secondary sources rely upon primary sources, discussing events, ideas, and people that the author did not encounter first hand; usually an interpretation

What happened to beringia?

Examples of bias/prejudice in primary sources:

● racial bias against natives

● Religious bias (Protestants/Catholics)

● Class prejudice

● Gender prejudice

● Political or Nationalistic prejudice

○ 1830s-1850s: Whigs battled against Andrew Jackson’s democratic party

Humans began writing roughly 8000 years ago; However Native Americans arrived in Americas well before this date.

● Because there are no written primary sources, Historians rely heavily on archeologists for Native American History

○ Archaeologists: concerned with objects; use science

○ Historians: concerned with writings; which are already dated or contain context clues Don't forget about the age old question of What is a theory?

Beringia Theory: In 25,000 BCE Earth experienced global cooling, causing sea levels to drop and expose the Bering land bridge which connection Russia to Alaska. ● Migratory Hunters in Siberia came to America following herds by the year 14,000 BCE ● They quickly migrated to South America to escape the cold

What happened to the anasazi?

If you want to learn more check out What types of religious specialists have anthropologists classified?

Percent of total North American Native Population

Eastern Woodlands: Everything west of Mississippi river (Largests area) 30% Great Plains: East of Rockies, West of the Mississippi 14% Southwest region: AZ, NM, CO, UT 24% California Region 12% Pacific Northwest Region 9% We also discuss several other topics like What is the dose-response relationship?

Southwest Region

General Characteristics:

Dominated by agricultural settlements; irrigation experts

1. The Mogollon 

○ Southern NM

○ 200-900 CE

○ Pit homes

■ Poles to support roof

■ About 12/village

2. Hohokam 

○ Southern AZ

○ 500-1400 CE

○ “Snaketown”: roughly 23 miles SE of Phoenix

○ Immigrated from Mexico

■ Brought chili peppers

○ Relied on Gila river and mountains

○ 2 growing seasons

■ Feb-June (relied on melted mountain snow)

■ July-Nov (relied on river replenished by rain)

○ U and V shaped irrigation canals

■ Averaging 75 feet in width

■ 10 miles in length

■ Lined canals with clay

 3. Anasazi 

○ Southern UT, CO; Northern AZ, NM

○ 1130 CE: Drought fragmented Anasazi civilization in search of water and food, spreading adobe building with them

■ Causes conquistadors to label all southwestern Natives “pueblo” Indians ○ 1000 CE: began constructing buildings We also discuss several other topics like Under the mailbox rule, acceptance is valid when?

■ Used “adobe”: mud bricks

■ Mesa Verde, CO (cliffside)

■ Pueblo Bonito, NM (building w/800 rooms)

1. Could house 2000 people

2. Means the Anasazi constructed the largest multi-unit dwelling in

America prior to 1880s

Eastern Woodlands

General characteristics:

Corn based agriculture; Farmers had to clear trees to farm (pot ash); Surrounded fire to hunt escaping animals (deer especially)

1. The Cahokia Kingdom If you want to learn more check out What does a synthesizer do?

○ 900-1250 CE

○ By 1400 CE, original site abandoned because resources were overused ■ Migration into enemy territory may have started wars

○ Mounds: part of Mississippian culture

■ Utilized mounts for religious practices and political gatherings Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three basic categories of political science and comparative politics?

■ Monks mound: built in modern-day Saint Louis during glory period when population was between 300-400,000 people

■ Mounds can be found in Natchez, MS

 2. The Iroquois 

○ Confederacy of tribes

○ Upstate NY

○ Constructed villages on hilltops

○ Matriarchal society

■ Women allowed to participate in governing councils

■ People identified by mother’s side of family

○ Characterized by longhouses

■ Average longhouse: 20 ft by 40-200 ft

■ Symbol of the confederacy

■ Line of fires/chimneys in longhouses

● Minimum of one family on each side of the fire

Great Plains

General Characteristics:

Defined by spear hunting bison (2016 US National Mammal); Started using bows & arrows around 500 CE; NO HORSES

