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UB - NTR 108 - Spring 2018 - NTR 108 Exam 1 study guide - Study Guide

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UB - NTR 108 - Spring 2018 - NTR 108 Exam 1 study guide - Study Guide

School: University at Buffalo
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition
Professor: J Temple
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: NTR 108 Exam 1 study guide
Description: These notes cover most of the material for our exam Friday
Uploaded: 02/27/2018
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background image NTR 108 Study Guide Exam 1  Energy Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Fats and Oils, Proteins
Dietary Guidelines:
    Provides science based advice to promote health and  reduce the risk of major chronic disease through diet and exercise. Revised 
every 5 years, maintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a 
healthy weight, and focus on consuming nutrient dense foods and beverages
ChooseMyPlate guidelines
   :  1. Balancing Calories (enjoy your food, eat less, avoid large portions).
2. Foods to Increase (half fruit half veggies on plate, half grains whole 
grains, fat free or low fat milk). 3. Foods to Reduce: (lower sodium numbers are preferred, drink water vs  sugary drinks). Nutrient Density: The ratio derived by dividing a food’s nutrient content by 
its calorie content. Nutrient dense vs empty calorie foods.
Energy Density:
    A comparison of the calories content of a food with the  weight of the food. Recommended to eat more lower energy density foods 
that are rich in fiber and water.
Functions of the GI tract organs:
       Mouth:     Mechanical Digestion. Chewing and mixing food w/saliva. Saliva has enzymes, salivary amylase and lingual lipase which break down 
carbs and lipids through chemical digestion.
1.       Salivary Glands:     Accessory organ, produces saliva, aids  chemical digestion. Pharynx and Esophagus:     Swallowing moves food from mouth to  stomach. Epiglottis allows food to go down esophagus and prevents it 
from going in the trachea. Food is moved by peristalsis aka contraction
of muscles. 
Stomach: Begins the process of digestion. Churns and mixes food into 
chyme. Secretes acid and enzymes for protein digestion and minimal 
lipid digestion. Minimal absorption of specific substances such as 
alcohol. 5-20% of digestion occurs in the stomach. HCl acidifies the 
stomach. Pepsin=protein digestion, gastric lipase = some lipids.
Small intestine: Primary site of digestion and absorption. 75%. 
Enzymes secreted +enzymes from pancreas + bile from liver 
(emulsify).
Liver    : Accessory organ, makes bile which is needed to digest fats. Gallbladder: Accessory organ, storage of bile and releases it into the 
small intestine.
Pancreas:     Accessory organ, makes digestive enzymes and releases  them into the small intestine. Large Intestine:     Minimal digestion occurs here, no enzyme secretion.  Water absorption along with some vitamins and minerals. Rids waste 
products (mucus secretion).
Rectum: Storage of waste
background image Hormonal regulation of digestion:     Regulatory hormones control release of  digestive enzymes and juices.  Gastrin: Secreted by the stomach, stimulates stomach acids, enzymes, 
and stomach mixing.
Cholecystokinin: Secreted by the small intestine, stimulates pancreas 
and liver sections for protein and fat digestion.
Secretin: Secreted by the small intestine, bicarb from pancreas is sent 
to neutralize acid and bile from liver.
Active and passive absorption:             Active transport:     Uses energy, low to high, requires a protein to carry  across membrane, glucose, amino acids, and some vitamins/minerals.        Passive and Facilitated:     No energy needed, high to low, between cells,  across membranes w/o protein carrier (H 2 O, lipids, minerals) and  w/protein carrier (fructose). Site of absorption in the GI tract:     Majority occurs in the small intestine. Disorders of the GI tract:        Ulcers:     Degradation of protective layer, microorganism, H. Pylori. Top  layer erodes cells in the stomach and/or duodenum, pain after meal. 
Treatment=medication to destroy microorganism.
       Heartburn:     Faulty valve allowing backflow of acid due to a weakened  lower esophageal sphincter. Chest pain behind the sternum, 
aggravation from acidic foods (coffee tomatoes, peppermint) also 
alcohol and nicotine. Treatment= avoid overeating, smaller meals, 
don’t lay down after eating, medication.
       Gallstones:     Blockage of bile duct from gallbladder. Pain in upper-right  abdomen. Fat malabsorption = result b/c bile is needed to properly 
digest and emulsify fat. Treatment=possibly removing gallbladder, a 
low-fat diet.
       Lactose Intolerance    : Lacking the enzyme lactase. Bloating and diarrhea occur from fermentation, many can still tolerate some dairy. 
Treatment=alternatives, lactase supplement, avoidance. 
       Constipation:     Difficult to pass bowel movements (hormone driven).  Lack of fiber and other causes. Treatment=high fiber diet, fluids, 
exercise.
       Hemorrhoids    : Swollen veins of rectum and anus, resulting in bleeding,  pain and swelling. Caused by constipation and lack of fiber. 
Treatment=high fiber diet.
       Diarrhea:     Frequent, watery stools. Caused by infections, disease, food  borne illness, stress, medication, lack of fiber. Prevent with fiber and 
avoidance of culprits. Treatment=specific to cause.
       Celiac Disease    : Mucosal malabsorption caused by autoimmune  disease. Damage to intestinal lining due to a physiological response to 

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School: University at Buffalo
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition
Professor: J Temple
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: NTR 108 Exam 1 study guide
Description: These notes cover most of the material for our exam Friday
Uploaded: 02/27/2018
5 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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