The Pawnee 

● Property ownership decided by chiefs annually; Not permanent

● Female farmers

○ Cleared grass for plots

○ Sunflower seed fences (lack of wood available)

○ Tilled soil using bison shoulder blades

○ Planted squash (and possibly watermelon) in valleys between mounds ○ Planted corn and beans on mounds

○ Stopped weeding soil in early June to accompany men to hunt bison ■ 5-7 kernels of corn for each mound

■ Beans grew around the corn

○ Only grew enough food to feed family/village

■ Not for sale; an acre or two sufficient

● Hunted bison (Jun-Nov)

○ Everyone went on the hunt except for the sick and elderly

○ Consumed some meat fresh; saved rest to dry out for winter

○ Watch the sun and changing vegetation to discern when it was time to return to the village for harvest

○ Sometimes 2nd bison hunt launched in November, that would end Dec-Jan

○ In Jan-Feb, chiefs redistributed land

California Region

General Characteristics:

Diverse climate/geography; produces a lot of food; supported population of at least 700,000 people (dense)

The Chumash 

● Lived in modern-day Santa Barbara (5000 BCE)

● Hunter-gatherers

● Began to construct boats from Redwood (500 CE)

○ Redwood found only in northern CA (far from coastal Santa


○ Theory: Redwood planks floated down the coast and were


○ Average boat length: 19-23 feet

○ Weight capacity: 2 tons

○ Capacity: 12 people

■ 4/12: crew; 8/12: fishermen

Pacific Northwest

General Characteristics:

Defined by fishing; expert traders


● Occupied land surrounding Columbia river (Washington/Oregon)

● Constructed boats (canoes)

○ 6 classes of canoes from different types of wood (such as cedar)

○ Decorated canoes

■ Carving

■ Painting

■ shells

● Chiefs practiced intermarriage between villages

● Several villages along river with fluctuating populations

○ Following migratory fish such as salmon and trout

2/6/18 - 2/8/18

Manorialism (Feudalism) of the Middle Ages 

General Characteristics: Monarchs distributed land to noble lords, who recruited peasants/serfs to work on land (“manors”).

● Serfs had the land for personal use, but they never owner the land ● No rent; cottages formed a village

● Churches built on land; priests told serfs to obey their lords

● No currency

Between 1340-1450

● British Isles population declined by 40%

● Population of Italy declined by 25%

Manorialism benefitted from the stable or declining population caused by ● Disease and the bubonic plague

● War (The 100 years war)

The Merchant Class 

General Characteristics: Professional traders, expected monetary payment, lived in cities

Benefitted from:

● Crusades: provided soldiers passing through Europe with supplies and weapons ● Rising population/decline of manorialism

○ Leads to food shortages

○ Europeans begin to price food

■ Created inflation

○ Lords start renting land

■ Used rent money to buy things from merchants

Manors: Self sufficient, limited powers of merchant class

Lords expected loyalty

 \ /

Provided goods and services

 / \

Merchants expected money

Portugal 1835 

General Characteristics: In the midst of a civil war after the king died in 1383 with no clear successor. National assembly (Cortes) advised monarch. Cortes usually consisted of feudal lords and the church; Merchants began to demand a voice, representing big cities (like Libsen)

● Cortes elects John 1st as king thanks to the support of merchants

○ King John’s son Prince Henry the Navigator launched a discovery program in 1415 to benefit merchant class

■ Built “caravels” (specialized ship to sail the Atlantic)

■ Hired Italian cartographers (mapmakers), and sailors who abandoned Italy for fear of Ottomans

■ Advertised program as another crusade to take Christianity to Africa before the Ottomans established Islam

The Ottomans 

General Characteristics: Muslim; Mehmed II came into power in 1451, launching a seize on Constantinople, converting churches to mosques; Threatened Italy

The Italian Renaissance 

General Characteristics: Italian peninsula dominated by Republics; controlled by merchant class, which thrived from the crusades and access to the Mediterranean for trade

● Merchant class was a patron of the arts, giving artists of all kinds the money to create works of art characteristic of the Renaissance period

● Humanists were Greco-Roman historians

○ Middle ages were fatalisitics, but humanists believed in the power of humanity as well as religion

Portuguese Exploration of Western Africa 

● Merchants discovered the Grain Coast in modern day Liberia

○ Discovered “grain of paradise” (peppery/gingery spice)

■ Renewed the Spice Trade (formerly thriving in Asia)

● Discovered Gold Coast in modern day Ghana

○ Constructed “El Mina” in 1482 for the storage of gold

■ Soon became a slave holding facility

● Portuguese socially constructed racism to justify permanent

enslavement (more lucrative than other forms of slavery); Also

used religion as justification

2/13/18 - 2/15/18

Portuguese Slave Trade 

● 1550: At least 10,000 slaves in Lisbon, Portugal (10% of the population) ● 1460: slaves transported to Cape Verde Islands to work on sugar plantations (some slaves also brought to Madeira Islands

● In essence, Merchants replaced serfs with slaves

● 1455: Pope Nicholas V granted Portuguese a monopoly over the Atlantic world and slave trade

○ Sao Tome Island began to export slave-produced sugar in 1495

■ Average population of 2000 slaves

The Middle Passage 

● Middle passage: Africa-North America

● Voyages lasted 2-3 months, incurring many casualties (Middle Passage=Graveyard) ○ Slaves excessively shackled, starved, and crammed, causing massive health issues

● Slave ships were much bigger than caravels

○ Packed an average of 400 slaves into one ship hull

● Ships and slaves were insured against loss

○ Some merchants sold slave trade insurance and benefited greatly financially ○ Loss such as revolt (10% of ships estimated to have experienced revolt) ■ Suicide

■ Some historians think that crew members covered up failed revolts in fear for their jobs

■ Other historians think that crew members exaggerated revolts to justify loss

Spanish Entry into the Atlantic World 

● Spain was not a unified country in the 1400s

○ 1469: Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castille, beginning the process of unification by joint rule

○ 1492:

■ Authorized Columbus (Italian)

● Tried to get authorization from other monarchs before Isabella

● Sailed with 3 ships and 90 men

● Conducts another voyage in 1493 with 17 ships and 15,000 men

■ Decided to launch “reconquista” program: A crusade against the Muslim kingdom of Grenada located in southern Spain

● Defeated Grenada

The Treaty of Tordesillas 

● Spanish exploration posed diplomatic issue, because Portugal technically had rights to the Atlantic

● Pope Alexander VI feared conflict between Catholic countries in the face of the Ottoman threat

● Treaty divided the Atlantic in half: Giving Portugal Africa, and Spain the Americas (with the exception of Brazil)

○ Portuguese anticipated selling slaves to the colonized Americas

● Pope Clement VII made an exception for France to have a claim to the Atlantic in 1553, stating that the treaty only applies to already discovered land

French entry into Atlantic World 

● Initiated by king Francis I

● In order to diminish the power of French feudal lords, Francis partnered with French merchant class

● Giovanni de Verrazzano (Italian) sailed for the French to North America along the NE coast

● Also commissioned Jacques Cartier, who launched 3 voyages between 1534 and 1542

○ 2nd voyage: Sailed down Saint Lawrence river

○ Visited Quebec city and Montreal

○ France began to colonize Canada

Protestant Reformation 

● Other Catholic countries wanted to enter the Atlantic world, but didn’t want to wait on an exception to the treaty of Tordesillas (like France did)

● Martin Luther was in law school, but decided to become a priest after surviving a thunderstorm in 1505

● Luther then became a professor of theology

○ Came up with 99 Theses in 1515, hoping to start a debate within the church, not a new religion

■ Ended up starting Lutheranism, and in addition to attracting merchants, attracted common people with the concept of “priesthood of believers”

(no ordained hierarchy)

■ promoted individuals reading the bible themselves

● Merchants supported the reformation so they wouldn’t have to wait on Papal approval to have access to the New World

○ Martin Luther was the son of a german coal merchant 

● John Calvin was the protestant reformer most critical to the colonization of North America

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